Diseases And Their Risk Factors Writing Sample

The causes of diseases can be divided into many groups according to the type of impact. Iatrogenic refers to the reasons that arose as a result of a medical intervention due to a medical error in the diagnosis or treatment. The result of such intrusions can be violations of the physical structure of a person. An example of such a disease is aplastic anemia, which can develop from the improper use of drugs or radiation (Banasik, 2018). In this case, the risk factors are the doctors themselves and their negligence, and the elimination of this risk can only be carried out by improving staff qualifications. Since diseases of this group are associated with medical procedures, doctors should use all possible means of analyzing the patient’s condition to exclude the likelihood of error.

Idiopathic diseases are also unique because they are diseases of an unstudied or spontaneous nature. Modern medicine reveals more and more features of the human body; however, some of its mechanisms are still unknown. Idiopathy may not occur in all people, as some causes of the disease may be known. However, for other patients, the condition can be chaotic, and then the case is called idiopathic, as, for example, in the case of hypoparathyroidism (Banasik, 2018). In this case, risk factors cannot be tracked by any methods at all, since the disease manifests itself in a completely unexplored way.

Finally, multifactorial diseases are a combination of many genetic factors coupled with environmental influences. The same term can also describe the human body’s features, such as blood pressure or height (Banasik, 2018). The list of diseases falling into this category is extremely wide – from schizophrenia to dandruff. For the same reason, the allocation of risk factors is also problematic. They are divided into three main categories: environmental, related to human DNA, and complex factors.

Although the analysis is complicated in many cases, there is a combination of parameters that are the basis for determining any disease. Structural and physiological parameters make it possible to make an initial assessment of the human condition. Biochemical analyzes allow learning more about the patient’s internal structure and identify risks hidden from the naked eye. Finally, a genetic study enables the analysis of the structure of the human body. It reveals hidden predispositions to certain diseases, for example, inherited. Each of these methods should be used to get a complete picture of the patient’s health.

Reference

Banasik, J.L. (2018). Pathophysiology (6th ed.). Saunders.

Aspects Of Autonomous Vehicles

The reality of unmanned automobiles is approaching as such corporations as Tesla are testing the possibility of using them. The technology has certain advantages, such as saving time for drivers, preventing DUI incidents, and making roads safe, potentially eliminating the existing limits. All vehicles will be autonomous in the best-case scenario, and traffic-related deaths will become a non-factor, with transit being faster. However, the technology also presents several ethical issues and may have glitches leading to accidents. For instance, it is not entirely clear who will be responsible for an unmanned car hitting a person, those inside or the company. Moreover, whether it will be possible to control a vehicle during emergencies is also a concern. In the worst-case scenario, such cars will have biased AIs that will target people not fitting certain standards or even non-customers (Lester). Realistically, the technology will probably not be widespread in 20 years, confined to the affluent, although they are likely to abuse it and avoid consequences.

Stoicism is originally an Ancient Greek school associated with Zeno, although its idea can be traced to Socrates, and it attempted to explain the universe, humans, and their relationship. It claims that the world is purposeful and benevolent and supposes that humanity plays a role in following the grand plan by controlling selfish desires and living by reason. Thus, logical thought is an important element of stoicism, ensuring overall harmony and happiness is the ultimate goal. However, the framework faces the same issue as Christianity in general: the nature of evil, which is explained either through human wickedness or the inability to perceive the great purpose. Thus, stoicism is based on logic, self-control, and the pursuit of a higher goal, shared by the world and all living beings.

Pragmatism is a subjective framework equalling reality to a process, which determines its absence of adherence to permanence. It claims that absolutes do not exist, links meaning to consequences, and believes in inherent neutrality (Barger 43). Pragmatism attributes the quality of being good to usefulness, which is evident in whether something helps achieve results (Barger 43). However, as nothing is permanent, it will remain in such a state until losing its utility (Barger 43). As far as the arbiter of usefulness is concerned, a collective’s judgment is regarded more than an individual’s, which is consistent with the pragmatic view on the whole (Barger 43). Transience may be considered a negative due to removing continuity of values and moral orienteers, although it facilitates personal freedom. Altogether, pragmatism emphasizes change, utility, and group opinion on whether something should be considered useful and, consequently, good.

A combination of stoicism and pragmatism may inform a course of action regarding the use of autonomous vehicles, despite the frameworks’ conflicting natures. First of all, the view that the outcome will be for the best no matter what should be adopted to avoid being disappointed in the technology. Everything should be driven by logic: accidents may provoke a reaction to abolish unmanned cars, and the lack thereof is likely to make society view them too positively; both views are extreme. What matters is whether they will be able to reduce accidents and fatalities while improving transit. If one condition is unmet, then society may deem autonomous vehicles useless. Conversely, suppose the technology helps address the primary issues but causes new ones, such as AI bias. In that case, a re-evaluation is necessary to protect the public and change its status. The companies will be the ones hindering the world’s benevolence while unmanned cars themselves are not inherently harmful, so additional chances to improve them may be given.

Works Cited

Barger, Robert N. “Can We Find a Single Ethical Code?” Computers, Ethics, and Society, 3rd ed., edited by M. David Ermann and Michele S. Shauf, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 42-47.

Lester, Caroline. “A Study on Driverless-Car Ethics Offers a Troubling Look into Our Values.” The New Yorker, 2019.

Design Doc Draft Creation

Introduction

The management of remote systems and updates for about 170 remote desktops/laptops requires Microsoft AD, PKI, and other servers to be implemented. The research will discuss the remote servers and their features in managing security groups. Active Directory Services (AD) is a solution from Microsoft that allows for combining network equipment into a single system (Al-Fedaghi & Alsharah, 2018). To implement them, a domain controller will be necessary; it will perform the functions of authenticating users and devices on the network and act as database storage.

Active Directory Features

Active Directory is the central node of the enterprise infrastructure, and thus, if it fails, all PCs and servers become unavailable. Therefore, to ensure the uninterrupted operation of the system, the management should consider the following:

Availability of a Duplicate Domain Controller: The entire database is kept on the Active Directory domain controller. Thus, it is crucial to remove the wrong piece of equipment and immediately implement the new one.

Regular Backups: A reliable backup system allows restoring the server’s functionality quickly. When using a single domain controller, backup does not avoid downtime, although it significantly reduces the time spent to restore the server.

Implementing Active Directory: The performance of AD services affects the ability to use the entire IT infrastructure of the company. Therefore, it is more rational to turn to qualified specialists, which will allow users to achieve maximum reliability (Al-Fedaghi & Alsharah, 2018).

PKI Components

The PKI components that will be utilized include the following:

  1. A Certificate Authority (CA) is part of the public key system that issues a certificate to verify the rights of the users or systems that make the request (Karthikeyan & Heiss, 2018).
  2. The Certificate Repository includes the storage of valid certificates and the revocation list (Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)) (Karthikeyan & Heiss, 2018).
  3. A Key Recovery Server is a server that performs automatic key recovery if the service is installed.
  4. PKI-Ready applications (PKI-Enabled Applications) are the apps that use PKI tools for security.
  5. Registration Authority is a module responsible for registering users and accepting certificate requests.
  6. Security Server manages user access, digital certificates, and trusted relationships in a PKI environment (Karthikeyan & Heiss, 2018).

Windows Server Update Services and System Center Configuration Manager

Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) is a service for updating Microsoft operating systems and products (Kulshreshtha et al., 2020). The program can be downloaded for free from the Microsoft website and installed on the Windows Server family server OS. The update server syncs with Microsoft, downloading updates to be distributed within the corporate LAN. System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) is a product used to manage IT infrastructure based on Microsoft Windows and devices related to it (McClave et al., 2016). Configuration Manager provides the following basic features; update management, software and operating system deployment, NAP integration, hardware and software inventory, remote management, and the management of virtualized and mobile Windows-based systems.

Domain Name System (DNS) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

A Domain Name System (DNS) is a computer-distributed system for obtaining information about domains (van Rijswijk-Deij, 2016). It is most often used to create an IP address by the hostname (computer or device), and acquire information about mail routing, and service nodes for protocols in the domain (SRV record). A distributed DNS database is maintained by a hierarchy of DNS servers that communicate over a specific protocol.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an application protocol that allows network devices to automatically obtain the IP address and other parameters necessary for operation in a TCP/IP network (van Rijswijk-Deij, 2016). This protocol works according to the “client-server” model; for automatic configuration, the client computer at the configuration stage of the network device accesses the so-called DHCP server and receives the necessary parameters from it.

Dell IDPA Appliance for Backups

Data security is essential regardless of where it is located; whether in the cloud or physical or virtual storage. According to IDC, up to 20% of backup operations do not fit into the allotted time, and 32% of data recovery attempts fail (Barclay, 2018). The data is often a company’s most valuable asset, although its protection remains a weak link for many of them.

The Dell EMC data protection product line offers users solutions for different kinds of businesses (Barclay, 2018). This strategy is based on Dell EMC Data Domain technologies. Data Domain is a high-performance and reliable system based on the x86 platform with an enterprise-class architecture. All elements within the system are backed up, and variable block size reduplication is supported. Using Data Domain products enables users to deal with traditional deployment of backup and disaster recovery systems, Isolated Recovery Solutions, integrated solutions for data protection, and converged infrastructures (Barclay, 2018). Wherever the company stores the data, it is completely protected.

A Server for SPLUNK, RSA, and McAfee EPO

Splunk is a log storage and analysis system; a Splunk server stores, indexes, and allows analyzing logs. There are working machines (servers) that create these logs and transmit them to the Splunk server (Diakun, 2016). With Splunk Enterprise for Windows, it will be possible to investigate security incidents in minutes, not hours or days as it was before. It will be necessary to track all Microsoft Windows server data, including the following:

  1. Windows event logs;
  2. Performance monitoring;
  3. Monitoring the registry.

RSA Systems

RSA is a cryptographic system with a public key that generates two different keys, namely, public and secret. The public key is transmitted over an open (unsecured) channel and is used to encrypt the data (Patil et al., 2016). The secret key is intended to be used by the owner only and decrypts any data encrypted with the public key. The RSA system will enable the protection of software and digital signature schemes. It is also used in the open encryption system PGP and other encryption systems together with symmetric algorithms.

Backups to IDPA

Regular backups are a great way to minimize the risk of network viruses such as the WannaCry encryption virus. However, the data can be restored, as long as the backups are not affected. To protect the most critical information, last year, Dell EMC suggested the Isolated Recovery Solution, which provides for the isolation of the system where the “golden copy” of data is stored. The network connection is activated for a short time to synchronize the latest versions of files. To avoid compromise, each new “golden copy” is checked for integrity. If damage is detected, the system is blocked. If necessary, the recovery is performed in an isolated area.

Cloud-Based Disaster Recovery for IDPA

Dell EMC is considering the cloud as a deployment option; Dell EMC provides comprehensive data protection in the cloud, creating a new class of cloud solutions and services for data protection. This system has the following benefits:

  1. It is cost-effective.
  2. It has easy deployment and management.
  3. It has simplified disaster recovery with full orchestration.

NOC desktops, VDI using VMware Horizon

VMware Horizon is a set of tools for building the infrastructure of virtual desktop PCs (or virtual desktops). They allow people to access the desktop from anywhere in the world from various devices at any time (if you have access to the Internet of both the client and the Horizon infrastructure (Ventresco, 2016). Depending on the availability of remote servers, a large number of options are possible for the company. They include local access to the table, fast deployment of new stations, and anonymous authentication mode flexible policies, among others.

Workstation virtualization can be divided into two large blocks:

  1. Desktop virtualization;
  2. Application Virtualization.

Virtual desktops, especially those created based on linked clones, are almost identical:

  1. Virtual desktop hardware is the virtualized hardware of the server on which these desktops reside;
  2. The same drivers are installed on the virtual systems;
  3. Virtual systems have operating systems with the same patches and versions installed;
  4. The same applications are created on the virtual desktops (Ventresco, 2016);
  5. The update of the operating system or application is done centrally for the golden image and is applied simultaneously to all desktops;
  6. The difference between virtual desktops is user data is stored separately from the system; thus, the problems that arise with virtual desktops are common.

In conclusion, the company needs to consider implementing various remote servers and operating systems in the work. This will enable better interaction between its co-workers and clients. One of the most important services will be Active Directory, which will foster the development and progress of the remote communication of the company. Thus, there is a need to create and maintain the management of remote programming systems.

References

Al-Fedaghi, S., & Alsharah, M. (2018). Modeling IT processes: A case study using Microsoft Orchestrator. In 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communication Engineering (ICACCE) (pp.394-401). IEEE.

Karthikeyan, G., & Heiss, S. (2018). Pki and user access rights management for opc ua based applications. In 2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA) (pp.251-257). IEEE.

Kulshreshtha, K., Sharma, G., Bajpai, N., & Tripathi, V. (2020). What to offer to the newly emerged super consumers! A multimethod approach in the context of wealthy single urbanites (WSUs). Web.

McClave, S. et al. (2016). Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN). Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 40(2), 159-211.

van Rijswijk-Deij, R., Jonker, M., Sperotto, A., & Pras, A. (2016). A high-performance, scalable infrastructure for large-scale active DNS measurements. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 34(6), 1877-1888.

Barclay, B. (2018). The one team approach: How Dell EMC brought together competitive, disparate service providers across EMEA to create a united real estate and FM family. Corporate Real Estate Journal, 7(3), 202-214.

Diakun, J., Johnson, P., & Mock, D. (2016). Splunk operational intelligence cookbook. Packt Publishing Ltd.

Patil, P., Narayankar, P., Narayan, D., & Meena, S. (2016). A comprehensive evaluation of cryptographic algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES, RSA and Blowfish. Procedia Computer Science, 78, 617-624. Web.

Ventresco, J. (2016). Implementing VMware Horizon 7. Packt Publishing Ltd.

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