Drug Testing In California: Status, Effectiveness Sample Assignment

The implementation of drug testing programs has gained popularity amongst companies that aim to create safe spaces for their employees to work in. However, those who uphold this view see the practice as necessary though others criticize it for being unfair while arguing against its usefulness (Chakravarthy et al., 2021). Examining California’s policies regarding drug testing at work is the primary objective of this paper. Through examining the status of drug testing in California, we seek to determine its effectiveness and fairness.

Legal Framework:

The primary focus regarding drug testing regulations in California is the California Drug-Free Workplace Act (DFWA) of 1990, which establishes the framework for employer obligations when administering drug tests in the workplace. Employers operating in California, whether from the public or private sector, have to comply with the stipulations of DFWA. Still, there are some industry-specific or role-specific exclusions. However, employers within specific circumstances can conduct drug testing by the DFWA Act in California (Evans et al., 2014). Drug tests, including reasonable suspicion testing, should be conducted regularly for those working in safety-sensitive positions like pre-employment screening Testing for drugs may only be carried out on certain substances assigned under the law, such as marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines and opioids.

In order to maintain the precision and dependability of drug screening tests in California, all tests must be conducted by certified labs as mandated by the law. Specific strict procedures or protocols must be followed for the test results conducted in these laboratories to be valid. Maintaining privacy and confidentiality of drug testing records and results by limiting access to authorized personnel is compulsory for employers. Additionally, some employee protections and rights are outlined in the DFWA. The individuals who receive affirmative drug analysis results have the right to object and demand that an alternative authorized laboratory perform a retest.

Permissible Drug Testing Circumstances:

DFWA has defined particular circumstances that allow California employers to conduct drug testing. Various measures, such as pre-screening for new hires, post-work accident testing, and drug tests for people holding critical positions, are required to ensure an injury-free workplace. California law mandates both limited drug testing and the use of certified laboratories for such tests.

Employee Protections:

Certain conditions permit drug screening, but California also ensures employee rights through multiple protective measures. Strict regulations mandate that employers protect the privacy and confidentiality of drug test results. Besides, anyone who tests positive for drugs can question the results and request another examination. Besides this, it is against the rules to mistreat an employee due to their positive outcomes in drug tests.

Effectiveness of Drug Testing:

Estimating the effectiveness of drug tests is a complicated job. However, drug test proponents suggest this method is a deterrent for employees who might use harmful substances – an effective way to increase workplace health and safety. They believe it can help identify workforce members who may threaten their own or other people’s well-being by using drugs. However, some argue that drug tests cannot be trusted to indicate impairment and do not necessarily reflect on job performance (Kleinpeter, 2010). They recommend that rather than relying on conventional rehabilitation methods for addressing substance abuse issues, it is better to focus on alternative measures such as education or employee assistance programs

Fairness and Ethical Considerations:

Many people question the fairness of drug testing practices, while privacy advocates assert that drug screening breaches individual rights and may cause false positives or prejudicial behaviour. Testing is claimed to disproportionately affect minority groups, such as persons with disabilities or those taking prescribed drugs. On the other hand, champions assert that enforcing drug tests is a crucial precondition for securing workplace safety and efficiency, which overshadows individual privacy issues.

Warranted Measures:

Deciding if it is worth conducting a drug test involves assessing its benefits relative to the potential drawbacks. Employers have found that carrying out anti-doping tests is an excellent way of preventing substance abuse among their staff. However, there are concerns over its expenses, probable impacts on workers’ morale, and the likelihood of erroneous outcomes (Kleinpeter, 2010). Comprehensive approaches towards addressing substance abuse at work may involve drug testing combined with support programs that cater to the unique requirements of each organization

Conclusion:

Drug testing in California is subject to regulations outlined in the California Drug-Free Workplace Act. However, specific scenarios allow for the performance of drug testing among employees as long as such activity occurs in compliance with rigorous guidelines designed for maintaining fairness and keeping test results confidential. Arguments for and against the effectiveness of drug testing continue to be a topic for debate, and costs and privacy issues are essential considerations that need to be considered when deciding if drug testing is warranted. Balancing workplace safety and respecting individual rights is critical when creating effective drug testing policies.

References

Chakravarthy, K., Goel, A., Jeha, G. M., Kaye, A. D., & Christo, P. J. (2021). Review the current state of urine drug testing in chronic pain: still effective as a clinical tool and curbing abuse, or is it an arcane test? Current pain and headache reportspp. 25, 1–13.

Evans, E., Li, L., Urada, D., & Anglin, M. D. (2014). Comparative effectiveness of California’s Proposition 36 and drug court programs before and after propensity score matching. Crime & Delinquency60(6), 909–938.

Kleinpeter, C. B., Brocato, J., & Koob, J. J. (2010). Does drug testing deter drug court participants from using drugs or alcohol? Journal of Offender Rehabilitation49(6), 434-444.

Drugs And Alcohol Abuse College Campuses Essay Example For College

ABSTRACT

In the United States of America and the general international community, there has been a negative cause of modernity and globalization, especially in the tertiary institutions of education. Psychological, social, situational, and environmental factors have heightened the action of binge drinking and the abuse of prescription medications & hard drugs by college students on campuses. Nonetheless, there are intervention strategies adaptable to college campus students abusing alcohol and drugs (substances) that are facilitated to ensure that academic performance and the health status of the college students are preserved.

INTRODUCTION

The impact of using alcoholic beverages and other illegal drugs has been examined to be significant at the tertiary level of education. The colleges and university educational institutions in the United States of America and other nations have revealed that alcohol and substance abuse has been rampant, and various variables have caused the phenomenon to dominate student demography. Some college students indulge in binge drinking, especially in the United Kingdom. In contrast, there are college students in the United States of America who are hooked to the frequent use of marijuana and other hardcore drugs, with opioids being prevalent, with Fentanyl being popular as an anesthetic but has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an analgesic. Regardless of the substance abuse, it is significant that the use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal hardcore drugs such as crack cocaine has been prevalent in colleges.

Thesis Statement

To comprehend the humanistic concept of the use of alcohol and drugs, generalized as substance abuse, the synthesized chapters will highlight the scourge affecting college students. First, there are the examinable factors that influence or help propagate the use of both alcohol and drugs among college students on campus. Some are individual, as there is the psychological orientation and characterization of minds, others because of the environment and the newfound freedom. In contrast, other factors influencing alcohol and drug use are situational. Secondly, there will be an analysis of the effects of both alcohol and drug abuse on the student’s minds and bodies in the respective chapters. The final chapter will address the type of humanistic interventions adaptable to the individual; i.e., psychological, social, environmental, and situational causes of the prevailing detrimental substance-use scourge, which has affected college and university students; subsequently negatively affecting academic performance and overall health status.

DISCUSSION CRITIQUE & ANALYSIS


  • Chapter One: Alcoholism (Binge Drinking)

First, it is important to note that alcohol is an inebriating substance that has been legalized across the international society, and the legal age for drinking in the United States of America is 21 years, whereas, in most other countries, it is 18 years. Therefore, it is examinable that one of the fundamental factors that cause students in the college level of education to indulge is the widespread availability of the commodity. Alcohol is sold in convenience stores, the mall, and liquor stores. Additionally, all entertainment joints succeed and reap profits solely because of the amounts of alcohol which are sold every night; hence, it is justifiable that the prevalent use of alcohol in tertiary institutions is because of the availability to both junior and senior university students affecting their brain structures in the future (Tukhsanova., 2023). More so, the aspects of college life make sure that alcohol use is prevalent, especially with the newfound freedom, as there are the sororities with the examples of Kappa Alpha Theta and Alpha Kappa Alpha, for females, and fraternities with the examples of Alpha Phi Alpha and Pi Kappa Alpha, for males, which have been established in the United States of America and Canada. The social organizations have a history and are established to foster friendships and students’ lives and co-exist as a community. Such social organizations are enabling avenues where junior college students are introduced to binge drinking, especially during the perennial parties, which are often held for fun and are influential because of the Fear of Missing Out, i.e., F.O.M.O. (Elhai et al., 2020).

The situational factor of limited social interactions with adults, parents, and guardians causes the college to binge drink. Subsequently, there is a factor in inconsistent enforcement of law and order, especially when it comes to drinking by college students, and the tertiary institutions’ police officers do not effectively manage the stipulated underage drinking laws. A senior-year student will readily aid a junior student in accessing alcohol. Furthermore, there are fresher and sophomore parties, which are held constantly, and one of the main substances used to ensure people “ease up and have fun” is alcohol, leading to alcoholism in tertiary institutions of education. It is a universal fact, especially in the United States of America, that college students have a significantly higher rate of binge drinking because of the personal, situational, and environmental variables that enhance the use of alcohol. The recorded accidents of college students because of driving under the influence, especially during Spring Break, cannot be compared to adult demography and non-college peers.

The effects of the prevalent binge-drinking activities of students in the tertiary level of education are examinable on the behavior and psychological orientation of the students who are alcoholics. Additionally, when the students do not care about their nutrition, their physical state exposes their heavy drinking. The effects of alcoholism among the student demography are examined through the difficulty in remaining conscious (https://sunrisehouse.com/stop-drinking-alcohol/stages-intoxication/) and the inability to wake up and attend lectures when needed, especially because different years follow different timetables. In serious cases, there are comas and deaths on campus because of drinking stupor, which causes students to be excessively intoxicated, causing alcohol poisoning. In being binge drinkers, students are examined to go through all the stages of an alcoholic, i.e., Having a euphoric feeling as the students are “turnt up” and socialize easily while engaging in dangerous and daring antics for fear of Missing Out, i.e., F.O.M.O. (Elhai et al., 2020). There is unnecessary excitement as the behavior is overly friendly or overly rude. Then followed by confusion and disorientation, predominantly characterized by staggering and poor speech formulation as there is incoherency and slurring of words (https://sunrisehouse.com/stop-drinking-alcohol/stages-intoxication/). Then there is the stage of being in a stupor which, in most cases, students have a blackout and get to sleep anywhere on campus premises with little regard for their safety as the nervous system has been affected tremendously and the body parts lack coordination. The effects of alcohol poisoning, mostly examined by on-campus students, are continuous vomiting, slowed breathing, and inability to stay awake. If the alcohol is too much in the bloodstream, the intoxication causes alcohol-induced comas and, in extreme cases, death when there is an overdose (https://sunrisehouse.com/stop-drinking-alcohol/stages-intoxication/).

Furthermore, the effects of alcoholism on college students on campus entail poor performances in classes, and when being evaluated during tests, the student has low grades. It is important to note that alcohol degraded the brain cells, which are fundamental for all cognitive activities, including registering and storing new information, i.e., education. With alcoholism, there is the degrading of the brain cells, which occurs, and the neurons of the brain, which act similarly to the computer, cannot act normally and develop dementia (Tukhsanova., 2023). It is important to note that the brain is a complex organ controlling body parts. The neurons are communication pathways that facilitate the body’s unison functioning, which is why when a person is intoxicated due to binge drinking, there is a loss of control over speech and balance (Tukhsanova., 2023). The most affected part of the brain is that which deals with memory, and it is the sole reason why students in tertiary institutions do not remember the antics they were engaging in and essentially cannot remember anything (Tukhsanova., 2023) that they were taught during the lectures spread across the semester, in the final paper. The health of university students has also been affected negatively, with prevalent cases of college students having liver cirrhosis due to binge drinking.

Additionally, the increase in mouth and throat cancer has become prevalent among the youth because of strong drinks such as scotch, whiskeys, vodkas, and gins. Similarly, there are health concerns that have been heightened with binge drinking, such as digestive problems, which are caused by ulcers as heavy drinkers do not have an appetite making them malnourished. The lack of nutrition causes other diseases, such as high blood pressure, stroke, and heart disease, among the youth demographic on college campuses.


  • Chapter Two: Abuse of Prescription Medications & Hard Drugs

First, it is fundamental to note that drugs are of two kinds, and the youth student demographic in modern-day college campuses has been accustomed to abusing both prescription medications and hard drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, meth, and opium. Additionally, marijuana has become one of the most advertised and “accepted” psychoactive drugs due to its recreational and entheogenic purposes, as examined through the Rastafari and Hip-Hop Trap cultures. There is also the option of using Cannabis Sativa or Cannabis Indica, depending on the amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol needed to provide the user with euphoric feelings (Malabadi et al., 2023). Opium is the most prevalent new hard drug when students need a “higher high,” causing the rampant use of Morphine and Oxycontin across the United States of America and tranquilizers such as Xanax, historically meant for medical prescription and not recreational abuse.

Therefore, it is important to note that the primary factor that causes college students to abuse prescription medication, synthetic opioids, and hard drugs such as cocaine and meth is due to social and, specifically, peer influence, which is constant in all tertiary institutions of education. For instance, marijuana which is the typical starter drug is abused as a stimulant, especially because there is the myth that it makes one’s senses more alert with the stereotypes of hearing better or performing better, specifically in art students who are studying music and other forms of fine arts such as painting and sculpturing. The social pressures affect the psychological orientation of the students as one feels left out or the odd one out as the use of such drugs is done in cliques or “gangs” comprising friends. The Fear of Missing Out; F.O.M.O. (Elhai et al., 2020) is an influencing factor in colleges as students are curious and get to engage in drug-taking activities with the supplementary impact of peer pressure. It is critical to note that with college enrollment, there is the exemplary life advance that is symbolic with one transitioning from a “controlled adolescent” into independent, which starts as a junior adult, thus providing a leeway for one to need to engage in activities that will make one feel in control of own life which gives rise to rebellion characterized with substance abuse. Nonetheless, the Grade Point Average is significantly affected as one becomes academically dwarfed because of the psychological effects that the drugs have both on the mind and the body, especially Molly or Ecstasy, an empathogen and entactogen, which is a stimulant abused for recreational purposes, to increase energy, pleasure and heighten sensations, in fraternity and sorority parties.

Apart from the peer pressure, it is important to note that with modernization and globalization, the world is likened to a village, cultures have been adapted, and others have been merged, especially through music. Music is an important factor influencing students to engage in drug abuse, as they need to “look cool” in front of their peers. For example, reggae music from the Caribbean influences college students to abuse marijuana and with the stimuli being legalized in 22 states despite it being classified as a Schedule I drug. Additionally, the Rohrabacher-Farr amendment to the Federal American constitution protects marijuana users against prosecution as long as the culprits adhere to the state laws, as examined through the medical marijuana fight for the second amendment for liberty rights (Seligson., 2018). This factor has influenced most college students in the United States to engage in the abuse of cannabis. Therefore, college students in tertiary universities in California, Maine, Oregon, and Colorado can smoke weed as they please. More so, the pop, rock, and hip-hop community and their respective cultures have influenced the use of Codeine, cocaine, meth, nicotine products, and crack cocaine, which is relatively cheaper and accessible to students, and also the abuse of prescription tablets and synthetic opioids, where are prevalent in the modern American society. For instance, in the song Slippery by Migos and Gucci Mane, the artists openly promote the use of Codeine, opioids, tranquilizers, and percocets as examined through the lyrics,” Pop a perky just to start up (pop it, pop it pop it). Two cups of purple to warm up (two cups, drank)… Lean on rocks (Act). Perkys, mollies, xannies, rocks (roxies). Oxycontin (oxyies). Takeoff I’m your med doc (Takeoff!).” (Migos., https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tc2lwMfl1w., 2017)

The effects of abusing both prescription medications, such as tranquilizers, opioids, Percocets, molly, Codeine, and Xanax, and hard drugs, such as cocaine, nicotine, meth, and opium, have similar effects on college student abusers when compared to the effects of alcohol. There is a euphoric feeling as the students are “turnt up” and socialize easily while engaging in dangerous and daring antics during parties. There is unnecessary excitement as the behavior is overly friendly or overly rude. Then followed by confusion and disorientation, predominantly characterized by staggering and poor speech formulation as there is incoherency and slurring of words. Then there is the stage of being in a stupor which, in most cases, students have a blackout and get to sleep anywhere on campus premises with little regard for their safety as the nervous system has been affected tremendously and the body parts lack coordination. More so, there is the prevalence of drug-induced comas and, in extreme cases, death when there is an overdose, which is mostly realized because hard drugs and prescription drugs have more effect on the body when compared to alcohol. Cases of overdoses, especially because of the abuse of cocaine, tranquilizers, stimulants, empathogens, entactogens, and opioids, have become more prevalent within the youth demographic, especially the college students who go on Spring Break, where there is continuous partying for days.

Additionally, the issue of mental illnesses has become heightened in the 21st Century primarily because of the use of both prescription medications and hard drugs. The psychological effect of the substances is significant in modern society and has mostly affected the youth, most of whom are in tertiary institutions of education. For instance, there is an increased diagnosis of mental ailments such as anxiety, manic depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, characterized by a lack of concentration during lectures causing poor academic performance.


  • Chapter Three: Intervention Strategies Adaptable to College Campus Students Abusing Alcohol and Drugs (Substances)

Education and awareness programs on drug abuse are the first examined mechanism that is adaptable to the abuse of alcohol and drugs on college campuses. It is important to note that on the freshers’ registration day, most students have not actively indulged in binge drinking or partaking in the abuse of prescribed medication or hard drugs as they are fresh from high school (Jones et al., 2020). Therefore, it is crucial to propagate education in the new college students giving them the disadvantages of alcoholism and drug addiction to their academic performances, as reflected through their Grade Points Average, and their general physical and psychological wellness. It can be adapted with the curriculum so that the study on drug awareness is taken as a common unit irrespective of the undergraduate program that the student is enlisting in the respective campuses, which are spread throughout the United States of America. In the education and awareness program, the myths and stereotypical narratives on alcohol and drugs must be broken down so that the students comprehend the type of peer pressures and misinformation that may be offered to them by the senior students, who have already indulged and become addicted to either alcohol or other substances such as the abuse of prescription and hard drugs. The Fear of Missing Out must be handled so that the new college students acknowledge that tertiary institutions cannot repair all societal evils but can eradicate the evil of ignorance to end drug abuse (Jones et al., 2020). The administration, policymakers, and lecturers will provide the basics of avoiding falling into the alcohol and substance abuse trap.

Additionally, the Cognitive-Behavioral based approach is another mechanism that can be manipulated by counselors across all colleges so that the students reporting to the respective campuses know themselves. Through psychological therapy, students will get to acknowledge why they might fall into the trap of binge drinking or abusing prescription medication and hard drugs (Walker et al., 2019). As people come of age, the youth must comprehend that there are inherent thoughts and feelings which may lead to anxiety, stress, or depression, which are connected to the actions of substance abuse. There is a need to increase awareness so that students may comprehend their brains and how their feelings and actions may affect their behavior indirectly because of their cognitive orientations (Walker et al., 2019). There are individuals in society who smoke marijuana so that they can feel good about themselves, and others may fall into the trap of using mollies to change their introverted nature and become more sociable. It is a fact that the Cognitive-Behavioral approach will aid in managing and hence managing the rise of alcoholism and drug abuse because students choose addictive behaviors over healthy behaviors because of the expectations placed on them. For instance, a college student who is enrolled to do undergraduate courses such as medicine or engineering might have a hard time adapting to the needs of the course, making them have a stressful campus life, thus resulting in tranquilizers such as Xanax so that they can “slow down.”

The third adaptable mechanism to deal with the detrimental phenomenon of alcoholism and the abuse of prescription medication and hard drugs, such as cocaine and opium, by college students across the United States and other countries such as the United Kingdom is the; Behavioral Intervention approach facilitated by health professionals (Edalati et al., 2019). The style is adaptable to students who have already indulged in the abuse of alcohol and other substances. Hence, there is a need to prevent a relapse, especially because the students have stopped the abuse. Through social competence, the approach will be manipulated so that the college students will be supervised so that their behavior on and off campus is analyzed so that they cannot be socially influenced by others (Edalati et al., 2019). Therefore, the mechanism of alcohol and substance addiction will take a protective approach as the environment in modern times is quite influential in facilitating a relapse for an already rehabilitated student. Hence, the primary activity which will help to aid the Behavioral Intervention approach is behavioral therapies, in which the counselors will aim to change the conduct of the college students in a manner that life skills are taught to them so that the students can cope with the situational and environmental occurrences which may lead to further alcohol and substance misuse and relapse (Edalati et al., 2019). Behavioral therapies are psycho-social, so the variables addressed are substance-related problems that affect the treatment progress so that the drug abusers are reintegrated with the social structure and eliminate social alienation, which is constant in alcoholics and drug abusers.

The Motivation and Feedback-related approach to curbing alcohol (Mejía-Trujillo et al., 2023) and drug abuse is a justifiable mechanism adaptable to college students on campus. The model is adjustable, especially because it is solely founded on the circumstances that may cause one to either start, proceed or relapse to being a binge drinker or an abuser of prescribed medication or hard drugs to college students. Through social dynamics, the motive subtypes will be manipulated in a manner that there is the element of social coping. The students must cope with the environment and the situation, which is influenced by the newfound freedom, and realize that they must deal effectively with the difficulty of the presence of alcohol and drugs (Mejía-Trujillo et al., 2023). Therefore, there is the need to adapt to the situation present in the modern world and be motivated in a manner that their psychological and social attributes in a manner that both are enhanced and hence cannot conform to social pressures and, specifically, the Fear of Missing Out, i.e., F.O.M.O. (Elhai et al., 2020). The attributes of coping, being psychologically and socially enhanced, make the students not conform to the socio-cultural aspects, which are dominated by peer influences and social filths, which include getting high. The counselor’s feedback must be oriented around the fact that when one craves alcoholism and drug abuse, the student must not be compelled into engaging in such activities (Mejía-Trujillo et al., 2023). One must exercise the attribute of being in control of one’s urge to take alcohol or drugs because the consequences are generally poor health status, and there will be poor academic performance resulting in a low Grade Point Average.

Conclusion

With the examined factors influencing, and the resultant effects, of binge drinking and the abuse of prescription medication and hard drugs on poor academic performances and poor health status. There is a need to examine college students’ psychological, social, situational, and environmental management. Therefore, the approaches: Motivation and Feedback-related approach, Behavioral Intervention approach, Cognitive-Behavioral based approach, and Education and awareness programs on drug abuse; are necessary as intervention strategies adaptable to college campus students to minimize and manage the abuse of alcohol and drugs (substances).

References:

Edalati, H., & Conrod, P. J. (2019). A review of personality-targeted interventions for the prevention of substance misuse and related harm in community samples of adolescents. Frontiers in psychiatry9, 770.

Elhai, J. D., Yang, H., & Montag, C. (2020). Fear of missing out (F.O.M.O.): overview, theoretical underpinnings, and literature review on relations with the severity of negative affectivity and problematic technology use. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry43, 203-209.

https://sunrisehouse.com/stop-drinking-alcohol/stages-intoxication/

Migos – Slippery ft. Gucci Mane (Lyrics). 28 Jan 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tc2lwMfl1w

Jones, C. M., Clayton, H. B., Deputy, N. P., Roehler, D. R., Ko, J. Y., Esser, M. B., … & Hertz, M. F. (2020). Prescription opioid misuse and use of alcohol and other substances among high school students—Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 2019. MMWR supplements69(1), 38.

Kenneth Seligson. A Job for Congress: Medical Marijuana Patients’ Fight for Second Amendment Rights. (January. 2018). https://digitalcommons.law.ggu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2195&context=ggulrev

Malabadi, R. B., Kolkar, P., & Chalannavar, K. (2023). Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (T.H.C.): The major psychoactive component is of Botanical origin. International Journal of Innovation Scientific Research and Review5(3), 4177–4184.

Mejía-Trujillo, J., Pérez-Gómez, A., de Vries, H., & Mercken, L. (2023). Evaluating effects of IBEM-U on decreasing alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking among university students in Colombia: Protocol for a randomized control trial. Contemporary clinical trials communications32, 101075.

Tukhsanova, N. E. (2023). THE EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE BRAIN AND ITS STRUCTURES. Horizon: Journal of Humanity and Artificial Intelligence2(5), 390-397.

Walker, S. C., Duong, M., Hayes, C., Berliner, L., Leve, L. D., Atkins, D. C., … & Valencia, E. (2019). A tailored cognitive behavioral program for juvenile justice-referred females at risk of substance use and delinquency: A pilot quasi-experimental trial. Plos one14(11), e0224363.

Economic Analysis On News Headline Free Sample

Summary

  • The International Monetary Fund requests the removal of trade barriers in African countries to increase trade and investment and help eradicate poverty among 50 million African people.
  • They assume this will promote Trade Integration in Africa that will help in unleashing Africa’s potential to contribute to global changes.
  • By removing trade barriers, Africa can increase their median goods trade and the level of trade they conduct with other developing countries.
  • IMF assumes that the move will be able to increase Africa’s countries’ GDP by almost 15 percent
  • IMF finds this is a good measure to help eradicate poverty by allowing foreign entities to establish firms in Africa to increase employment opportunities and investment options.

Background

The International Monetary Fund has three major obligations to its member states; encouraging economic growth through advocating for trade expansion, expounding international monetary cooperation among member states, and scrutinizing policies that may discourage and harm economic prosperity within their member states. Thus, in this case, member states can collaborate and ensure policies align to work freely and openly with other international bodies. Africa as a continent has been experiencing financial constraints resulting in most countries seeking financial aid from other countries and also the IMF itself; in some cases, this has been advantageous, but in recent times, the debt ceiling has been rising, resulting in the need for African countries to adopt a different strategy to help in the growth and development of their economy (Nhlapo, 2020). Thus, to help maintain stability and prevent economic crises in IMF systems, IMF helps in coming up with favorable regular policies that are met through dialogue with various government membership in case; they are allowed to assess economic conditions that are crippling Africa and come up with policies that are tailored towards ensuring sustainable growth; on the other hand, the organization also goes an extra mile and helps in monitoring global economic and financial conditions to help in recommending policies and economic actions to help in maintaining the economic stability of the member states. With rising poverty levels in African countries, the International Monetary Fund must ensure that more resources and economic activities have been implemented in Africa. In this case, IMF suggests that African counties should remove trade barriers to help and pave the way for multinational entities and developed countries to invest and set bases in their countries. In addition, This will positively impact the African economy since it will allow for the development of infrastructure that helps boost economic growth and serves as a great way to solve unemployment.

Additionally, the International Monetary Fund is the food of thought that removing trade barriers among African nations will assist with lifting 50 million individuals out of poverty and solve the unemployment burden that is growing quickly. The IMF expressed this in its new report named Trade Integration in Africa: Unleashing the Continent’s Potential in a changing world (Nhlapo, 2020). In this case, it finds that eliminating these trade barriers and obstructions would build the middle merchandise exchange between African nations by 53% and the rest of the world by 15%. Furthermore, this will raise the middle African country’s real per capita Gross domestic product by 10%; and assist with transforming the lives of an expected 30-50 million individuals living out of outrageous poverty and poor conditions. The Washington, DC-based body said the fruitful execution of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement could open significant advantages in the continent at large with regard to job creation and income generation.

Analysis

Analysis A

This section will focus on the parties mainly affected by IMF’s proposal to remove trade barriers in Africa.

  • Homegrown companies

Notwithstanding, the monetary business sectors see the opposite side of the coin. Removing trade barriers allows for Free trade; this is a chance to open one more area of the global market to homegrown producers giving their products more extensive access to international markets. Additionally, Free trade is an indispensable piece of the monetary framework and effective money management in the world’s market. For instance, with regards to American Investors presently approach most unfamiliar monetary business sectors and to a more extensive scope of protections, monetary standards, and other monetary items. One of the most advantageous things to Homegrown businesses with regard to the removal of trade barriers is the capacity to offer and avail their products to foreign customers. Trade Barriers frequently incorporate the provision that expects organizations to establish an actual presence in the nations they sell in. In this case, it acts as a restrictive measure for small and local businesses that aim to tap into the international market.

Moreover, This is seen as cost-prohibitive limiting their operations in one area (Liu, Li, Lin, & Liu, 2019, p 461). Thus, with free trade, businesses can create local products for clients in different nations at similar costs as their bigger rivals. An extended market allows organizations to grow their product offerings and foster new advances to fulfill expanded consumer needs and satisfaction. In this case, this has allowed them to help support homegrown producers in the countries they invest in, making the local benefit through increased capital and the opportunity of a larger market. On the other hand, Free Trade has permitted numerous nations to achieve fast financial development. Such producers have enjoyed a strong comparative advantage by zeroing in on products and readily available materials used in exports.

Nonetheless, removing trade barriers causes more harm than good; in this case, the most crucial thing to note is the threat to intellectual property. African countries have products and services that have originated from their own people; in some cases, they might need improvement to improve. In this case, with access to such markets, major rivals may be able to copy such products, improve them and sell them as knock-offs without consideration of legal repercussions. In other words, trade barriers offer more stability as they provide intellectual property laws that help in protecting countries from the export and import of goods already within the local market (Abrego, Amado, Gursoy, Nicholls, & Perez-Saiz, 2019). On the other hand, this promotes outsourcing of jobs making working conditions go to an all-time poor state, substandard and unhealthy since developed countries tend to take advantage of the lack of labor protection laws resulting in low productivity amongst the local business leading to their closure.

  • The government

Removing trade barriers helps attract foreign investment, which helps in providing relatively high-paying Jobs and more employment opportunities for locals. Thus, this might be a myth; removing trade barriers in Africa urges businesses to send their jobs overseas. It would likewise be wrong to say that the expansion in rivalry would set out more excellent work opportunities. In other words, this reduces the chances accessible in inefficient businesses and sectors in most African countries. The places that remain will see a lift in their general wages and an improvement to the way of life, yet it still needs to deliver the undesirable positions abroad. In other words, this kills the strategy of saving a job at any expense, regardless of whether potential open doors are contracting in that industry. Removal of trade barriers is answerable for 20% of the unemployment cases in African economies. When these arrangements are made with profoundly skilled nations or those with intermediate goods to offer, zero employment creation estimates may foster after some time. Thus, in this case, the government finds it difficult since there is growth within the country, but taxes are being levied on countries where parent companies are situated. On the other hand, African governments will find it difficult to stabilize their currency and financial market since there will be prone to manipulations. There are more dangers for monetary and financial control since bigger rivals can manipulate Africa’s currency to have low production costs and make exponential profits in the long run. For instance, when China supposedly tried to devalue its currency in light of U.S. tariff demands, the securities exchange market had its most awful day in 2019 (Newfarmer, Page, & Tarp, 2019). Then, at that point, the truth set in for financial institutions and market investors. Lowering the Yuan’s value made Chinese manufactured goods cheaper for American consumers. Thus, removing barriers to trade counters the course of duty by making lower costs through a money-related strategy. That implies that African countries consumer base buying products and services that are imported will have to pay more, keeping in mind that African currency will be devalued. At the point when this hindrance is thought of, then, at that point, investors coming into the African market seem to be the winners while African countries consistently lose. Removal of trade barriers attempts to manage this cycle, yet the arrangements cannot represent unexpected control that happens beyond the framework. On the same note, the government is also challenged with protecting the environment; in this case, removing barriers seldom safeguards the environment. Organizations that can trade in African countries aim to take advantage of the normal resources in different areas where limitations or guidelines may be more flexible. Then, at that point, the quickest, least expensive techniques for making goods or performing their services turn into the place of accentuation. Strip mining, obvious logging, and other dangerous ways of behaving can increase global emissions and global warming, even though the exercises will not depend on their homegrown scoreboard. In this case, it should be noted that developing economies frequently offer terms with short-term gains at the expense of causing long-term damage to African Economies. By so doing, IMF will lead African nations into global dependency on multinational corporations and other developing countries to the extent of damaging the environment of their own countries to ensure they exploit resources for short-term gain (Geda & Yimer, 2019). Cash from the natural resources exchange can subsidize government activities or promote corruption, permitting the rich to benefit while the functioning and working poor battle to get by.

Analysis B

This section will analyze possible ways the government could intervene through the policies at its disposal.

  • Protectionism

Following major political occasions of the most recent couple of years, libertarian and protectionist measures are progressively influencing the worldwide economy, which is feeling the strain. Flooding further up the business plan, Protectionism has shown maintained and constant development, fashioning further into worldwide strategy thus, the good and adverse consequences of which are being felt now like never before. The forces to be reckoned with China and the U.S. keep vying for economic supremacy, utilizing prohibitive import and product measures and inciting a significant shift away from worldwide Free trade. On the other hand, England’s Brexit from the E.U. in January 2020 has uplifted weakness in European economic policies, the results of which make certain to be felt in the U.K. and universally. To this effect, African governments should shun away from IMF’s proposal to remove trade barriers. With the world still held by the Coronavirus pandemic, the Covid danger could affect how nations cooperate across guest and public limits, including the expected easing back of worldwide exchange amid enhanced fears of downturns in a few high-level economies (Gilbert, Lang, Mavropoulos, & McAdoo, 2023). Over the past year, new boondocks have additionally arisen. Organizations and markets should explore; expanding populism, the development in the significance of regionalization, the restricted admittance to capital, and the problematic effect of innovation. A protectionist trade policy might pave the way for African governments to promote and advance homegrown businesses and trade, creating products and services, forcing duties, endowments, and quotas or generally foreign goods and services within their market. Over the long haul, nonetheless, avoiding IMF’s directive to remove trade barriers or conveying protectionist measures might harm African nations’ trade limits in that it may result in slow economic growth and development as well as increasing inflation rates. Nonetheless, locally, protectionist estimates limiting imports could effectively drive exchange achievement and creation for organizations getting to less competition from outside market, which might try to reinforce the national financial flow. Comparably the expenses for global Investors sent out in the exportation of products, services, or technological advancement are driven up directly following such protectionism measures. For developing organizations and impending business sector contestants, Protectionism may promote homegrown development in enterprises overwhelmed by global forces within their niche (Benöhr, 2020, p. 118). Similarly, Protectionism may effectively debilitate public economies; however, profoundly prohibitive measures in this case. Through a better understanding of the IMF, African countries should develop policies that help protect businesses to the extent of helping them grow to address the poverty crisis. For organizations, such limitations could be horrendous in the impediments forced external and unregulated economy and in smothering development. The result of such measures may effectively drive less aggressive markets, especially for organizations trying to get to business sectors where homegrown protectionist strategies are restricting, and contenders are offered benefits through imbalanced limitations. To safeguard their respective economy, African nations should keep enforcing duties on products they accept and feel are being dumped in their economic market because these products can possibly undermine local organizations and the economy at large. Removal of trade barriers, as proposed by the IMF, is highly brutal to the growth and development of local businesses. As a rule, the duties enforced on these product surpasses the worth of the goods and services available in the market. Thus, African Countries should embrace Protectionism through Anti-dumping duties when foreign entities sell products or services significantly way below the cost at which it is being delivered or produced in the local market (Obeng‐Odoom, 2020, p. 183). Nonetheless, while Anti-dumping duties aim to save homegrown businesses and jobs, these levies can likewise prompt more exorbitant costs for local consumers. Also, in the long haul, Anti-dumping duties can decrease the international competition of homegrown businesses delivering comparable products and services. in this case, IMF should work with The World Trade Organization (WTO) to come up with favorable measures and policies with regard to eradicating poverty in Africa. In the process, they should also help protect the local economy from falling due to free trade (Sibanda Sr, 2020, p. 228). The WTO does not mediate in that frame of mind of organizations that take part in dumping, but rather, it centers around how the state can — or cannot — respond to the act of dumping. In this case, to help preserve and maintain the stability of the local economy, the government should incorporate WTO measures with respect to guidance from the IMF. By and large, the WTO, in this case, allows states to act against dumping “on the off chance that it causes or undermines material injury to a laid out industry in the region of a contracting party or tangibly impedes the foundation of a domestic industry. In this case, this intervention should be legitimate to maintain the WTO’s obligation to moderate free trade principles and apply IMF policies to help develop Africa’s economy (Bohanes, 2021). Anti-dumping policies can misshape the market. With the removal of trade barriers, African governments will find it difficult to determine a fair market cost for any product or service.

Recommendation

With rising poverty levels in African countries, the International Monetary Fund needs to ensure that more resources and economic activities have been implemented in Africa. In this case, IMF suggests that African counties should remove trade barriers to help and pave the way for multinational entities and developed countries to invest and set bases in their countries. After considering the potential damage that may come from IMF’s proposed policy to remove trade barriers in African nations to help eradicate poverty in Africa, it is reasonable to conclude that this will have short-term benefits but long-term damages to African nations. In this case, there is a need for African nations, IMF, and the World Trade Organization to come up with a proper bilateral trade agreement that suits and protects Africa’s local economy and businesses. With super contenders battling out for economic supremacy, there is a need for African nations to protect their markets at all costs.

References

Abrego, M. L., Amado, M. A., Gursoy, T., Nicholls, G. P., & Perez-Saiz, H. (2019). The African Continental Free Trade Agreement: Welfare gains estimates from a general equilibrium model. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from The African Continental Free Trade Agreement: Welfare gains estimates from a general equilibrium model

Benöhr, I. (2020). The United Nations guidelines for consumer protection: Legal implications and new frontiers. Journal of consumer policy43(1), 105–124. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10603-019-09443-y

Bohanes, J. (2021). Developing WTO Members as Users and Targets of Anti-dumping Policy. Global Trade and Customs Journal16(10). Retrieved from https://kluwerlawonline.com/journalarticle/Global+Trade+and+Customs+Journal/16.10/GTCJ2021063

Geda, A., & Yimer, A. (2019). The Trade Effects of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): An Empirical Analysis. Addis Ababa University, Department of Economics. Retrieved from the Trade Effects of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA)

Gilbert, M., Lang, N., Mavropoulos, G., & McAdoo, M. (2023). Protectionism, pandemic, war, and the future of trade. Retrieved from https://baltictransportjournal.com/assets/files/Highlights/btj-2-23-protectionism-pandemic-war-and-the-future-of-trade.pdf

Liu, C., Li, Y., Lin, D., & Liu, J. (2019). Quantifying the effects of non-tariff measures on African agri-food exporters. Agrekon58(4), 451-471. Retrieved from https://journals.co.za/doi/abs/10.1080/03031853.2019.1581624

Newfarmer, R., Page, J., & Tarp, F. (2019). Industries without smokestacks: Industrialization in Africa reconsidered (p. 480). oxford university Press. Retrieved from https://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/25128

Nhlapo, N. (2020). The role of international financial institutions in Africa’s development: How the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund’s failures led to the African Development Bank (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://ukzn-dspace.ukzn.ac.za/handle/10413/18720

Obeng‐Odoom, F. (2020). The African continental free trade area. American Journal of Economics and Sociology79(1), 167–197. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ajes.12317

Sibanda Sr, O. S. (2020). Procedural Requirements of the South African Anti-Dumping Law and Practice Prior to Imposition of Anti-Dumping Duties: Are They WTO-inconsistent? Foreign Trade Review55(2), 216-238. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0015732519894150?journalCode=ftra