Distribution Chain In The Pharmaceutical Industry Free Essay

The pharmaceutical industry requires supply chain managers to ensure that the product is in proper condition and delivered on time. Medical supplies are considered perishable goods, so they require adequate packaging, storage, and careful handling (Abideen & Mohamad, 2019). Moreover, many pharmaceuticals have a relatively short expiration period, which should be considered by different actors of the distribution chain. The distribution chain starts with the manufacturer of raw materials located local or abroad, which transports chemicals or raw packaging materials to the producer of medical supplies. The pharmaceutical company receives a purchase order and manufactures the product using the raw materials and employs an advanced packaging system to deliver a safe, stable, and effective medical product (Amarji et al., 2018). The pharmaceuticals are then directed to the wholesaler, who organizes appropriate storage conditions and supplies the goods to medical facilities or pharmacies. The movement of raw materials and packaged products is supported by logistics and transportation companies (Dani, 2015). Finally, the pharmaceutical product is distributed by healthcare facilities and pharmacies, delivering the end product to consumers.

The Impact of Inbound and Outbound Logistics

Inbound logistics influence transportation, warehousing, and distribution requirements via a combination of factors, including potential disruptions and foreign suppliers. The supply of materials needed to produce the end product may come from a variety of countries. Thus, there is a need for a decentralized approach involving a multi-country distribution system consisting of an international distribution center and several regional DCs (Onstein et al., 2016). It should be noted that a decentralized distribution system requires specifications of chemical raw materials and control of receiving and dispatching zones to guarantee safety and proper packaging or handling procedures. Investment in a transportation management system (TMS) might improve global freight’s timeliness and visibility and decrease the risks of disruptions due to accidents or natural disasters (Harrington, 2018). Event-mentoring via a TMS is a cost-effective inbound logistics measure providing a proactive approach and a predictable supply of raw materials.

Several factors of outbound logistics may impact logistics requirements. Transport and storage systems should have temperature control equipment to protect the quality of medical supplies. Direct distribution channel, cooperation with the manufacturer, and proper packaging assist in timely delivery of products with a limited expiration period. Intermediaries might be used to optimize the distribution costs if the conditions for firm protective packaging are met. Additionally, some pharmaceutical products are subject to government regulations and storage conditions, so all distribution chain actors might need wholesale dealer licenses or operating permits. An uninterrupted flow of the product can be achieved by the correct sequence of delivery transport movement, responding to the rhythm of demand (Mitsumasa et al., 2012). The establishment of a fixed loading volume program might and prevent high-demand products from going out of stock.

The Impact of Global Trade

Globalization is a major trend in logistics requiring complex mechanisms for worldwide production and long-distance supply harmonization. Coordination of economic activities located in several countries worldwide involves international regulations and agreements, as well as cultural and economic differences (Farahani et al., 2011). The pharmaceutical industry heavily depends on global trade, as medical supplies are produced by companies using both national and international sources of raw materials. Thus, global trade might significantly impact the transportation, warehousing, and distribution requirements of raw materials supply. Off-shoring is a common practice of establishing a facility abroad to produce raw materials and components since developing countries offer competitive supply prices and decrease inbound logistics costs (Journeyman Picture, 2009). The exported raw materials used in pharmaceutical production and packaging should be safely transported, stored, and distributed. Modern transportation is cost-effective, fast, and reliable, so it facilitates the export of pharmaceutical components. International pharma trade is subject to government regulations, limiting the distribution of exported raw materials to ensure safety and prevent contamination. Finally, global trade can help optimize the warehousing of raw materials since distribution structures, including regional DCs, will be responsible for providing adequate storage conditions.

References

Abideen, A., & Mohamad, F. (2019). Supply chain lead time reduction in a pharmaceutical production warehouse – a case study. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 14(1), 61-88.

Amarji, B., Kulkarni, A., Deb, P. K., Deepika, Maheshwari, R., & Tekade, R. K. (2018). Package Development of Pharmaceutical Products: Aspects of Packaging Materials Used for Pharmaceutical Products. In R. K. Tekade (Ed.), Dosage form design parameters: Volume II (pp. 521-552). Academic Press.

Dani, S. (2015). Food supply chain management and logistics: From farm to fork. Kogan Page.

Farahani, R., Rezapour, S., & Kardar, L. (Eds.). (2011). Logistics operations and management: Concepts and models. Elsevier.

Harrington, L. (2018). Global trade disruption: Managing the new normal. Inbound Logistics.

Journeyman Pictures (Producer). (2009). Global car: Who really builds the American automobile? [Video file]. Web.

Mitsumasa, A., Takita, V., & Leite, J. C. (2012). Inbound logistics: A case study. Business Management Dynamics, 5(12), 14-21.

Onstein, A., Tavasszy, L. A., & van Damme, D. A. (2016). Factors determining distribution structure decisions in logistics: A literature review and research agenda. Transport Reviews, 39(2), 243-260. Web.

Telemedicine And Patient Centered Home

The need for comprehensive patient care influenced the development of various health delivery models. One of the examples is Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH), which is aimed at improving primary care by taking a whole-person orientation and coordinating all health activities through a patient’s primary care physician. Healthcare providers have been able to elevate the advantages of PCMH by incorporating telehealth. Telemedicine is providing healthcare services remotely through the means of information technology and modern telecommunications systems. This paper will explore the benefits and challenges of mixing telehealth with PCMH and discuss how the combination of these two models is shaping patient-provider relationships.

PCMH has become a trending topic in healthcare because of its benefits both to patients and to providers. Patients receive value-based care through PCMH and develop a solid relationship with associated health workers, whereas health providers can reduce readmissions by almost 20% (John et al., 2020). The primary benefit of telehealth is the ability of a patient to receive care at any location remotely. The main challenge of PCMH is providing appropriate training for health workers (Patient-centered medical home 101, 2015). It is also difficult and expensive to shift from a traditional health delivery model to PCMH (Benefits of NCQA, 2019). Telemedicine challenges are similar – it requires substantial investments in the beginning and appropriate training for health workers (DiCarlo et al., 2016). Despite these struggles at the start, health providers may switch to the PCMH model because of an incentive to lower operational costs in the future and improve the quality of provided care. Telehealth is often integrated into the delivery process because it allows physicians to monitor their patients’ well-being continually and provide crucial health-related information.

Statistical data shows that PCMH reduces both healthcare costs and inpatient hospital days. The number of emergency department visits is also reduced by more than 12% (Benefits of NCQA, 2019). Patient satisfaction deteriorates when there is operational inefficiency (Ko et al., 2019). Patients often provide positive feedback regarding PCMH, which may hint that the model favorably affects operational efficiency (Benefits of NCQA, 2019). It has been established that PCMH reduces the overall healthcare costs for beneficiaries (Benefits of NCQA, 2019). Therefore, PCMH augmented by the possibilities offered by telemedicine may become the desired health delivery model for both patients and providers.

It is mandatory to ensure that patients’ personally identifiable health-related information is safe and cannot be tampered with. In the context of PCMH, information security is essential because health data is accessed by a variety of workers that are associated with a patient. Telehealth contributes to PCMH by providing means for seamless communication between patients and providers and ensuring that health-related information is secured. It also reduces the costs of PCMH by allowing providers to deliver most of the services remotely (Benefits of NCQA, 2019). The combination of PCMH and telemedicine has augmented care coordination (DiCarlo et al., 2016). When a primary care physician is always connected with other health workers, and updated information is delivered instantaneously, health providers can offer more coordinated care (John et al., 2020). The landscape of patient-provider relationships is also affected significantly. With the PCMH model and telehealth, patients are serviced by the same group of health workers throughout the whole process or life journey.

References

Benefits of NCQA patient-centered medical home recognition. (2019). National Committee for Quality Assurance. Web.

DiCarlo, L. A., Weinstein, R. L., Morimoto, C. B., Savage, G. M., Moon, G. L., Au‐Yeung, K., & Kim, Y. A. (2016). Patient‐centered home care using digital medicine and telemetric data for hypertension: Feasibility and acceptability of objective ambulatory assessment. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18(9), 901-906.

John, J. R., Tannous, W. K., & Jones, A. (2020). Effectiveness of a patient-centered medical home model of primary care versus standard care on blood pressure outcomes among hypertensive patients. Hypertension Research, 7(215), 1-11.

Ko, D. G., Mai, F., Shan, Z., & Zhang, D. (2019). Operational efficiency and patient‐centered health care: A view from online physician reviews. Journal of Operations Management, 65(4), 353-379.

Patient-centered medical home 101: General Overview [PowerPoint slides]. Web.

Social Change And Social Norms

Introduction

Social change refers to the transformations which occur in society, institutions, cultures, and social functions. In most cases, social change is not instant as it occurs gradually over time. Several factors trigger a social change in society; some elements include conflict, culture, demographic change, war, and technological advancement. An effort by the above factors to disrupt society’s status quo marks the first step to a transformation. On the other hand, social norms refer to the unwritten rules which guide the members of a community. The informal rules which the society ascribes form the basis of community. For years, sociologists and anthropologists have thoroughly studied social norms intending to understand social norm dynamics.

Ways to Influence Social Change

There are several ways through which an organization can influence social change in a community. For it to occur, the community members need to be the main drivers. To influence social transformation, one is not required to participate in big programs, even the little gestures of kindness go a long way to make lives better. For an organization to affect the community’s social change, it is advisable to start with small acts of kindness.

Everyone can influence the social transformation movement in society in their small way. Doyne believes that everyone can bring change in society by making small gestures of kindness (Forbes Live, 2018). She was concerned about the well-being of the Himalayan child that she encountered carrying rocks to make a living. Dyne learned that the girl had no home, and she relied on carrying rocks to make ends meet. This prompted her to start a children’s home, which offered her a home and education. Today her organization is wholly owned by the community members in Nepal.

The US Navy can influence social change in society by volunteering in community-based programs such as education for children. They help alleviate the social status of the community members. Further, they influence social transformations in society and can be achieved by establishing procedures that organizations can follow to identify gaps that exist in the community. This approach will assist them in providing successful programs that will alleviate the livelihood of their neighbors.

Conclusively, social change and social norms have a strong relation. The quest to transform society brings about disruptions that prompt a change movement. For a better and empowered community, individuals in the city and organizations need to participate in practices that improve people’s lives. Volunteering and small acts of kindness show a significant gesture towards driving society forward.

References

Forbes Live. (2018). Social Disruptors: Maggie Doyne [Video]. YouTube. Web.

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