Drug Dealing Reasons In East Harlem, New York City Sample Assignment

The excerpt from the work In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio by Philippe Bourgois introduces the reader to the problems of crack dealers in East Harlem, New York City. The researcher, a professor of anthropology, analyzes the reasons which make the inhabitants of a poor neighborhood engage in drug dealing.

The main idea of the work is that the primary reason for the existence of the underground (untaxed) economy, particularly the drug economy, is the social marginalization and alienation of some groups of people in the inner-city environment (Bourgois 232). What makes the argument more solid is that the researcher himself spent some time talking to the crack dealers of East Harlem and presented their opinions as evidence supporting his argument. Bourgois reports that the studied individuals wanted him to learn about their social alienation and struggle for survival rather than their drug-selling operations (Bourgois 232). The author also argues that not only economic problems push impoverished people into the crack trade but also the humiliation that they face from the middle class and well-to-do (Bourgois 236). Bourgois considers that wounded pride is an important factor that influences the choices and decisions of people, and the case of East Harlem crack dealers is no exception. He explains that male socialization makes impoverished men reluctant to seek low-paid jobs in customer service, thus making them look for income elsewhere (in the crack economy) to provide a living for themselves and often also women and children (Bourgois 235).

The problem presented and analyzed in this work can be placed into a broader sociological context. Bourgois explains that the problem is structural in nature: in the last several decades, the number of factory jobs in New York City has fallen dramatically while the job openings in the sphere of service have multiplied. For minorities and people from a disadvantaged background, getting a well-paid job in the sphere of service is much more challenging (for instance, it requires high education) than in the industry. To survive and preserve their dignity, disadvantaged people either quit legal jobs or combine them with illegal ones, such as selling drugs, even though the working conditions in the underground economy may be much worse than in the legal economy. The researcher also explains how gender-based socialization impacts an individual’s choice of the way to provide themselves a living. Having fulfilled a sociological analysis of the phenomenon, Bourgois concludes that an ethical and political reevaluation of the key sociological models and values is necessary to find a solution for the described problem.

In my opinion, it is highly important that Bourgois has included such significant factors as dignity and humiliation into his analysis. Researchers in anthropology and sociology often focus on economic factors and their connection with race and discrimination, which is surely needed for research, but they rarely bring up the problem of dignity, how it is impacted by gender-based socialization, and how it influences peoples’ lives along with other factors. In addition to this, Bourgois has performed a thorough and detailed analysis of the economic and social factors that have an impact on the lives of the inhabitants of East Harlem, which makes his work comprehensive and worthy of reading.

In conclusion, Philippe Bourgois has performed the analysis of economic, social, and psychological factors that make the inhabitants of a disadvantaged neighborhood choose jobs in the drug economy rather than in the legal economy. More research in this direction is needed to work out adequate political solutions for this problem.

Works Cited

Bourgois, Philippe. “In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio.” Mapping the Social Landscape: Readings in Sociology. Ed. Susan J. Ferguson. New York City, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. 231-242. Print.

Communication Plan For Cyclefest

There are a number of critical analyses of the communication plan for Cyclefest that are necessary to be conducted before the official launch of the event in the U.K. Cyclefest is an open area event that aims at taking advantage of the growing positive reputation of cycling and outdoor activities. The forms of analyses are the situational, promotional and SWOT analyses.

The situation analysis involves a look at the market of the Cyclefest event identifying the market environment to be favouring as no company has ever arranged a cycling event in the entire U.K. Furthermore, situation analysis highlights the expected consumers of this event, who are mostly male cyclists, and indicates that there is little competition in this market. Promotion analysis emphasises the necessary marketing strategies that are important in ensuring that the target market of the event is informed. Some of the recommended promotional strategies are advertising, particularly in social media, creating public relations, and continued radio and TV adverts.

On the other hand, SWOT analysis gives the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are associated with carrying out the event at the selected location. Cyclefest has the strength of zero competitors at the selected location for the event, while its most inevitable weakness is the lack of safety and security plans for those who will be participating in the event. The growing number of cyclists in the U.K presents Cyclefest with a huge opportunity for growth with its main threat being the possibility of the cycling event, not gaining the same traction as other outdoor events.

The target market is composed of local and international cyclists who are interested in cycling either as a hobby or as a sport. This paper also expounds on the marketing communication plan that aims at creating awareness among cyclists globally. The event will attract more participants as well as increase the Cyclefest’s market share. The suggested advertising platforms for the event are the use of magazines and newspapers, outdoor advertising, such as university campuses, radio and TV adverts for the international audience, creating a website for Cyclefest, and the social media. Attracting a good number of people is vital in ensuring the success of Cyclefest in the programme.

The creative strategy section of this paper recognises the use of the four cycling magazines that are currently the most popular in the U.K. YouTube videos will also be used in creating awareness about the event. This work also touches on the evaluation strategy that is employed by the Cyclefest team to determine the effectiveness of the overall marketing communication. It is another crucial component of Cyclefest in determining the level to which the cyclists would respond to the awareness efforts of the company.

The evaluation strategy explains how the team will evaluate market share and changes in visitor awareness programmes. There are basically three approaches that will be used in collecting data and evaluating results. First, there will be market research and survey aiming at collecting data on the suggestions for improvements in subsequent marketing programmes. Second, a media monitor will be created to determine the effectiveness of the media objectives and the media coverage used.

Third, the team will consider the impact of the website that is created for the event. The level of the website traffic will be a reflection of the number of cyclists who would be aware of the programme and would be considering subscribing to it. The budget calendar for the Cyclefest marketing communication plan is also included in this work. The budget calendar gives the estimates of the number of funds needed to facilitate the advertising and evaluation functions of the event. The total amount of the budget is about 15600 GBP, with advertising requiring the highest amount of capital to run.


Cycling is gradually gaining popularity in the U.K, and no other company has ever thought of cycling as a sport that can earn a good fortune when organised as an outdoor event. Cyclefest event organisers are dedicated to venturing into this great opportunity and with the diversity of activities and events being promoted by Cyclefest, it is expected that the company will build its image within a very short period. The market environment has zero competition, with many consumers both locally and internationally.

This event is useful to cyclists because it presents them with an opportunity to enjoy the sport as well as a way to utilise their skills in earning some income. The only serious threat that Cyclefest should address is the safety of cyclists while in the event. The marketing communication plan is well established with the aim of reaching cyclists worldwide. With the use of radio and TV, the firm will be able to popularise the event to various categories of potential consumers. Since the company has also put in place appropriate promotional strategies, the target market of the event is expected to experience the activity fully and finally build a good image of the company.

“Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder” By Bisson Et Al.


PTSD or posttraumatic stress disorder is a specific mental condition of a patient, which was provoked by a one-time or recurring strong external traumatic impact on the individual’s psyche. This adverse health condition can be caused by multiple reasons ranging from physical or sexual abuse to empathy to the sufferings of other people and so on. People experiencing the syndrome frequently undergo a variety of strong feelings that tend to be accumulated. The heightened anxiety that they experience is the result of the summoned memories of traumatic occurrences. Thus, health care specialists should address the complexity of the multi-faceted condition systematically.

In order to assess the contemporary perceptions of PTSD in terms of evidence-based medicine and practice, the peer-reviewed article Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by Bisson, Cosgrove, Lewis, and Roberts (2015) was reviewed and critically evaluated.


The authors claim that PTSD is a complicated mental condition in which the patient might experience physical sufferings as well. The patient has psychological attacks that evolve from facing the irritants. These irritants are often connected to the past memories of the individual that remind him or her of the traumatic event (Bisson et al., 2015). The intricacy of the disease is revealed in the fact that if the condition is not addressed sufficiently, the patient can develop adverse health complications.

According to the article results, patients tend to experience long-term nervous strain leading to insomnia or nightmares, and as a consequence of the unrest, such complications as cardiovascular, endocrine, or food disorders can emerge (Bisson et al., 2015). As per the research outcomes, “up to 3% of adults have PTSD at any one time” (Bisson et al., 2015, p. 1). However, due to the latency period, PTSD is rather difficult to diagnose to start the treatment immediately.

Article Critique

The authors of the article have conducted quite an extensive study. They have relied on the data from the latest meta-analyses of randomized trials (Bisson et al., 2015). However, they have focused on psychotherapy as the most functional means of treatment for PTSD patients. They argued that the syndrome could be eliminated with the help of a psychotherapist mainly (Bisson et al., 2015). However, many scientists point out that in complex or long-standing cases, a number of different medications and antidepressants can be appointed.

PTSD requires a holistic approach towards treatment due to the fact that the consequences of the syndrome can be both in the mental and physical deterioration of the patient.

The researchers have conducted a sufficient study on the health issue and supported their conclusions with the confirmed data. Nevertheless, they should have enhanced their conclusions related to medication through either statistical or research analysis to prove their point. The research article supported and broadened the existing perceptions on PTSD that is why I believe no follow-up is necessary. In general, the article was indeed informative, but it did not change my opinion on PTSD treatment since many of evidence-based studies have proved that the plan of care for such patients should be aimed at multimodality therapy.


PTSD is a complex condition that requires such intervention strategies that would accommodate each patient in the most effective way and allow reducing the negative consequences to the health status. Despite the fact that extensive research has been conducted on the issue, many people tend to experience the hidden post-traumatic syndrome. Thus, it is essential to raise awareness of the population regarding this illness and its consequences to ensure higher responsiveness.


Bisson, J., Cosgrove, S., Lewis, C., & Roberts, N. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder. BMJ, 351, 1-14. Web.

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