Divine Command Theory Sample Paper

The Divine Command Theory states that morality is based on religion, where actions are deemed morally right if commanded by God and morally wrong if forbidden by God. This theory asserts that moral principles rely on God, and following His commands establishes moral obligation. However, I aim to challenge this theory by presenting the belief argument and the Euthyphro dilemma.

The primary issue I observe is the belief argument, which suggests that if DCT (Divine Command Theory) is valid, morality is contingent upon the existence of God. Consequently, it becomes impossible to acknowledge morality without believing in God, resulting in the falseness of DCT. This raises doubts about the existence of God. Consequently, atheists face challenges as this statement implies that morality may not exist for them due to their disbelief.

Divine Command Theory raises concerns about the potential for complete subjectivity in moral values. According to this theory, moral rightness is solely based on God’s commands without any objective standard apart from them. Consequently, anything commanded by God is deemed morally right by definition, with no external moral values to restrict His commands. This means that even if God were to command an act like rape, Divine Command Theory would argue it as moral because it aligns with “doing the right thing,” equating it to “doing what God commands.” Such implications seem highly implausible and suggest that immoral acts are inconceivable for God to command. As a result, determining morality becomes entirely subjective and dependent on God alone, giving it an arbitrary appearance.

In addition, a philosophical problem known as the Euthyphro dilemma arises regarding whether actions are considered morally right because of God’s commands or if He commands certain actions because they are already morally right. The Euthyphro argument brings up this issue and proposes two possibilities: either God has reasons behind His commands or He does not have any reasons at all. If there are reasons behind His commands, then these reasons would determine the morality of actions and contradict Divine Command Theory.

If God does not command actions, then His commands are arbitrary, suggesting imperfection. However, God is not imperfect, hence Divine Command Theory is invalid. The theory posits that actions are morally right solely because God mandates them. Prior to God’s commands, there was no concept of right or wrong; morality did not exist. Another perspective proposes that God commands actions because they are inherently right. This viewpoint suggests that God did not invent morality but rather recognized an existing moral law and instructed us to abide by it. Nevertheless, it should be remembered that God is the creator of everything.

Therefore, he created morality, making the first option impossible. The second option, that God commands something because it is right and obvious to Him in His infinite wisdom, avoids arbitrariness but reintroduces a problem: accepting this argument means abandoning a theological concept of right and wrong, where what is right would exist whether or not God commands it. Each case leads believers in the divine command theory into uncomfortable moral territory.

Without God serving as an authority figure, there is no one to create the standards that make up morality. As flawed beings, humans are prone to mistakes and lack the understanding needed to develop a credible moral system. Thus, the Divine Command Theory asserts that morality and purpose in life become invisible in the absence of a belief in God.

Additionally, it is widely recognized that God is inherently flawless. This simplifies the task of establishing a moral code, as perfection can be exemplified by a singular being. Moreover, envision a universe devoid of the notion of a God and divine intent. Where would the concept of morality originate? If we were merely existent without any prescribed objectives or purposes to strive for, it becomes challenging to comprehend the existence of moral obligations. To comprehend our ethical obligations, we necessitate an authoritative entity capable of enforcing these duties upon us. And in this scenario, only God could conceivably fulfill that role.

One challenge of the divine command theory is the potential for inaccuracies and human error in God’s communication. When different individuals receive conflicting messages from God, it becomes difficult to ascertain which message is genuine. This challenge is further complicated when examining the Bible, which has undergone translation and transmission across generations, making its interpretation even more uncertain.

Various denominations within Christianity have different perspectives on which parts of the Bible to include in their printing, leading to textual differences between bibles. Additionally, these denominations emphasize and de-emphasize different aspects of the texts, resulting in divergent interpretations of God’s word. In addressing the Euthyphro dilemma, one approach is to avoid depicting God as arbitrary and instead believe that His commands are based on the most compelling reasons.

By assuming that God has forbidden torture, it suggests that there were valid reasons behind this command. If we take into account that God’s decision stemmed from the realization that torture inflicts immense pain and humiliation, it becomes evident why it is deemed immoral. Because God possesses omniscience, He is aware of the abhorrence associated with torture and, out of His love for humanity, directs us to abstain from such practices. Furthermore, God comprehends the inherent virtue found in qualities like kindness and compassion; hence He issues divine decrees founded upon this flawless comprehension.

This portrayal affirms the veracity of God’s teachings and validates His establishment of the ethical code. The Divine Command Theory encompasses all moral truths that are linked to God. Due to God’s immutability, moral truth remains constant. We must regard God’s commands as the ultimate authority on what is deemed ‘right’ and ‘wrong,’ irrespective of our individual disagreement or lack of complete comprehension. Moreover, acquiring a deeper understanding of how God expects us to live enhances our overall well-being.

The justification for the Divine Command theory lies in the evidence found in the bible. If God is the ultimate creator, then he is also responsible for establishing morality. As God has authority over all of Creation, it is logical for us to obey his instructions. The bible consistently emphasizes the importance of obediently following God’s commands.

Mass Media Influences

The mass media has a huge influence on everyone in society. The mass media reaches large number of the public. Generally, the big influences on us come from either the newspaper, television, radio or also the internet. The main purpose of the Mass Media is to provide us with information, entertainment and advertisement. Unfortunately we do live in a society that depends on communication so we look to these sources to get our information. Media influence has grown exponentially with the advance of technology. Mass Media has influence the general public more then we think it has.

In today society we rely on the mass media for everyday life such as things like work, education, entertainment and even for are own personal use. The use of technology improvement is making the mass media easier then ever to get to source . Most people don’t realize that the Mass Media has been built into are everyday life style. We rely on the media to get current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware of. Newspaper are an incredible influence tool in society, they easily turn on people emotions in favor or against an issue that is being discussed.

This is because readers tend to believe everything that is written in the newspaper even though it might not be entirely true. This cause misleading information that then goes to the public which immediately influences the public to react. Therefore the newspaper can be very biased about story. Newspaper is a huge influence on society. “Media is considered to be a main piece within society that is frequently associated with the concept of social”. (Lange, 2008) This statement really agrees with the fact that Mass Media has a huge influence over our society and how they conveys what people take from the media and relate it to there own life’s.

Television is a very big influence in today time. “Of all the media distribution channels the most influential has been the television, we are constantly exposed to thousands of images of violence, advertising, sex, celebrities and much more, in fact a its known that a child is exposed to about 40,000 ads a year. ” (rayuso) This statement lets you see how much television is influencing on our society. They say a picture is worth a thousands words and TVS are transmitting millions of images into views heads. Advertising is one of the most influential items about Mass Media. The media spends billion of dollars to advertise to our society.

People want to buy what they are exposed to therefore good advertising can lead to good sells. Society wants’ to buy things that we hear are good. The buyer makes decision on what we see, hear or read about a product. Consumers want to buy product they can trust so they rely on the media to help with decision making. “Advertising is no longer limited to store displays, radio and TV commercials, and newspaper ads. Some children’s’ literature is developed for the primary purpose of marketing. Movies, cartoons, video games and more are also developed for the purpose of marketing additional products. (Mulberry) Advertising affects everyone in society from your grandparents to your little siblings. This can bring both positive and negative outcomes. Young adolescents are at an age where they are very easily influenced and don’t always make the right decision. The Mass Media influences them because they want to do what they think is cool or what there favorite celebrity is doing. Media also can create an ideal image of what you are supposed to look like or how you are suppose to act. When realistically the average person doesn’t fit the media stereotype.

Teenage feel as if they don’t look a certain way or act a certain way that they will be an outcast and just not fit in with the popular crowd. Internet is also a huge media source. The internet lets you have the world at your finger tips. This is the newest form of the Mass Media. It lets you reach out to almost anything you want to find in any where in the world. The internet also lets you access other forms of mass media such as newspapers, video, and even communication to other people. “One-to-one (e-mail is the fastest growing form of one to one communication 7. 3billion US e-mails per day).

One-to-many (Internet newsgroups and personal Web sites include over a billion exchanges per day). ” (Nikolovska , 2007) The internet is expanding right in front of us and we rely on it for many reasons. Not only because it convient but we look to the internet to help us with education, travel, medical and so much more. This is a great way for the Mass Media to influences us with information and adverstiment. Unfountely everything we find on the internet is not true or many things can be very bias. Many people fall victim to believing everything they read or watch on the internet. It is very easy to become influenced by the internet.

Like all Mass Media influences there are two sides to every story so there are many positive and negative affects to. “The influence of the Internet has caused a change in the way we communicate, learn and shop. The Internet is probably most famous for the ability to spread information, fact or fiction. We were once limited to news editors of a local paper, then to national cable news. Now anyone can search the globe, visit local papers in foreign countries, and see the views of all sides. This ease of information has also brought with it a large amount of hoaxes, money schemes, and fallacies. (Nikolovska , 2007) The internet has so much to offer are society and it is so easy to get information on anything we are looking for. The Mass Media also plays a role in violence. When we watch TV we see violence on Movies, TV shows and even the news. The big problem with this is that our kids are being exposed to a big range of violence. “Children today watch far more television than children did in the early days of TV.

In addition, they are online where advertising is prevalent as well. The influence of advertising has permeated much of what our children do and see. (Mulberry) Children are growing up and shaping their views and beliefs around what they are watching on TV. Even their personality values are being altered because of the Mass Media. They can become aggressive or they can loose a sense of reality and fiction on what they are watching. Video game is another huge source of the Media that is affecting these young kids. They bring guns to school and kill people and they are not even really aware of what they are doing or even there consequences. The Mass Media also can shape our society public opinion on issues. For example, after the attacks of 911 the media gave a huge coverage of the event and exposed Osama guilty for the attack as they were told by the authorities. This shaped the public opinion to support the war on terrorism, the same happened with the war on Iraq. The problem is that if media received un accurate information then the public opinion supported a wrong cause, this is the power of public opinion influence. ” (rayuso) The media can wants to shape how we look at things and how we make opinions about issues. The media doesn’t always give the right information to the public they can be bias.

Overall I conclude that Mass Media does have an effect of society. For the simple fact that is become part of our daily routine. Every morning the family guy reads the newspapers to get inform with out any type of criticisms. Citizens of society spend hours and hours watching Television to get entertain, the same case with the Internet. So as becoming part of our daily life, we can say that has a unconscious effect in our habits, like the shopping habits that people have these days, if they see something on television, the Internet or the newspapers there is a high probability that they will consume it.

Reference:

rayuso, Initials. (n.d.). Mass media influence on society. Retrieved from http://hubpages.com/hub/Mass-Media-Influence-on-Society

Kulkarni, A. (2010, January 16). What is mass media. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/mass-media-influence.html

Lange, A. (2008). Mass media’s influence on society. Retrieved from http://www.mightystudents.com/essay/Mass.Media.Influence.

Mulberry, Initials. (n.d.). The influence of advertising . Retrieved from http://www.squidoo.com/influence-of-advertising

Nikolovska , M. (2007, April 12). The influence of the internet on people’s social and psychological realities. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Influence-Of-The-Internet-On-Peoples-Social-And

Economic Theory In Social Class Contexts

Thorstein Veblen introduced a fresh perspective to economic theory by considering the changing social and institutional environments and their impact on individuals. He explores the non-economic aspects of the leisure class’s social life in his examination. In his economic analysis, Veblen digs deep into the past, tracing the origins of the leisure class throughout history. He delves into unusual topics, not commonly explored in economics, such as the demand and consumption patterns of the upper classes.

Veblen analyzes the classes of society by using terms such as conspicuous consumption, pecuniary emulation, and conspicuous leisure. He focuses on the consumption patterns of the upper class because it affects the rest of society through emulation. According to Veblen, the pecuniary struggle is the force that drives cultural and societal development. Pecuniary emulation, or “keeping up with the Joneses,” occurs when we consume products not only to survive but also to imitate those who earn more than us. By employing an evolutionary analysis, Veblen demonstrates a recurring pattern that remains relevant today. For instance, he illustrates how the leisure class’s practice of conspicuous consumption, emulation, and waste has resulted in negative values in society, prioritizing “predatory” exploitation over “productive” workmanship (Bookrags.com).

Pecuniary Standard of Living: The standard of consumption honored by a community determines the pecuniary standard of living. Changing this standard is a slow process, especially when there is a wide gap between social classes and limited class mobility. The standards are influenced by conspicuous waste and workmanship, as well as predatory animus (Veblen: 105). The wider the gap between classes, the slower the process of change. Conspicuous Consumption: According to Veblen, both conspicuous leisure and conspicuous consumption involve waste. Conspicuous leisure wastes time and effort, while conspicuous consumption wastes goods. Both serve as means of displaying wealth and are often considered synonymous.

In “The Theory of the Leisure Class,” Thorsten Veblen presents two conceptions of conspicuous consumption. The first one can be seen as characterized by specific outcomes or as a function, while the second one is identified as an intention, motive, or instinct. Veblen’s notion of conspicuous consumption originated from the division of wealth, which was more easily discernible a century ago. However, this division is even more pronounced in today’s society, despite being less apparent.

Thorsten Veblen’s theory of conspicuous consumption emerged from the concept of pecuniary emulation. To be respected and admired by others, it is not enough to simply possess wealth or power. The wealth must be visible, as esteem is only given when evidence is presented. While the upper class does play a role in stimulating the obsession with consumption among the middle class, it is clear that status emulation and consumer satisfaction have become the very foundation of this social class. Conspicuous Waste Dress serves as an illustration of such extravagant expenditure.

The way people dress is always on display and reflects their financial status. Dress is primarily a means of presentation rather than protection. Often, individuals prioritize their appearance over protecting themselves from the weather, wanting to appear fashionable. Veblen discusses dress as a spiritual necessity, as individuals feel the need to conform to societal taste standards. Cheap clothing is perceived as unworthy and inferior, lacking the aesthetic quality found in expensive hand-made items.

Veblen (168) suggests that individuals should adorn themselves with costly attire to demonstrate their lack of involvement in any form of productive work. The conclusion drawn is that societal transformation stems from economic influences, with numerous changes being prompted by pecuniary pressures. The upper classes, being less susceptible to such pressures compared to other segments of society, exhibit the highest resistance to change as it disrupts their established habits and lifestyle. Nevertheless, change does transpire, and Veblen examines this phenomenon.

Veblen studied the lifestyles of the leisure class to analyze their consumption and leisure habits. He examined their characteristics, activities, and manner of dress, among other things. Through this analysis, he found that their activities and spending habits were driven by conspicuous consumption and waste, rather than functionality or usefulness. The display of status was the primary motive behind their choices. They deliberately avoided productive employment, as such activities were not deemed honorable.

This is the foundation on which society is built and economic activity operates. The concept of conspicuous consumption, coined by Veblen, is derived from Karl Marx’s theory of commodity fetishism. Both ideologies originate from the unfulfilled desires of consumers. Commodity fetishism was Marx’s equivalent of conspicuous consumption according to Veblen. In a capitalist system, those who own the means of production possess the commodities. As a result, the commodity itself does not lead to genuine awareness or reflect human qualities. When individuals are attracted to commodities, they are left feeling unsatisfied.

Additionally, Marx argues that most of our needs are created by the existence of commodities. The capitalists seek profit through the idea of the commodity, and our awareness and desire for it are shaped by advertising (Allen 2007:26). According to Marx, this creates a false consciousness, which is a misrepresentation of the dominant social relations in the consciousness of the subordinate classes. This ideology contrasts with Veblen’s concept of pecuniary emulation. In Marx’s perspective, ideology refers to the ideas through which people understand their world.

According to Marx, ideology and thought rely on one’s material circumstances, meaning that consciousness is determined by those circumstances. As Marx puts it, “The hand-mill gives you society with the feudal lord; the steam-mill with the industrial capitalist” (Marx: 1971). Veblen’s theory can be compared to Michael Foucault’s theory of “from subject to object,” which suggests that the most deceptive form of power is the power we exert over our own thoughts and emotions in the guise of acting for others (Allen 2007:530).

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