In recent years, the autonomous career development of each individual has been attracting attention in the United States, but this was not the case before. American companies used to manage employee careers uniformly according to age and year of employment, assuming they all have similar needs. However, according to Super (1980), career development is a lifetime process which goes through five stages such as growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline (Super, 1980). Understanding the tasks expected of each stage is of great significance to human resource managers. It is the purpose of the paper to describe the five phases of Super’s theory of career development and reveal the major tasks occurring at each stage.
Growth stage is the initial phase that occurs from birth to the age of fourteen. It is a phase characterized by cognitive development, which develops based on perceptual experience. If a student sees a teacher and likes what he or she is doing, they will start associating with the teaching profession and may plan to venture into the field in future. In most cases, children are inspired by what they see, feel, or hear. Stojans close contact with his father enabled Stojan to develop self-concept of becoming a policeman (Lim, 2013). Therefore, in the first career development stage, a person gets inspiration from those around them.
The second stage in the Super’s theory of career development process is exploration. This phase takes place between the age of fifteen and twenty-four. It occurs when a person is exposed to more experience and alternative. After self-exploration, Stojan followed his earlier decision to become a policeperson. Still, after some years, he had an idea of occupational information and decided to seek an alternative career choice to move to Canada (Lim, 2013). At this stage, a person may either follow initial aspiration or choose another career.
After settling on a given career, the person can advance to the next stage called maintenance. During this period, the performance may increase, decrease, or remain constant. During maintenance phase, Stojan improved his work while in Canada, progressing from a waiter to assistant painter and later opening his painting business (Lim, 2013). The success of maintenance course depends on the quality of decision made during exploration.
At the peak of career development is decline stage. This is where the individual retires from working after attaining the age of 65 and above. Career development at the end of work life requires the creation of new values and external careers such as job titles and salaries. After starting his painting business, Stojan was happy and creative and spent more time with his family (Hartung, 2013). The quality of decline stage depends on how a person spends the rest of their life. Regrets come mostly when a person wasted his or her you career development time by choosing less valuable career.
My career path almost resembles Stojan’s because what I am currently pursuing is a career I was inspired by a neighbor who was a teacher. When I was a teenager, I used to admire how teachers confidently relay knowledge to learners. During that stage, I vowed to be a high school teacher one day. However, as I grew and got more exposure, I realized that my grades could make me a lecturer. I started exploring existing alternatives. I discovered that although a lecturer teaches like a teacher, the salary for lecturing is relatively high.
Hartung, P. J. (2013). The life-span, life-space theory of careers. Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work, 2, 83-113.
Lim, Sandra. (2013). Case study: super’s late adolescent and adult career development. Web.
Super, D. E. (1980). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16(3), 282-298.
Policy Aims For Ireland And Measures Of Performance Of An Economy
The economy of a country highly affects the well-being and the association to the global evolutionary trend. On the one hand, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure the nation experiences a higher mark on growth and development. On the other hand, the health of an individual mainly relies on the ability to access the dynamic amenities while intensifying the social capital. Irish is one of the states with a small and open economy hence the frequent issues on the performance index.
There are three components that impact the wealth of territory and include the traditional, holistic, and added value. In this case, the Irish face a profound challenge due to the high dependence on the international production rate through its adoptive system (Holton et al. 2020). The implementation of policies that boost the interdependence between Irish and other principalities renders an optimal solution to the underlying issue of inequality in the distribution of benefits and opportunities.
The main challenge that the Irish government faces is the disparity in employment opportunities among the citizens. One of the vital indicators of economic performance is the gross domestic product. The concept encompasses the measure of the value of goods and services offered within a particular territory. In 2020, the Irish administration noticed a profound decrease in the GDP at a rate of 5 percent (Honohan 2021). As a result, the business confidence dropped at a margin of 55 percent while the debt to other countries increased by 3 percent. Primarily, the GDP is a measure of the attainment of a marker involving the financial state and shows proficiency on the growth and development.
A developed country is highly characterized by a consistent change in administrative policies. In most cases, governments spearhead growth initiatives such as infrastructural development, but it lacks to enhance the trickle-down effect of benefits. The advancement in the amenities ensures the penetration of entrepreneurs to various areas while boosting social security among the communities (McCormack 2020). However, it is also essential that the authority address certain core issues during the implementation of action plans. These issues include the standard Gross National Income, Gross Domestic Product, and environmental diversities.
A developed country with a small and open market faces the challenge of constant change and competition, both nationally and internationally. Gross National Income refers to the valuation of the products and services produced in the country, while Gross Domestic Product entails citizens’ output production. The government must incorporate the Gross National Income index in the developmental programs due to the competence and marketability of products and services.
Apart from development, the health of citizens affects the growth of the nation. Therefore, promoting the production of high-quality products and services for national and international consumption enhances citizens’ healthiness (Honohan 2021). The integration of developmental policies with the essence of the Gross National Income increases the country’s healthiness index and the marketability of the commodities to the global population.
In a different spectrum, the Gross Domestic Product is a multidimensional phenomenon that significantly contributes to growth and development. As the measuring tool of the output produced by citizens, the concept encapsulates an avenue to boost a country’s growth through policies. The level of output is a reflection of the citizens’ opportunity to accumulate wealth from the dynamic, profitable engagements. Therefore, promoting functional health policies renders safety among the citizens during on and off duties.
Primarily, GDP and GNI are interdependent variables whose values get highly affected by the changes. The Irish government should incorporate in the economic program the optimization of environmental diversities. The lack of compatibility between the development projects and ecology discredits sustainable growth due to the limitation of trickle-down benefits (Honohan 2021). Different surroundings demand various ideologies. The importance of integration encompasses the capacity to promote the proper exploitation of resources without compromising the aesthetic value.
Government development programs should address certain issues as the GDP, GNI, and environmental diversity. The three elements are interdependent mainly because they address the healthiness of society and the regulations based on the exploitation of natural resources. The adverse development programs render significant exploitation of natural resources. As a result, to promote the production of high-quality goods and services, the government must ensure the workers’ safety and protection across the nation. The Irish authority faces a threat based on its structured system. Therefore, it is the accountability of the administration to address the margin of the key indicators under the spectral view of happiness, competitiveness, and an increase in living conditions among the residents.
Alaminos, D., Becerra-Vicario, R., Fernández-Gámez, M. Á., and Cisneros Ruiz, A. J. (2019). Currency crises prediction using deep neural decision trees. Applied Sciences, 9(23), 5227.
Holton, N., Kinsella, M., Mangan, O., McLaughlin, S., and Quill, P. (2020). Consistency in a Globalised Economy: Aligning the Treatment of R&D in the Irish National Accounts and Balance of Payments. Economie & Statistique, (517-518-519), p.191.
Honohan, P. (2021). Is Ireland really the most prosperous country in Europe?. Economic Letters, 2021, pp.1-8.
McCormack, L. (2020). The impact of non-performing exposures on Ireland’s economic growth (Dublin, National College of Ireland).
Gilgamesh’s Search For Immortality: Inevitability Of Death In A Story
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an interesting work to analyze on the topic of life and death. It is one of the oldest literary works that have survived to this day, extremely psychological in its essence. This epic is composed of old material, but the old legends were woven into a new whole and were grouped around a new theme, the theme of death. Salvation from death is one of its central themes, and this theme remains relevant to our existence in the present. The Epic of Gilgamesh is generally the story of one man’s journey to outfox’s demise, and, strangely, the needs of a contemporary American have not changed much.
The protagonist of the Epic is Gilgamesh, a mighty hero, the king of Uruk. Being a full-fledged ruler in his state, possessing power, wealth, excellent health, and remarkable physical strength, Gilgamesh spends his youth in entertainment, carnal pleasures, and feats of arms, fully enjoying life. He has a best friend named Enkidu. Enkidu is a man who lives in harmony with nature, surrounded by beasts and understands them, a mighty and glorious warrior whose strength is not inferior to Gilgamesh. Friends are completely inseparable: they travel together, experience dangers and adventures, and perform feats. But suddenly, due to some circumstances, Enkidu dies. And after that, Gilgamesh’s life completely changes.
Until Enkidu falls ill and dies, death meant little to Gilgamesh. Before that, he had the usual standards of a fearless hero and the usual standards of his civilization: that death is inevitable, and there is no need to worry about it. If destined to die, let his death be glorious, met in battle with a worthy adversary, so that his glory continues to live. Death never touched him directly, in all its harsh reality, but this happens when Enkidu dies. He even denies the fact of his friend’s death in lines, ‘now what is this sleep which has seized you? You have turned dark and do not hear me!’ (Gilgamesh 31). The thought of death continues to haunt Gilgamesh.
The ‘fearless’ king is obsessed with only one goal which is to find eternal life, and he goes in search of her. At the end of the world, beyond the waters of death, lives his ancestor, who attained eternal life. All who come across him during his wanderings, he asks about the path to Utnapishtim, the one who won death, and about immortality. Gilgamesh shares his fears with him by saying, ‘The Snatcher has taken hold of my flesh, in my bedroom Death dwells, and wherever I set foot there too is Death’ (Gilgamesh 49). All answer him that the search is hopeless. But Gilgamesh cannot surrender, cannot condemn himself to a common fate. The thirst for immortality consumes him and pulls him forward.
The Mesopotamians had a dark view of death. They accepted their lives were loaded with affliction and agony delivered by the divine beings; that their view on the afterlife was far more regrettable than the existence they were at that point persevering. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, numerous characters experience demise in a frightful yet unavoidable way like Humbaba, Enkidu, and others. Notwithstanding their demise being horrifying, the common substance was the dread of death. Humbaba argued for his life when Gilgamesh was all set in for the murder. Enkidu fears the revile that anticipates him passing on before Gilgamesh. The epic portrays demise through different characters, with its message of mortality being sure yet dreaded due to the Mesopotamians’ skeptical viewpoint on life.
Critically, it is Enkidu’s demise that makes Gilgamesh face his own mortality. The epic shows that through the associations with others, individuals can awaken to life as it truly is, instead of being misdirected in reasoning that their achievements will keep going forever. Gilgamesh noted, ‘Only the gods can dwell forever with Shamash! As for human beings, their days are numbered, and whatever they keep trying to achieve is but wind!’ (Gilgamesh 10). From the outset, Enkidu’s passing makes Gilgamesh become fixated on beating his own mortality. This persuades his quest for the key to never-ending life. After he loses the plant that reestablishes youth, however, he comes to acknowledge that he will stay mortal, and all that he can expect is to carry out beneficial things and offer what he realized to individuals of Uruk.
In conclusion, regardless of the characteristics throughout everyday life, similar to all men, Gilgamesh needed to at last die. The Epic offers no simple responses to the topic of mortality and significance, in any case, surrenders to the certainty of death. Despite Gilgamesh’s death, his heritage is preserved, and he is really focused on the afterlife. Even though the name he made for himself will ultimately be neglected, there is the esteem in having been valued and grieved, and his companionship with Enkidu, most importantly, had significance in itself. In spite of the way that Gilgamesh was written in the old times and is the most established scholarly work known today, it enormously looks like the thoughts of death shared by many Americans in the modern world. The readers still can relate to the main character’s fears of death and thoughts of the afterlife.
Gilgamesh. (1998). (M. G. Kovacs, Trans., W. Carnahan, Ed.).