Dozed: A Sole Incorporated Trader Sample Essay

Dozed is a sole trader incorporated a company named ‘Sleepy Head Pity Ltd’ five years later after hole insured the business against fire or burglars to Risk Ltd. In February 2013, the company want to purchase the business from Dozed and the purchase price is consists of company shares and debentures secured over the assets of the company. Dozed became a shareholder and secured director of Sleepy Head Pity Ltd, workers compensation insurance taken out by him with Combo Ltd. In June 201 3, theft happened in company and Dozed got hurt when he try to find some stock back.

The company is insolvent and has liquidation due to financial crisis. Legal issues: Sleepy Head Pity Ltd is insolvent and cannot pay their unsecured creditors. Liquidator states that Dozens claim has been rejected. Insurance company also reject Dozens claim about his medical costs and company also won’t get the claim on their stolen stocks. Relevant case law: According to the case Salomon v Salomon & Company Ltd [1897] AC 21, one of the central principles of company law is company is a separate legal entity and is separate from its shareholders, directors and founder.

As decision states n Mascara v Northern Assurance Co Ltd [1925] AC 6192, there is a distinction between personal and company assets. Lee v Lee’s Air Farming Ltd [1961] AC 123 shows that a controlling shareholder or a director can contract with the company. Legal principles and legal reasons: Dozed can enforce his charge (security) against Sleepy Head Pity Ltd. The company actually can be treated as a separate legal entity from its members. The process of registration under the Corporations Act can be applied to distinguish whether the company set up legally and has separate independent personality.

As Sleepy Head Pity Ltd is validly registered with ASIA, it is in accordance with law process and is a legal entity. The company actually became a ‘person’ legally and different from Dozed. It has own rights and obligations and takes responsibilities with independent capital. The company and its members are two entities, adjusting company structure has no internal relationship with existence of company. Once the company independent on property, management, rights and responsibilities, it possess corporate personality no matter how many people control or own it.

In Salmon’s case, Salomon not only the only shareholder but also as a secured creditor with secured debentures, he has dual roles in his company, when they do the liquidation, company must pay the debts as an independent entity take responsibility of its property, Salomon can get claims as a secured creditor. In this case, Dozed is same like Salomon has dual roles in company. Because Sleepy is an separate legal entity, the debts under company’s name should be pay back by company, not by the founder or shareholders or anyone else, regardless of whether the shareholder is also a creditor.

Above all, Dozed as an secured creditor can get claims when company during liquidation process. Dozed can enforce the claim of Sleepy Head Pity Ltd against Risk Ltd to recover the value of the goods stolen if he transferred insurance to company. Dozed insure the business when he is a sole trader, the insurance policy is held by Dozed but he had no ‘insurable interest’ in Sleepy Head Pity Ltd. If Dozed did not transfer the insurance after he sale his business, the company’s assets are belong to company, not owned by creditors or shareholders.

The company as a separate legal entity not has any insurance policy with Risk Ltd under company’s name. In Section 124, a company can own its property in its own right and is a separate legal entity. In this case, company not insured with Risk Ltd against fire and theft because Dozed only insured his business when it is not a company. Therefore, the company cannot get claims from Risk Ltd to recover the stolen goods. Dozed can enforce his claim against Combo Ltd for the payment of his medical bills.

The company is a separate legal person distinct from its members, so it can have contract with its members, even if the member act in dual capacities as shareholder and creditor. Sleepy Head Pity Ltd had workers compensation insurance policy with Combo Ltd after incorporation, and Dozed is one of the company’s employees. It means the company already has contractual relationship with Dozed that insure the time he is at work. Dozed get injured when he retrieve goods on a ladder, Combo Ltd should give the claims of his medical costs because he has workers compensation insurance.

Question 2 In this case, we need to find out the best business structure suitable for Lee. Because he is plan to expand his business, look at each business structure to get a best one for him. There are four major business structures, sole trader, readership, company and trust. Sole trader is simple for director to control and as a sole business owner of entire money and business. That’s why Lee can use his own profit to buy himself a car and home. There are minimal statutory or legal requirements that need to be adhered to when a person is a sole trader.

However, if Lee’s business goes bankruptcy, he will lose everything including his own house and car. Lee has unlimited liabilities and also tax issues need to consider. A sole trader is taxable on the actual profits of the business as part of his personal income tax return at he personal rate of income and not just on the funds you withdraw. The ability to raise capital is limited. Partnership is belonging to two or more person engaging in business together. It is referred to as a ‘strategic alliance’.

All the partners share the responsibilities and risks even the liabilities involved in running a business. The partnership pays no tax though it must still lodge a tax return. However, when complications arise, without a partnership agreement, partnership can be difficult to dissolve, each partner is jointly and severally liable for the partnership’s debt. Partners also bears unlimited liabilities and will lose their own assets as it is with sole proprietorships. Company may cost Lee hundred dollars for the registration and other professional fees.

Once set up, a company is classified in law as a separate legal entity from its owners and shareholders. This effectively means in most circumstances, the shareholders of a company have limited liability from all the debts of the company. If the business goes broke they can only lose the value of the capital they have invested. Company in general also tends to give a better impression of an established business. The owner of a company can be easily identified and some record of the performance of the company is usually publicly available from the Companies Registration Office.

This does give a level of comfort to anyone who may wish to deal with the company. There are many tax advantages to a company. For example, money not withdrawn in the form of wages, is subject to corporation tax. There are also incentive schemes where new start up company is exempt from corporation tax and very large tax savings for corporate pension schemes. A trust is one of the most complex structures, as law does not recognize it as a gal entity. It can be a legal obligation binding a person to deal with property of others.

Most legal dealings are with the trustee who control the assets and complies with the terms of the trust deed and applicable law. There are different types which have been tailored to numerous purposes, and they are uniquely appropriate in some cases. In this case, Lee is going to marry and has children soon, so it will cost a lot of money to create a wedding and raise children. The best business structure for him to change may company. It is a common route when a new business is ensure of how large it will grow and whether the saving will outweigh the costs.

The following reasons are why he can thinks about being a company. Firstly, in some sectors, such as IT, it is hard to obtain contracts unless he trade through a company. Second, if he is taking risks such as ordering a large amount of stock for an order that could be cancelled, then there can eve a real benefit in the limited liability offered by trading as a company. Lee’s family won’t be affected by the liabilities. His own personal possessions are generally protected from any claim against the company.

Thirdly, there is more flexibility in handling Lee’s remuneration in such a way as to minimize the tax liability. This has become more apparent, making company an increasingly attractive option.

Turing Machines And Universes Research Paper

Turing Machines And Universes Essay, Research Paper

Sam Vaknin ’ s Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web SitesIn 1936 an American ( Alonzo Church ) and a Briton ( Alan M. Turing ) published independently ( as is frequently the happenstance in scientific discipline ) the rudimentss of a new subdivision in Mathematics ( and logic ) : computability or recursive maps ( subsequently to be developed into Automata Theory ) .

The writers confined themselves to covering with calculations which involved? effectual? or? mechanical? methods for happening consequences ( which could besides be expressed as solutions ( values ) to formulae ) . These methods were so called because they could, in rule, be performed by simple machines ( or human-computers or human-calculators, to utilize Turing’s unfortunate phrases ) . The accent was on finitude: a finite figure of instructions, a finite figure of symbols in each direction, a finite figure of stairss to the consequence. This is why these methods were useable by worlds without the assistance of an setup ( with the exclusion of pencil and paper as memory AIDSs ) . Furthermore: no penetration or inventiveness were allowed to? interfere? or to be portion of the solution seeking procedure.

What Church and Turing did was to build a set of all the maps whose values could be obtained by using effectual or mechanical computation methods. Turing went farther down Church’s route and designed the? Turing Machine? ? a machine which can cipher the values of all the maps whose values can be found utilizing effectual or mechanical methods. Therefore, the plan running the TM ( =Turing Machine in the remainder of this text ) was truly an effectual or mechanical method. For the initiated readers: Church solved the decision-problem for propositional concretion and Turing proved that there is no solution to the determination job associating to the predicate concretion. Put more merely, it is possible to? turn out? the truth value ( or the theorem position ) of an look in the propositional concretion? but non in the predicate concretion. Later it was shown that many maps ( even in figure theory itself ) were non recursive, intending that they could non be solved by a Turing Machine.

No 1 succeeded to turn out that a map must be recursive in order to be efficaciously calculable. This is ( as Post noted ) a? working hypothesis? supported by overpowering grounds. We don? T know of any efficaciously calculable map which is non recursive, by planing new TMs from bing 1s we can obtain new efficaciously calculable maps from bing 1s and TM computability stars in every effort to understand effectual calculability ( or these efforts are reducible or tantamount to TM estimable maps ) .

The Turing Machine itself, though abstract, has many? existent universe? characteristics. It is a design for a computing device with one? ideal? exclusion: its boundless memory ( the tape is infinite ) . Despite its hardware visual aspect ( a read/write caput which scans a planar tape inscribed with 1s and nothings, etc. ) ? it is truly a package application, in today’s nomenclature. It carries out instructions, reads and writes, counts and so on. It is an zombi designed to implement an effectual or mechanical method of work outing maps ( finding the truth value of propositions ) . If the passage from input to end product is deterministic we have a classical zombi? if it is determined by a tabular array of chances? we have a probabilistic zombi.

With clip and ballyhoo, the restrictions of TMs were forgotten. No 1 can state that the Mind is a TM because no 1 can turn out that it is engaged in work outing merely recursive maps. We can state that TMs can make whatever digital computing machines are making? but non that digital computing machines are TMs by definition. Possibly they are? possibly they are non. We do non cognize plenty about them and about their hereafter.

Furthermore, the demand that recursive maps be estimable by an UNAIDED homo seems to curtail possible equivalents. Inasmuch as computing machines emulate human calculation ( Turing did believe so when he helped build the ACE, at the clip the fastest computing machine in the universe ) ? they are TMs. Functions whose values are calculated by AIDED worlds with the part of a computing machine are still recursive. It is when worlds are aided by other sorts of instruments that we have a job. If we use mensurating devices to find the values of a map it does non look to conform to the definition of a recursive map. So, we can generalise and state that maps whose values are calculated by an AIDED homo could be recursive, depending on the setup used and on the deficiency of inventiveness or penetration ( the latter being, anyhow, a weak, non-rigorous demand which can non be formalized ) .

Quantum mechanics is the subdivision of natural philosophies which describes the microcosm. It is governed by the Schrodinger Equation ( SE ) . This SE is an merger of smaller equations, each with its ain infinite co-ordinates as variables, each depicting a separate physical system. The SE has legion possible solutions, each refering to a possible province of the atom in inquiry. These solutions are in the signifier of wavefunctions ( which depend, once more, on the co-ordinates of the systems

and on their associated energies ) . The wavefunction describes the chance of a atom ( originally, the negatron ) to be inside a little volume of infinite defined by the aforesaid co-ordinates. This chance is relative to the square of the wavefunction. This is a manner of stating: ? we can non truly predict what will precisely go on to every individual atom. However, we can anticipate ( with a great step of truth ) what will go on if to a big population of atoms ( where will they be found, for case ) . ?

This is where the first of two major troubles arose:

To find what will go on in a specific experiment affecting a specific atom and experimental scene? an observation must be made. This means that, in the absence of an observing and mensurating human, flanked by all the necessary measuring instrumentality? the result of the wavefunction can non be settled. It merely continues to germinate in clip, depicting a dizzyingly turning repertory of options. Merely a measuring ( =the engagement of a human or, at least, a measurement device which can be read by a homo ) reduces the wavefunction to a individual solution, collapses it.

A wavefunction is a map. Its Real consequence ( the choice in world of one of its values ) is determined by a human, equipped with an setup. Is it recursive ( TM computable and compatible ) ? In a manner, it is. Its values can be efficaciously and automatically computed. The value selected by measuring ( therefore ending the extension of the map and its development in clip by zeroing its the other footings, saloon the one selected ) is one of the values which can be determined by an effective-mechanical method. So, how should we handle the measuring? No reading of quantum mechanics gives us a satisfactory reply. It seems that a probabilistic zombi which will cover with semi recursive maps will undertake the wavefunction without any discernable troubles? but a new component must be introduced to account for the measuring and the ensuing prostration. Possibly a? boundary? or a? ruinous? zombi will make the fast one.

The position that the quantum procedure is estimable seems to be farther supported by the mathematical techniques which were developed to cover with the application of the Schrodinger equation to a multi-electron system ( atoms more complex than H and He ) . The Hartree-Fok method assumes that negatrons move independent of each other and of the karyon. They are allowed to interact merely through the mean electrical field ( which is the charge of the karyon and the charge distribution of the other negatrons ) . Each negatron has its ain wavefunction ( known as: ? orbital? ) ? which is a rendering of the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

The job starts with the fact that the electric field is unknown. It depends on the charge distribution of the negatrons which, in bend, can be learnt from the wavefunctions. But the solutions of the wavefunctions require a proper cognition of the field itself!

Therefore, the SE is solved by consecutive estimates. First, a field is guessed, the wavefunctions are calculated, the charge distribution is derived and fed into the same equation in an ITERATIVE procedure to give a better estimate of the field. This procedure is repeated until the concluding charge and the electrical field distribution agree with the input to the SE.

Recursion and loop are close cousins. The Hartree-Fok method demonstrates the recursive nature of the maps involved. We can state the SE is a partial derived function equation which is solvable ( asymptotically ) by loops which can be run on a computing machine. Whatever computing machines can make? TMs can make. Therefore, the Hartree-Fok method is effectual and mechanical. There is no ground, in rule, why a Quantum Turing Machine could non be constructed to work out SEs or the resulting wavefunctions. Its particular nature will put it apart from a classical Thulium: it will be a probabilistic zombi with ruinous behavior or really strong boundary conditions ( kindred, possibly, to the mathematics of stage passages ) .

Classical TMs ( CTMs, Turing called them Logical Computing Machines ) are macroscopic, Quantum TMs ( QTMs ) will be microscopic. Possibly, while CTMs will cover entirely with recursive maps ( effectual or mechanical methods of computation ) ? QTMs could cover with half-effective, semi-recursive, probabilistic, ruinous and other methods of computations ( other types of maps ) .

The 3rd degree is the Universe itself, where all the maps have their values. From the point of position of the Universe ( the equivalent of an infinite TM ) , all the maps are recursive, for all of them there are effective-mechanical methods of solution. The Universe is the sphere or set of all the values of all the maps and its very being warrants that there are effectual and mechanical methods to work out them all. No determination job can be on this graduated table ( or all determination jobs are positively solved ) . The Universe is made up merely of proven, demonstrable propositions and of theorems. This is a reminder of our finitude and to state otherwise would, certainly, be rational amour propre.

Growth Of AirAsia Berhad

AirAsia Berhad is well-known as Asia’s largest low-cost airline, offering scheduled domestic and international flights. The Malaysian company stands out for its low fares and no frills approach.

AirAsia, the pioneering airline in Asia, was the first to offer budget flights and ticketless travel without assigned seats. However, as of February 5th, 2009, AirAsia along with its sister airlines Indonesia AirAsia and Thai AirAsia have adopted assigned seating for all their flights. The main hub for this airline is located at the Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA).

AirAsia, Thai AirAsia, and Indonesia AirAsia have hubs at Suvarnabhumi Airport in Thailand and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Indonesia. The registered office of AirAsia is located in Petaling Jaya, Selangor, while its head office is based on the premises of Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Sepang, Selangor. In 2010, Air Asia received the esteemed recognition as the world’s best low-cost airline. It was established in 1993 and began operations on November 18th, 1996.

Originally, the government-owned conglomerate DRB-Hicom founded the airline. However, on 2 December 2001, former Time Warner executive Tony Fernandes’s company Tune Air Sdn Bhd acquired the heavily-indebted airline for only one ringgit. This purchase followed careful consideration as the initial offer was fifty sen. Fernandes then orchestrated an impressive turnaround, achieving profitability in 2002 and rapidly introducing new routes from Kuala Lumpur International Airport. By offering promotional fares as low as RM1, AirAsia effectively competed with Malaysia Airlines, the former monopoly operator. Additionally, in 2003, AirAsia established a second hub at Senai International Airport in Johor Bahru, near Singapore, and commenced its first international flight to Bangkok.

AirAsia has expanded its operations by establishing a Thai subsidiary, including Singapore as a destination, and initiating flights to Indonesia. In June 2004, they commenced flights to Macau, while flights to Xiamen in Mainland China and Manila in the Philippines began in April 2005. Later in 2005, flights to Vietnam and Cambodia were introduced, followed by flights to Brunei and Myanmar in 2006, operated by Thai AirAsia. On 23 March 2006, Kuala Lumpur International Airport opened a pioneering budget terminal, the first of its kind in Asia.

The Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) was built for RM108 million and spans 35,000 square metres (116,000 square feet). It currently serves as Air Asia Bhd’s headquarters. Initially, the LCCT handled 10 million passengers each year. In 2007, it is estimated that Air Asia Group will transport 18 million passengers. However, the airline has not yet paid the collected airport taxes to the terminal owner for reasons unknown.

Air Asia is a low-cost airline that operates with an incredibly low unit cost of US$0.023 per ASK (Available Seat Kilometer). They have a passenger break-even load factor of 52%, meaning they need to fill 52% of their seats in order to cover costs. Air Asia has also hedged all of their fuel requirements for the next three years. Additionally, they have an impressive aircraft turnaround time of just 25 minutes and a crew productivity level that is three times higher than that of Malaysia Airlines. They also achieve an average aircraft utilization rate of 13 hours per day. It’s worth noting that Air Asia is currently the biggest purchaser of Airbus A320s, with a fleet consisting of this aircraft model.

The company has ordered 175 units of the A320 plane in order to service its routes. At least 50 of these planes will be operational by 2013. The first unit of the plane arrived on December 8, 2005. In August 2006, Air Asia took over Malaysia Airlines’ Rural Air Service routes in Sabah and Sarawak, operating under the Fly Asian Xpress brand. However, the routes were transferred back to a new Malaysia Airlines subsidiary in East Malaysia, MA Swings, in August 2007 due to their impact on profits.

Asian Expansion: On 27 December 2006, Air Asia’s CEO Tony Fernandes announced a five-year plan to strengthen its presence in Asia. This plan includes improving its route network by connecting existing cities in the region and expanding into Indochina, Indonesia, Southern China (Kun Ming, Xiamen, Shenzen), and India. Air Asia will focus on developing its hubs in Bangkok and Jakarta through its sister companies, Thai Air Asia and Indonesia Air Asia. As a result of increased frequency and new routes, Air Asia anticipates reaching a passenger volume of 18 million by the end of 2007.

In September 2007, Air Asia’s Kuala Lumpur hub started using only A320s. Thai Air Asia also got its first Airbus A320 in October 2007. Indonesia Air Asia received its initial Airbus by January 2008. Furthermore, on April 5, 2007, Air Asia formed a three-year partnership with the British Formula One team AT&T Williams. The airline brand is prominently displayed on the helmets of Nico Rosberg and Alexander Wurz, as well as on the bargeboards and nose of the cars.

In September 27, 2008, Air Asia revealed plans to expand its current list of 60 routes with the addition of 106 new routes in the future. The specific number of routes that will be discontinued is currently unknown. Additionally, on November 12, 2008, Air Asia achieved a significant milestone by becoming the first airline globally to eliminate fuel surcharges.

In May 2008, Air Asia achieved a major accomplishment of transporting 55 million passengers. By 2010, it had gained recognition as the most cost-effective airline worldwide, offering fares below 2 cents per seat per kilometer. This success naturally led to an increase in its popularity.

Nonetheless, Air Asia received criticism from disabled passengers associated with the BEAT ‘The Barrier-Free Environment and Accessible Transport Group.’ These individuals voiced their opposition to the airline’s practice of refusing boarding to passengers who are completely immobile.

The protesters, led by Christine Lee, the group’s coordinator, claimed that disabled people were being discriminated against when booking Air Asia tickets online. They stated that there was an icon on the website asking if the ticket purchaser needed “special assistance”. If the passenger clicked “yes”, they were unable to proceed with the booking. Additionally, Lee mentioned that Air Asia charged RM12 for renting a wheelchair, which disabled passengers could use from the ticketing counter to the departure hall. In an interview with Malaysia’s Daily Express, Air Asia CEO Datuk Tony Fernandes denied turning away wheelchair users.

Air Asia charges RM12 Malaysian Ringgit for wheelchair service fees. Multiple consumerist groups have supported disabled and wheelchair-using travelers, advocating for changes in Malaysia’s anti-discrimination laws. One of these groups, the ‘Fly Air Asia? Not Me’ website, employs viral advertising to urge lawmakers for action. In 2007, the activist group utilized Air Asia’s sponsorship of the Williams Formula One Team and owner Sir Frank Williams’ use of a wheelchair to gain public attention and influence legislators and the airline. The extent of these groups’ success remains unclear.

Despite Air Asia’s claims to have a strong presence in Asia with over 100 routes across 11 countries, the airline has only provided ambulifts for disabled passengers in two hubs – Kuala Lumpur and Kota Kinabalu. In their Annual Report, Air Asia states their commitment to purchasing 225 Airbus A320 aircraft, but it does not specify any plans to improve accessibility for disabled passengers beyond the current ambulifts. This lack of action is disappointing to Peter Tan, a former assistant coordinator of BEAT and advocate for inclusive and accessible Malaysia, who highlights that despite promises from Air Asia’s CEO, disabled passengers continue to face discrimination from the airline.

After being required to sign an indemnity at Kota Kinabalu International Airport’s Terminal 2, which releases Air Asia from all liabilities, the passenger agreed to relinquish any rights to hold the airline responsible for damages, injuries, or other claims. Although Air Asia claims to have ‘No Admin Fee’, they have introduced several fees for services that other airlines offer for free. These fees include a seating fee for pre-selecting seats, a higher fee for ‘hot seats’ near the front or exits with priority boarding, a ‘convenience fee’ imposed for all payment methods other than direct debit (only available for certain Malaysian bank customers), marked-up airport tax charges, a fee for in-flight entertainment and seat-back video use, a checked luggage fee based on weight rather than number of bags (with additional charges for exceeding 15 kg if not pre-booked), charges for food, wheelchair usage, and an amenity kit consisting of a pillow, blanket, and eyeshade. AirAsia X is an associated company of Air Asia X Sdn.

Bhd. (formerly Fly Asian Xpress Sdn. Bhd.) operates as a franchise of AirAsia and provides long-haul services from Kuala Lumpur to Australia and China utilizing an Airbus A330-300.

The inaugural flight of Fly Asian Xpress was on 2 November 2007 to Gold Coast, Australia. Fly Asian Xpress was contracted by AirAsia to operate the Rural Air Service within Sabah and Sarawak, which were previously operated by Malaysia Airlines. FlyAsianXpress (FAX), a new airline, was established on 1 August 2006 and is privately owned by the management team of AirAsia. However, with the establishment of MASwings by Malaysia Airlines, FAX ceased all its rural air services on 1 October 2007 and shifted its focus to long-haul routes operated by AirAsia X.

In August 2007, Sir Richard Branson announced his intention to acquire a 20% stake in AirAsia X. The current CEO of AirAsia X is Azran Osman Rani. After gaining recognition in Britain through sponsorship of the FA England Referees, AirAsia X entered into a sponsorship agreement with the Oakland Raiders American Football team on 15 September 2009. Tune Hotels also form part of the AirAsia X brand portfolio.

com is a hotel chain founded by Air Asia CEO Dato’ Tony Fernandes. Currently, Tune Hotels operates hotels in Kuala Lumpur, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Penang, the Low Cost Carrier Terminal in Sepang, and Bali. Tune Money is Asia’s first “no-frills” online financial services portal, similar to Virgin Money. It offers life, home, and motor vehicle insurance, as well as prepaid credit cards.

Destinations [pic] [pic] AirAsia introduced its domestic route map in 2007, offering over 400 daily flights. The airline operates both domestically and internationally, serving Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Its international routes primarily depart from Kuala Lumpur and connect to various countries including Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan the UK and Vietnam.

AirAsia provides inflight services through its “Snack Attack” buy-on-board program for food and drinks. The airline is accredited by the KL Syariah Index and follows Shariah law regulations on regional Air Asia group flights. Therefore alcohol or pork is not served onboard these flights; however the policy does not apply to Air Asia X flights as they do offer wine and beer for sale.

Air Asia provides the option of reserving Skybus tickets in advance. These tickets are for a bus service from LCCT to Kuala Lumpur. If you decide to cancel your flight, the cost of purchased meals and Skybus tickets will not be refunded. It is important to note that passengers are not informed about this policy while purchasing these products. Additionally, Air Asia does not distribute any materials it deems as pornography.

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