Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Theory Sample Assignment

Introduction

Dorothea Elizabeth Orem (1914-2007) was a nursing theorist and the pioneer of the self-care nursing theory. She received a nursing diploma from Providence Hospital School of Nursing in Washington, DC. Also, Orem earned a Bachelor of Science in Nursing Education and a Master of Science in Nursing Education from the Catholic University of America. Also, Orem was among the members of the group that presented the original framework for nursing diagnosis known as Patterns of Unitary Humans.

Analysis of Basic Components of Orem’s Self-Care Theory

Orem’s general theory of nursing is comprised of the theory of self-care, the theory of self-care deficit, and the theory of nursing system. The theory of self-care includes the following components:

  1. Self-care: a framework of activities and practices initiated and performed by an individual on their own behalf in order to maintain health, well-being, and life (Catalano, 2015).
  2. Self-care agency: an ability of an individual to engage in self-care, which is preconditioned by age, life experience and developmental state, health status, resources, or sociocultural orientation.
  3. Demand for therapeutic self-care: a framework of self-care actions performed for meeting the requisites of self-care through the use of valid methods, activities, and related operations (Meleis, 2011).
  4. Self-care requisites: a set of measures targeted at one’s provision of self-care. Three categories of such requisites include developmental, universal, and health deviation self-care requisites.

Orem’s theory of self-care deficit is aimed at specifying in which cases nursing is needed. To clarify, nursing required when an adult (or parent) is unable or has limited capacity to provide adequate and continuous self-care. Within the theory, Orem identified five distinct methods of helping, which include guiding others, acting or doing for others, supporting others, teaching others, and creating an environment that will promote personal development as to meeting the future health demands.

The third component, the theory of nursing systems is targeted at describing how the patient’s self-care needs should be met by the nurse or the patient (or both). The theory also identifies three types of nursing systems required for meeting the patient’s self-care requisites. These classifications include:

  1. Wholly compensatory systems: the nurse compensates for the patient’s complete inability to engage in self-care processes,
  2. Partly compensatory systems: both the patient and the nurse take various care measures and other actions associated with ambulation and manipulative tasks.
  3. Supportive-educative systems: used in situations when a patient has the capacity to perform the necessary self-care measures, although, they cannot do so without help (Orem, 2001).

To conclude the overview of Orem’s nursing theory, it is important to mention the significant assumptions included in the framework. As noted by Orem, people should be responsible and self-reliant when it comes to their own care as well as their family members in need of care. The second assumption of the self-care theory is that people are distinct individuals who have different expectations when being placed in the center of care (Rajani, 2013). Third, nursing is an action, which is based on interactions between two or more people. Fourth, a successful meeting of the necessary self-care requisites of the patient is a crucial component for making sure that ill health is prevented through primary care. Fifth, a patient’s knowledge of the precise health issues that may occur is essential for establishing and promoting self-care behaviors and practices. Lastly, both self-care and dependent systems are practices that individuals learn within a sociocultural context.

Relevance

Dorothea Orem’s model explains that when a patient possesses self-care capabilities that do not align with the necessary level, a nurse can compensate for that deficit. However, more often than not, Orem put the responsibility of care on the patient, which points to the idea that one’s health drastically depends on whether an individual is attentive to his or her health, and whether he or she is willing to cooperate with the nurse to create a beneficial environment for health management. If to connect the theorist with the theory, the fact that Dorothea Orem predominantly worked as a curriculum consultant at nursing schools, universities, and colleges explains her development of the self-care that is focused on the education of the patient.

With regard to the relevance of the theory to patients and the sphere of healthcare, the encouragement and the promotion of self-care practices are essential for creating an environment for effective care. It is important to understand that without the involvement of the patient (either emotional or actual), the provision of appropriate healthcare services will be nearly impossible. When patients are educated and provided with the necessary information on how to exercise their personal care, the chances of them having better health outcomes tend to be higher.

Dorothea Orem’s theory of self-care is also relevant for the available and future research and nursing practice. Researchers have already investigated the influence of the applied self-care theory on different health outcomes; for example, Apay, Capik, Nazik, and Ozdemir (2015) studied the effect of care given using Orem’s self-care model on the postpartum self-evaluation. However, the aspects of the theory still require investigation and analysis, especially in the context of creating an environment in which patients can achieve improved health outcomes through self-care.

Summary

In conclusion, it is important to mention that Orem’s theory was successful in providing both patients and nurses with a comprehensive basis for nursing practice in different fields and areas. Furthermore, the theory of self-care can be applied to the sphere of nursing for anyone ranging from beginning to advanced practitioners. Another strength of the theory is its support for the implementation of the Nursing Process that involves both practical and intellectual components.

When it comes to the weaknesses of Orem’s self-care theory, there is some ambiguity in the application of the theory due to its somewhat limited nature; it does not support or explain all aspects of nursing care. For instance, the self-care deficit component of the theory does not include all aspects of care a specific individual may require. If to provide an example, some confusion associated with Orem’s theory is linked to the lack of a clear definition of the family’s role, the relationship between nurses and the society, as well as the education of the public about the importance of self-care.

Such issues are important in the development of an effective plan for patient care. Lastly, it is noteworthy that throughout Dorothea Orem’s work and theory development, there was a lack of recognition of the emotional needs of the patient as well as what those emotional needs entailed. This means that Orem focused on physical care without addressing the psychological care of the patient. However, other theorists such as Jean Watson managed to account for this limitation through her Theory of Caring.

References

Apay, S., Capik, A., Nazik, E., & Ozdemir, F. (2015). The effect of the care given usıng Orem’s self-care model on the postpartum self-evaluation. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(2), 393-403.

Catalano, J. (2015). Nursing now! Today’s issues, tomorrow’s trends (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.

Meleis, A. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress (5th ed.). Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer.

Orem, D. (2001). Nursing concepts of practice. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.

Rajani, S. (2013). Compare & contrast of Roy and Orem’s nursing theory. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development, 2(8), 237-240.

Childhood Obesity In The USA

Topic

Childhood obesity in the USA: What are the possible causes of obesity in children? What are the associated problems? How does childhood obesity affect USA as a whole? How can we reduce childhood obesity in the USA? What has the USA government done to reduce childhood obesity?

Topic Importance

Obesity is a condition where one becomes overweight. When I was at the age of 7, I was affected by this condition. This condition had so much effect on my daily life. I faced rejection and mockery from my age mates. This lowered my self-esteem and confidence. I was not able to face my real life until one day when I met one of my teachers who motivated me. She encouraged me that one day I might be able to help kids in my position if I worked hard. She advised that proper diet and physical exercises were the major issues to address for a better future.

As a nurse, the topic is very applicable in my career and day-to-day activities. The increase in the rate of obesity has led to increased encounters with obese kids and adolescents. The knowledge of causes, effects, consequences, and challenges faced by these kids helps me to give correct and proper medical care as well as advice the affected and non-affected people to prevent and cure obesity (Choudhry, & Rahmanou, 2007). This research will help me to take care of myself, my family and my children to stay free from this global threat. By writing my research findings, I hope to spread information creating awareness about obesity with respect to its causes, effects, and prevention. I am hoping to reach as much audience as possible.

Research

In children, obesity has raised a major concern in health issues within the USA. Gene interactions, type of diet, physical exercises, and environmental factors are some of the factors that contribute to the occurrence and severity of the obese condition. Some of the problems associated with obesity in children and adolescents include early puberty in females, diabetes type 2, problems during metabolism, and developing the overweight condition during adulthood (Bouchard, 2000). Currently, the fatal obese condition is caused by a high intake of energy, which is, in turn, used up in low amounts leading to pilling up of energy calories.

Audience

Childhood obesity has become a health threatening issue. The rate of obesity continually increases. As I write this article I hope to address every parent, child, and adolescent who is affected or not and is capable of reading it. I aim at reaching every citizen to inform and educate them about this great hazard. As one of the people who have been faced by this challenge I understand the pains it causes. I am part of these readers and hope to get close to them so as to fight obesity in our children so as to create a better future for our children and the nation as a whole.

The audience will be motivated to read my article because obesity has turned out to be a current issue which everybody wants to work together to get rid of in the society. The need to know what causes and how to prevent childhood obesity will drive them to reading it. I will use the first person (I) so that my audience can feel that am part, and I am ready to assist when needed. I will inform them about my experiences to assure them that obesity can be handled if people work together.

Larger topic

The rate of childhood obesity has been increasing to become an international problem. The condition is being associated with consumption of junk foods (Basavanthappa, 2008). If people stop consuming junk foods with the rate drop, energy will balance and prevent obesity. People should engage in activities which help to raise their energy expenditure. Children should be involved in physical activities to prevent fat deposits within the body. They can participate in games, athletics, or community projects. The children affected should avoid consuming foods with high amounts of calories like fatty foods. Parents should ensure that their children do regular physical exercises for energy balance and body maintenance.

References

Basavanthappa, (2008). Community health nursing. S.l.: Jaypee Bros. Medical P.

Bouchard, C. (2000). Physical activity and obesity. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics.

Choudhry, K., & Rahmanou, H. (2007). Childhood obesity in Baltimore City: assessment and recommendations to the Baltimore City Health Commissioner. Cambridge, Mass.: John F. Kennedy School of Government.

The Situational Leadership Model

Situational leadership is one of the most commonly used leadership models in the contemporary world. Its history is rather short; however, its impact and effectiveness boost its popularity among some of the best business leaders today.

As business environments became more intense and densely populated, business leaders started to experience the need for a more adaptive and flexible style of leadership that would allow them to match their decision-making process, actions, and solutions to the unique situations faced on a daily basis. As a result, at the end of the 1960s when the consumerism patterns were on the rise, thus making the business segment especially active and dynamic in the capitalist world, the situational leadership model came into existence.

The theory for this model was developed by Dr. Paul Hearsey for the purpose of enabling leaders of various kinds and levels to impact their followers and subordinates in a more effective manner (“Situational leadership,” n.d.). According to this model, based on the evaluation of such factors as the followers’ need for guidance, readiness to work on a certain assignment, and the amount and quality of socio-emotional support given by the leader, the latter could decide which style matched the situation the most. In total, Hearsey outlined four of such styles – telling, selling, participating, and delegating (Dems, 2010; Spahr, 2015).

It is very difficult to identify the exact individual or individuals who are known as the first ones to practice situational leadership. This model is relatively new, and it emerged in modern times where many powerful business leaders compete for influence and income maximization.

Today, the situational leadership model is known as Hearsey-Blanchard Theory of situational leadership due to the contribution of Ken Blanchard, a well-known leadership expert and book author (“Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory,” 2016). The guidance for this theory involves such steps as the identification of the priority tasks, the evaluation of the followers’ ability and readiness to perform the expected duties, and the selection of the most suitable style based on the scheme offered by Hersey (“The situational leadership model,” n.d.).

A good example of situational leadership in action that can be found in the contemporary world of business is a leader working with two types of employees – the experienced professionals and the newly recruited interns. Such a leader will vary his or her style depending on how much supervision and guidance the employees require and switch between delegating and directing styles according to the level of experience of his subordinates.

In this paper, the choice fell on this particular model of leadership due to the fact that it is considered one of the most relevant to the contemporary business settings where the leaders have to work with a variety of changing scenarios and many different teams of employees whose levels of performance and autonomy tend to vary. Naturally, the exploration of this theory is going to be very helpful for any future leader as it presents a detailed scheme according to which decision-making process can be regulated in order to match the needs of both the leaders and their subordinates.

Situational leadership has a set of limitations and applies mainly to the leaders whose positions allow more freedom and variations in styles and solutions (“Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory,” 2016). Also, this model was criticized for very brief definitions of the styles and a limiting set of factors for a leader’s decision making that does not fit many unique scenarios (McCleskey, 2014). However, it applies very well to the problem of integrating the new employees into the workplace.

References

Dems, K. (2010). A look at the situational leadership model. Web.

Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory. (2016).

McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 117-130.

Situational leadership. (n.d.). Web.

The situational leadership model. (n.d.).

Spahr, P. (2015). What is situational leadership? How flexibility leads to success.

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