The issue of whether governments have an inherent duty to provide healthcare for their citizens is at the forefront of societal discourse in an era characterized by the escalating complexity of healthcare systems and the urgent need for fair access to medical treatments. The conflict between moral requirements, economic factors, and the general welfare of a population results in controversy. This topic necessitates a rigorous analysis as healthcare expenditures rise, access gaps continue, and the complex interaction between socioeconomic development and health becomes prominent.
It is impossible to exaggerate how vital healthcare access is because it directly impacts individual and societal prosperity. A well-rounded healthcare system promotes a happier, more effective society, spurring economic growth. Long-term cost reductions are achieved by contributing to illness prevention and prompt intervention (Beermann 277). The size of the government’s commitment still needs to be investigated, and there are questions about how feasible it would be to pay for such a comprehensive service, especially in areas with limited resources.
By examining the ethical, social, and financial implications of publicly funded healthcare, this essay aims to negotiate this treacherous terrain. The argument claims that although governments have a moral need to protect the health and welfare of their populations, the scope of this duty may be affected by financial realities and the effectiveness of healthcare delivery systems (Beermann 277). By breaking down these components, This paper illuminates the complex interplay between social demands, economic viability, and moral values, ultimately forming a more nuanced comprehension of the government’s role in healthcare provision.
The Moral Imperative of Healthcare Access
The ethical idea at the heart of the situation for state-funded medical care is powerful. It begins with the simple right to wellness and the intrinsic price of human life. Regardless of socioeconomic status, every human has a right to acquire high-quality health attention. This idea is fundamental to the ethos of contemporary societies (Cohen et al. 129). This viewpoint is based on the moral precept that communities are accountable for the well-being of their constituents.
Advocates contend that governments have a duty of care by incorporating this ethical lens. It aims to establish circumstances that allow citizens to live healthy lives without worrying about receiving subpar medical treatment. The philosopher John Rawls introduces the idea of the “veil of ignorance” in his groundbreaking book “The Theory of Justice.” He claimed that people would create a just society even if they were unaware of their place in it (Mandle). This idea emphasizes the need for an all-inclusive system when applied to healthcare. No one would voluntarily choose a situation where healthcare access is erratic or unequal.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirms that everyone has the right to a standard of living suitable for their health and well-being, supports this point of view. The denial of healthcare can affect people, communities, and the more significant social fabric, causing needless misery, early death, and stifled potential (Mandle). Governments uphold their duty to preserve human dignity and achieve justice for everyone by prioritizing access to healthcare. Overall, the moral imperative supporting the necessity for publicly funded healthcare is based on the idea that every life has inherent worth and merits receiving quality medical care.
Social and Economic Benefits
Beyond its moral foundations, government-provided healthcare has significant social and economic advantages. These positive effects spread throughout society. Healthier communities are fostered as a result of accessible healthcare for individuals. As a result, a more robust and effective population is boosted (Cohen et al. 136). Preventive measures are the main emphasis of an extensive healthcare system. This lessens the prevalence of incapacitating diseases and eases the burden on patients and the healthcare system.
Furthermore, it is essential to recognize the link between healthcare availability and economic expansion. A healthy worker produces more work per hour. It is a workforce that can effectively contribute to the country’s economic growth. Absenteeism caused by illness declines when people immediately access healthcare services that address their medical needs (Machiavelli). Additionally, it increases work efficiency, and improved labour productivity results from the cumulative impact, which promotes economic growth.
A healthcare system that emphasizes early detection and prevention also helps enhance the state of the public’s health. Governments can reduce the costs of treating advanced illnesses by monitoring and preventing the spread of infectious diseases (Machiavelli). The savings generated by these actions can be invested in other industries, promoting balanced development in all parts of society.
The need to address and reduce access inequities, especially among disadvantaged and marginalized communities, is among the most persuasive arguments favouring governments providing healthcare to their citizens (Cohen et al. 139). A cycle of disadvantage is frequently perpetuated by inadequate healthcare services, preventing overall societal advancement.
Access to healthcare services can be strongly impacted by a person’s socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and geographic location. These discrepancies continue without government involvement, resulting in unfair outcomes where health problems disproportionately burden some demographic segments (Leisinger 578). As a result, there is a two-tiered system where those who can afford it receive prompt medical care, while others without it must deal with the difficulties of untreated or inadequately treated ailments.
Government-funded healthcare acts as a potent equalizer by guaranteeing that even the most disadvantaged members of society may access the essential medical treatment they require (Machiavelli). It narrows the income disparity between those who can afford private healthcare and those who cannot, fostering social cohesiveness and bolstering the nation’s general fabric.
Additionally, eliminating healthcare inequities has a wide-ranging impact. A healthier populace is more likely to engage in profitable activities, which is advantageous for economic expansion (Leisinger 578). Furthermore, governments can lessen the demand for emergency medical services by emphasizing prevention and early intervention, freeing up funds for more effective and efficient healthcare delivery. Government-provided healthcare is essential for closing access gaps and minimizing disparities between various societal groups.
Counterargument – Fiscal Responsibility
Government-run healthcare systems are necessary for moral and societal reasons, but their opponents frequently express worries about the systems’ potential financial hardship and viability. According to critics, implementing and maintaining comprehensive healthcare services could create an excessive financial strain on governments, possibly resulting in budget deficits, more taxes, or less money for other crucial public services.
Given the rising healthcare expense and tight government budgets, these worries are valid. A trade-off between competing community requirements might be made if significant financial resources are diverted from social welfare, infrastructure, and education programmes. According to opponents, a government monopoly on healthcare delivery also restricts innovation and competition in the healthcare sector. They contend that a government-run system has different incentives for innovation than private market processes, which foster efficiency and quality improvement through competition.
These budgetary worries are felt mainly in economies with significant public debt levels and constrained financial resources. According to opponents, governments should put more effort into fostering an atmosphere encouraging a robust private healthcare industry rather than paying for universal healthcare, possibly through targeted laws and incentives (Cohen et al. 128). It is also important to remember that the financial discussion surrounding publicly funded healthcare is complex and varied.
Rebuttal – Long-Term Cost Savings
Although legitimate financial worries about government-provided healthcare exist, it is vital to understand that well-designed healthcare systems can result in sizeable long-term cost savings that ultimately offset the original outlay (Mandle). Comprehensive healthcare systems’ emphasis on early detection and prevention can lessen the financial burden on governments and help ensure long-term funding for healthcare.
Studies repeatedly demonstrate that investing in preventative care and prompt medical attention results in significant long-term savings. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of illnesses can stop disease development and lower the need for future hospital stays and more costly procedures (Leisinger 578). In addition to saving lives, this lessens the financial strain on patients and the healthcare system.
Government-funded healthcare can also strengthen ones negotiating position and cost-control abilities. Individual patients or smaller private healthcare providers may need help to achieve the economies of scale that centralized healthcare organizations may achieve when negotiating prescription pricing, medical equipment expenses, and service fees. The overall cost of healthcare can be significantly reduced because of this negotiating leverage. Careful system design can also address critics’ worries about hindered innovation (Leisinger 578). Governments can encourage healthcare-related research and innovation while ensuring that all citizens benefit from these developments. This strategy achieves a compromise between fostering innovation and ensuring everyone has healthcare access.
In conclusion, the initial financial investment in publicly funded healthcare can result in significant long-term cost savings by prioritizing prevention, early intervention, and negotiating leverage. These systems exhibit an autonomous nature consistent with financial restraint by avoiding pricey future medical treatments and interventions.
Ethical Considerations of Government-Provided Healthcare
A significant ethical dimension brings into question society’s responsibility for individual well-being at the centre of the discussion over government-provided healthcare. According to ethical theories like John Rawls’ theory of justice, governments should provide healthcare access as a matter of social responsibility. The idea of Rawls’ “veil of ignorance” compels people to construct a just society without knowing our place (Mandle). Therefore, it promotes the development of mechanisms that defend the most vulnerable.
The concepts of distributive justice also emphasize the necessity of distributing resources equally and fairly throughout society. By applying these ideas to healthcare, the case is made more robust. Every citizen has a right to critical medical care regardless of financial circumstances. The intrinsic value of human life is aligned with the moral basis for universal healthcare. It emphasizes how important everyone’s health and well-being are for a just society.
Furthermore, the social contract hypothesis highlights the implicit agreement between citizens and their government. By paying taxes and following social standards, citizens entrust the government to look after their well-being. Governments are supposed to offer necessary health services in exchange (Mandle). This ensures that this reciprocal relationship maintains the social fabric as a whole. In conclusion, ethical considerations provide a convincing justification for publicly funded healthcare.
Policy Implications and Future Directions
For governments and politicians, the conclusions drawn from research on consumers’ perceptions of alternative healthcare delivery systems have substantial policy consequences. Given the connection between public pleasure and government accountability opinions, policy interventions should focus on internal and external variables (Cohen et al. 132). Building trust among the populace and lowering the propensity to look for alternatives depend heavily on improving the standard and accessibility of government-provided healthcare services. Increasing service effectiveness, transparency, and responsiveness can positively influence citizens’ opinions and behaviours.
Knowing cultural and normative factors also allows policymakers to create customized approaches that connect with particular communities. Healthcare delivery can be made more acceptable and compliant by considering cultural factors while creating policies, which will help it reflect societal values and expectations (Beermann 277). It takes all-encompassing efforts to address inequities in healthcare access, combining fair resource distribution, tailored interventions for vulnerable populations, and public awareness campaigns to emphasize the significance of universal access to healthcare.
Future studies should examine the dynamics of shifting cultural norms and how they affect people’s perceptions of alternative healthcare delivery. Adaptive policy frameworks that reflect shifting societal values might be guided by longitudinal studies that monitor changes in public views ((Cohen et al. 133). Additionally, researching cutting-edge funding techniques like community-based funding or social impact bonds may provide long-term solutions to increase healthcare access while upholding economic sustainability.
In this block quote, Cohen et al. illuminate the underlying dynamics behind citizens’ pursuit of alternative service channels as a response to discontentment with the government’s service provision (129).
“Strategies for obtaining services from other sources usually arise due to citizens’ dissatisfaction with the government’s provision of services. Such dissatisfaction may be deeply rooted in societies that have a long history of centralized control and corrupt regimes. Alternative politics then becomes an integral part of the political culture and may be considered normative (Helmke and Levitsky, 2004). In more decentralized societies, the insufficient provision of public services may result from deliberate neglect motivated by the goal of reducing government intervention in service provision (Savas, 2000).”
Source: Cohen, Nissim, Shlomo Mizrahi, and Eran Vigoda-Gadot. “Alternative provision of public health care: the role of citizens’ satisfaction with public services and the social responsibility of government.” Health Economics, Policy and Law 17.2 (2022): 121-140.
The question of whether governments are required to provide healthcare for their populations is a complex one. It weaves together ethical standards, economic factors, and societal well-being. The case for government-provided healthcare is supported by the moral imperative of healthcare access, which is covered in detail throughout this essay. The broader societal and economic advantages that result from easily accessible healthcare systems are supported by the same ethical principles. This includes improved productivity, a healthier population, and lower healthcare expenses thanks to early detection and prevention.
Concerns about financial strain are legitimate, but well-designed healthcare systems can achieve long-term cost reductions and fiscal sustainability through preventive care and negotiating power. This is in response to the fiscal responsibility counterarguments. It is essential to realize that this conclusion might have specific weaknesses. Healthcare policy necessitates earnest reflection and modification, given the likely variances in financial feasibility and system proficiency between diverse nations and situations. Government measures might not forever be the best solution; in some occurrences, a harmonized tactic that combines the attempts of the public and private realms might be preferable.
The governments, healthcare providers, and the general public will need to work together to address the problem of healthcare access in the future. Developing strong policies considering immediate and long-term effects is a possible next step. Moreover, strategic investments in healthcare infrastructure and ongoing research to adapt and improve healthcare delivery are vital future steps. The thesis advanced in this paper coincides with the values of justice, human dignity, and social progress while emphasizing societal advantages. Insufficient attention to the issue of healthcare access can result in worsening health inequalities, constrained economic growth, and weakened social cohesion.
In light of these factors, investigating additional solutions can support government-provided healthcare systems, encouraging a holistic approach to healthcare access. Such solutions include targeted assistance for vulnerable populations, creative healthcare financing mechanisms, and improved health education. In conclusion, despite ongoing obstacles, the pro-government healthcare position emerges as a compelling path towards a more just, affluent, and compassionate society. A government fulfils its obligation not simply to persons but additionally to the overall progress of the nation by prioritizing the health and wellness of its inhabitants. This discussion is crucial in the navigation of the intricate healthcare supply system because it points toward a time when everybody has access to healthcare as a right instead of just a privilege.
Beermann, Jack M. “NFIB v. Sebelius and the Right to Health Care: Government’s Obligation to Provide for the Health, Safety, and Welfare of Its Citizens.” NYUJ Legis. & Pub. Pol’y 18 (2015): 277. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/nyulpp18&div=12&id=&page=
Cohen, Nissim, Shlomo Mizrahi, and Eran Vigoda-Gadot. “Alternative provision of public health care: the role of citizens’ satisfaction with public services and the social responsibility of government.” Health Economics, Policy and Law 17.2 (2022): 121-140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744133120000201
Leisinger, Klaus M. “The corporate social responsibility of the pharmaceutical industry: idealism without illusion and realism without resignation.” Business Ethics Quarterly 15.4 (2005): 577-594. https://doi.org/10.5840/beq200515440
London, Leslie, and Laurel Baldwin-Ragaven. “Human rights obligations in health care.” CME: Your SA Journal of CPD 24.1 (2006): 20-24. https://journals.co.za/doi/pdf/10.10520/EJC63040
Machiavelli, Niccolo. “The prince (1513).” Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions (1993). http://www.christophergennari.com/uploads/2/3/9/9/2399857/the_prince.pdf
Mandle, Jon. Rawls’s’ A theory of justice’: An introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Math, Suresh Bada, et al. “Cost estimation for the implementation of the Mental Healthcare Act 2017.” Indian Journal of Psychiatry 61.Suppl 4 (2019): S650. https://doi.org/10.4103psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_188_19
Ethical Considerations And Practical Benefits Of Removing Dairy Calves At Birth: A Humane Management Approach
Thesis: Removing dairy calves from their mothers at birth is a compassionate management technique that protects the security of the mother and the newborn calf and meets the baby’s essential social and nutritional needs.
Busch, Gesa, et al. “American and German attitudes towards cow-calf separation on dairy farms.” PloS one 12.3 (2017): e0174013. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174013.This study explores how the public perceives the practice of separating cows and calves right after delivery, which has drawn attention due to concerns about animal welfare. The study examines the opinions of Americans and Germans on this matter. However, scientific literature provides conflicting findings regarding the practice’s effects, including less acute responses to separation and an increased risk of uterine disease in cows. Based on participant preferences for early or later separation and assessments of related arguments, the study’s quantitative segmentation approach identifies three groups of participant viewpoints. Although a small percentage of people advocate early separation, most participants oppose it. This source offers a distinct viewpoint by concentrating on the opinions of the general people regarding cow-calf separation. It enhances previous articles by illuminating societal perspectives and their potential impact on calf management techniques. This source offers insightful information about the social implications of calf separation practices. It is especially helpful for highlighting the wider ethical issues raised by the subject and backs up the claim that addressing public concerns is essential for more humane management techniques.
Carulla, Patricia, et al. “Welfare implications on management strategies for rearing dairy calves: A systematic review. Part 1–feeding management.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 10 2023: 1148823. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2023.1148823/full. It highlights how vulnerable calves are to stress in their formative years and the need to ensure their complete wellness. The management of feeding is recognized as a significant risk factor affecting the welfare and health of calves. With an emphasis on the three areas of animal welfare—biological functioning and health, natural living, and affective states or cognitive judgment—the study used an electronic search tool to comprehensively analyze alternative management techniques for producing dairy calves. The evaluation identifies and classifies literature into two key categories: socialization and eating. From various welfare perspectives, the feeding management group examines particular subjects, including milk substitutes, colostrum, and weaning. Comparison: This source complements previous articles by providing a thorough analysis of feeding management techniques and the resulting effects on welfare. It improves understanding of the broader effects of early calf care by offering in-depth insights into calf nutrition, health, and welfare. Analyzing feeding management practices and their impact on calf welfare in an organized manner, this source is very beneficial for your research paper. The methodical approach and identification of knowledge gaps strengthen the rationale for humane calf-rearing procedures’ significance.
Creutzinger, Katherine, et al. “Perspectives on the management of surplus dairy calves in the United States and Canada.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2021: 344. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076512/. The authors stress that a fragmented production structure frequently produces poor welfare for surplus dairy calves. They discuss problems brought on by calf management procedures, long-distance travel, and calf marketing. The article suggests addressing issues by improving colostrum supplies, transportation reforms, and adjustments to calf-raising procedures. The authors argue for a comprehensive strategy to enhance calf outcomes and propose that the dairy business needs a thorough change. Comparatively, this source enhances other articles by offering a thorough analysis of feeding management techniques and their implications for animal welfare. It provides in-depth insights into calf nutrition and well-being by delving into certain areas of concern, such as milk substitutes, colostrum, and weaning. Considering that it thoroughly examines feeding management systems and their effects on calf welfare, this source is quite helpful for research papers. The claim that good feeding methods contribute to dairy calves’ general health and well-being is supported by scientific research, which emphasizes the significance of humane management.
Godden, Sandra M., Jason E. Lombard, and Amelia R. Woolums. “Colostrum management for dairy calves.” Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice 35.3 2019: 535–556. https://www.vetfood.theclinics.com/article/S0749-0720(19)30027-1/fulltext. An important factor in determining the health and survival of calves is colostrum management. Due to the agammaglobulinemia condition of newborn calves, the paper highlights the critical need for maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) absorption via colostrum. The most important management strategy for ensuring calf well-being is a prompt and appropriate intake of high-quality colostrum. Until the calf’s immune system reaches maturity, successful passive transfer of maternal Ig during the first 24 hours after birth protects against common illnesses. The advantages go beyond early survival, including decreased culling rates, increased growth rates, delayed age at first calving, higher milk output in first and second lactations, and reduced morbidity and death postweaning. These benefits are credited to vital nutrients, bioactive substances, and protection in foods. This material lends credence to the general idea of the significance of colostrum intake raised in the previous sources. It emphasizes the crucial part colostrum plays in calf health and lists immediate and long-term advantages. This site is extremely useful since it offers verifiable proof of the importance of colostrum management in calf rearing. The study is a significant addition to your research because of the experience of the writers and the emphasis on practical applications. It provides solid evidence to support the claim that removing dairy calves at birth will ensure optimal colostrum consumption, increasing calf health and survival.
Koenneker, Katja, et al. “Comparative assessment of the stress response of cattle to common dairy management practices.” Animals 13.13 2023: 2115. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/13/13/2115. This study underlines the significance of preserving animal well-being in the dairy business through low-stress animal husbandry approaches. The study intends to evaluate dairy cattle’s stress reaction to common management approaches in recognition of the effect on producers and customers. The study examines the impact of eight typical stimuli on stress hormones and milk production in Holstein-Friesian cattle through a comparative investigation of each one, including milking, veterinary and ultrasound examinations, artificial insemination, embryo transfer, hoof trimming, and natural breeding. The results show considerable differences in serum cortisol levels following different stimuli, with hoof trimming (HT) and natural breeding (NB) producing the most pronounced cortisol increases.
Interestingly, neither the tested stimulus nor the control groups show a significant difference in daily milk output. According to the study’s findings, elements including increased physical activity, social engagement, sexual arousal, and physical restraint have an impact on cattle’s perceptions of controllability and predictability, which in turn affect how they react under stress. The findings imply that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is mildly activated during management procedures within the animals’ regular group and when restrained in a headlock. This source enhances other articles by revealing information about the physiological stress reactions of calves to particular dairy management approaches. It emphasizes the significance of reducing stress for animal well-being and its possible effects on output.
Busch, Gesa, et al. “American and German attitudes towards cow-calf separation on dairy farms.” PloS one 12.3 (2017): e0174013. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0174013
Carulla, Patricia, et al. “Welfare implications on management strategies for rearing dairy calves: A systematic review. Part 1–feeding management.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 10 2023: 1148823. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2023.1148823/full
Creutzinger, Katherine, et al. “Perspectives on the management of surplus dairy calves in the United States and Canada.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2021: 344. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076512/.
Godden, Sandra M., Jason E. Lombard, and Amelia R. Woolums. “Colostrum management for dairy calves.” Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice 35.3 2019: 535–556. https://www.vetfood.theclinics.com/article/S0749-0720(19)30027-1/fulltext
Koenneker, Katja, et al. “Comparative assessment of the stress response of cattle to common dairy management practices.” Animals 13.13 2023: 2115. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/13/13/2115
Facebook Privacy Breach
Social media platforms have access to a considerable amount of personal information. Despite these companies possessing many personal information, many people seem to care less about their privacy. When this information is handled carelessly, it ends up in illegal hands and may be misused. This results in horror when providing information on social media as one is hardly assured that the information they have provided is in good hands. In turn, Facebook privacy breaches may result due to having less care about your privacy provided to social media, making it get into unauthorized hands, leading to the terror of individuals while giving their details.
Firstly, individuals have little concern about their social privacy. Essentially, while people are concerned about information confidentiality, their behaviour seems to show there is little correlation between secrecy alarms and behaviour (Lee et al. 3). Consequently, privacy lethargy can cause people to feel exhausted from hearing endless news about data breaches and therefore they feel it is futile to do anything to protect their data. Many people tend to show that their privacy is their priority, but they rarely work toward protecting it. They always disclose all their data without minding the degree of protection and enhancing the sufficient procedures to protect their data. Hence, people should be cautious about their data by not disclosing their facts and by enforcing settings on social media accounts where this information may leak.
Further, the data on Facebook can be used to profit politicians without their consent. Subsequently, personal data is used, without their knowledge, to aid the political campaigns of conservative candidates in the election. (Facebook and Data Privacy par. 1). A political consulting firm used its data to target political messages that may have influenced the outcome of the elections. While not exactly a data breach, from the public response to this incident, most Facebook users need to be aware of having their personal information used this way. These politicians expend this information to triumph in the elections. Thus, peculiar information should be secured to enhance justice and fairness in elections.
Moreover, many people’s trust was broken; thus, while exposing their personal information, they fear it may land in unauthorized hands. The fissure was remarkable because of its scale, affecting voluminous users and violating the trust of users put in Facebook to safeguard their data (Rosenthal et al. 480). One of the greatest fears people have is information they consider particularly personal or sensitive being shared with people they rarely want to share. In this case, some users may be genuinely uncomfortable about this enormous amount of knowledge held by a single company as it was proved to them by this violation that it may get into illegal hands who may use the information for cyberbullying or for their benefit. Therefore, to give their clients confidence while giving their details, they must also prove how to secure it.
To sum up, the Facebook privacy breach has its roots, implementors, and implications for the firms and companies that request and receive personal details to take it as one of their prior activities to secure the details and keep their privacy. The specific individuals giving their data ought to ensure that their privacy is enhanced by taking the required steps. As per the details, the breach is a result of reckless data handling; if each person plays their role, these acts are scarcely an issue.
“Facebook and Data Privacy in the Age of Cambridge Analytica – the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies.” The Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, 30 Apr. 2018, jsis.washington.edu/news/facebook-data-privacy-age-cambridge-analytica.
Lee, Chang Boon, et al. “Sentiments and Perceptions after a Privacy Breach Incident.” Cogent Business & Management, edited by Trevor Wilmshurst, vol. 9, no. 1, Mar. 2022, https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2022.2050018.
Rosenthal, Sonny, et al. “A Tripartite Model of Trust in Facebook: Acceptance of Information Personalization, Privacy Concern, and Privacy Literacy.” Media Psychology, Aug. 2019, pp. 1–25, https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2019.1648218.