Dunkin ‘Donuts Is A Multinational Coffee And Donut Company Homework Essay Sample

William Rosenberg launched his inaugural coffee-and-doughnut store in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1950. In 1995, he initiated the process of granting licenses to independent owner/operators, referred to as franchisees, to replicate his retail business model. This form of cloning relationship was coined as business format franchising and was still in its early stages in the early 1950s. By the late 1980s, business format franchising had gained significant prominence in the retail sector in the United States. Simultaneously, Dunkin’ Donuts also witnessed similar expansion.

As of the end of 1987, Dunkin’ Donuts had a total of 1,478 units in operation in its North American region. Out of these, 1,449 were franchised. Additionally, Dunkin’ Donuts had licensed 191 units in other parts of the world. However, by early 1988, the company faced challenges such as declining sales to capital ratios, increased competition, and uneven expansion. These factors not only affected the company’s profitability but also its relationship with franchisees. Various options, mainly focusing on expanding distribution, were being considered.

When considering modifications to the strategy, it is crucial to assess the impact it would have on both the franchisees and the company. The competition from convenience stores and supermarket bakeries was growing more intense. By 1988, there were more than 20,000 supermarket bakeries, with doughnuts being the second-most popular item sold. Additionally, convenience stores were rapidly expanding into food service and posed a significant threat. Furthermore, by 1987, franchisee-developed shops accounted for nearly 80% of all new establishments.

In the eastern United States and Canada (Region I), most Dunkin’ Donuts shops had higher average store sales compared to the western United States (Region II). Franchisees in Region I were more active in expanding by purchasing real estate and developing stores. In a nationwide sample, 86% of customers who lived within 15 minutes of a Dunkin’ Donuts shop had bought doughnuts on their last visit (with 75% being in the Northeast), while 30% had purchased coffee (with 52% being in the Northeast).

In Region I, sales were higher compared to Region II. Additionally, there were more than double the number of shops on rent relief in Region II. The primary difference between the two regions was the focus on coffee sales. In the Northeastern region’s Dunkin’ Donuts outlets, coffee took precedence and customers typically bought a few doughnuts along with their coffee. Conversely, in all other parts of the country, Dunkin’ Donuts primarily operated as a doughnut shop where customers would purchase larger quantities of doughnuts.

The average daily sales of doughnuts and coffee differed between shops in the Northeast and elsewhere. In the Northeast, shops sold about 235 dozen doughnuts and 1,900 cups of coffee per day, while shops in other locations averaged 260 dozen doughnuts and 850 cups of coffee. These differences had a significant impact on sales and profits. A single doughnut was priced at $0.45, but when sold in dozens, it was approximately $3.00. Coffee was also a high-margin item. Franchisees contributed 5% of their gross sales to an Advertising and Promotion Fund. Due to the uneven distribution of Dunkin’ Donuts shops across the nation, there was no national media advertising purchased. Instead, all television and radio ads were conducted on a market or regional basis.

Dunkin’ Donuts is dedicating approximately 20% of its advertising budget to promote new products such as sandwiches. The goal is to decrease their dependence on doughnuts and create demand throughout the entire day. To tackle the issues of declining sales growth, heightened competition, and a deteriorating sales-to-capital ratio, both the company and its franchisees acknowledge the necessity for a fresh growth strategy. This may entail attracting more sophisticated franchisees or streamlining marketing programs and production processes.

Three different approaches were adopted: developing new and/or previously untapped markets, selling branded products through convenience stores, and opening non-producing retail outlets. Dunkin’ Donuts’ corporate policy was to thoroughly test all new strategies before requiring franchisees to implement them. Some managers preferred expanding distribution by opening new stores in less saturated markets, either through targeted company development or area franchising.

However, Dunkin’Donuts would likely need to play an active role in developing the real estate for the different sites in order to implement such a strategy. Some managers suggested that Dunkin’Donuts could partner with convenience store chains to provide their branded products to participating outlets. The proposal included an expectation that a local franchisee would deliver fresh Dunkin’Donuts products to approximately 10 to 15 convenience stores twice daily. It was assumed that the franchisees would rent the delivery vehicles and that no additional franchise fee would be required.

Satellites were used by Dunkin’Donuts management to tap into consumer demand in markets where an extra producing unit wouldn’t be feasible. These nonproducing units, such as storefronts, shopping mall stalls, or train station carts, were serviced by nearby full-producing units. This strategy aimed to prevent competitors from entering those locations.

Tom Schwarz, president of Dunkin’Donuts, expressed his viewpoint on the present circumstance. He recognized that persuading individuals to consume more doughnuts may not be possible; however, he held the belief that by providing a broader selection of choices, they could attract a larger clientele. Schwarz emphasized that there is still potential for enhancement.

Korea History- Three Kingdoms’ Founding Myths

The foundation myths of three kingdoms have a profound impact on the study of Korea’s history. If we delve deeper into the legendary histories, we can see that Goguryeo’s founder Dongmyeong wang (Jumong) has significant connections with another ancient kingdom in North-east Asia called Buyeo, which later became a hostile country to Goguryeo. According to the Samguksagi, Jumong’s adoptive father, King Geumwa Wang of Buyeo, was born from a glossy, golden egg with a unique shape. Jumong, on the other hand, was the son of Hae Mo su (the son of heaven) and Yuhwa, who was the queen of Geumwa Wang. Although Hae mo su and Yuhwa were unable to maintain their relationship, Yuhwa gave birth to a giant egg under sunlight exposure, which later turned out to be Jumong. Geumwa Wang was displeased with this situation as he felt humiliated for being cuckolded by his queen, so he attempted to destroy the egg. However, the egg proved to be indestructible. Despite facing countless challenges, Yuhwa raised Jumong with courage and patience.

As Jumong grew up enduring endless persecutions from his adoptive father, he escaped from the Buyeo palace with his follower and founded Goguryeo. In my observation, although Jumong was mistreated, his historical legendaries and the founding myths of Goguryeo were highly relevant to both former dynasties and the later three kingdoms. In other words, Goguryeo’s founding myths served as a strong bond between the previous history (such as Old Chosen and Buyeo) and the prospective history (such as Baekje). For example, as mentioned earlier, according to the myth, Jumong was raised in Buyeo under the mistreatment of his adoptive father. Thus, he would not have needed to leave his homeland and establish a new kingdom if Geumwa Wang had treated him nicely. Additionally, according to Samguk Sagi, Jumong’s second wife, So Seo-no, left Goguryeo with her sons Biryu and Onjo to the south and founded Baekje. If Jumong had not done so despairingly, according to Gaya and Silla’s founding myths, Kim Suro Wang and Bak Hyeokgeose Geoseogan were “descended from sky”.

Just like Jumong, Kim Suro Wang, the founder of Gaya, was also born from an egg. According to Samguk yusa, King Suro and his five brothers fell from the sky and he was the first to break the egg shell. He then led everyone to establish six Gaya. Similarly, Bak Hyeokgeose Geoseogan, the legendary founder of Silla, also hatched from an egg. According to Samguksagi, village chiefs gathered to find a suitable leader for their alliance. Suddenly, a white horse descended from the sky and an egg covered in bright light appeared. A baby broke the egg and later became Bak Hyeokgeose. Comparing these foundation myths with those of the three kingdoms, it is evident that the birth of the founders holds great significance. These myths heavily rely on mythological elements and frequently feature oviparous heroes and maternity-centered backgrounds in ancient Korean literature.

The belief in sun worship is a primitive and universal one, which is evident in the ancient Koreans’ belief in the oviparous myth.

Computers In Early Childhood Education

The introduction of computers in early childhood classrooms can certainly add to the development and education of young learners, both socially and cognitively, as it opens to them many additional and innovative ways of learning. Curiosity, Creativity, independence, cooperativeness, and persistence are the key factors that enhance early learning and development, and as most computer programs are very user friendly, it can meaningfully add a significant contribution in this regard. However, to ensure the best result, the children’s activities on computers must be monitored, and too much technical interference must be a straight no-no.

The role of a teacher

This is a very important thing to remember that just a direct interaction of students and computers is good for nothing because when it comes to extend children’s learning, to solve their problems, and to help them to express themselves, no one can do a better job than a teacher. No technology, irrespective of how advance it is, can take the place of a teacher. Computers are also not an exception, and in no way, it minimizes the role of a teacher in children’s development and education.

What computers can teach?

When it comes to children’s overall growth, computers can be helpful in many ways. Apart from developing social and cognitive skills, the use of computers develops in children many other skills such as problem-solving abilities, decision-making abilities, to mention a few. It can also teach them to help each other in learning new skills. Research also approves the same.

·         Computers are intrinsically motivating for young children, and contribute to cognitive and social development

·         Computers can enhance children’s self-concept and improve their attitudes about learning

·         Children demonstrate increased levels of spoken communication and cooperation during computer use

(NW Regional Educational Laboratory)

Method to use computers in children’s classroom

Computer should not be given over importance, and it should not replace the existing educational programs rather it should just be integrated into the daily learning activities.

We can find out various ways to teach children. For example, for the social development of children, and to enhance their oral and verbal skills, we can do the following.

”Place 2 or 3 chairs at each computer and plan activities that require the help of peers. Then, Ask open-ended questions about children’s work and offer suggestions and comments about what you see them doing.” (Learning & Technology)

The computer programs or software must be appropriate for the age and experience of children in a particular group. Software that is little more than an electronic worksheet does little to increase children’s understanding of concepts. Thus, the selection of the right educational software is very critical. The software must be developmentally appropriate, and it must fit on their interests. The programs should reflect and build on what children already know.

Overall guidance

Overall guidance is very important. When I say overall guidance, it means the following things.

While selecting the right program for children, keep in mind if the programs suit their interest. It is better if you involve children also in selecting programs for them.

Teachers and parents must talk to children about their activities at computers. They should explore programs together and share their experiences with each other.

A certain time should be fixed for them, and it should be monitored if they are exceeding the time limit.

To maintain consistency with how children learn and develop, they should not be overwhelmed with too many choices.

Too much technical interference

Too much interference of computers is not good at all. It has severe bad impacts. For example,

The presence of violence and brutality in some recent software is a major threat. It can influence children to use violence to solve their problems. The teachers and parents are, thus, challenged to choose the right software programs for them.

It can also make them confuse, as they would have ample of choices to select from.

It can distract them from other daily activities, which are more important to them in their overall growth.

It can make children stereotype.

Thus, additional care should be taken and children’s activities should be monitored in order to prevent children from the negative impact of the technology.


The use of computers can introduce children to various cultures, languages, and ethnic heritages, and thus it make it easy for them to understand the world they live in. However, this technology can also be easily misused, and that is the major threat. Overall, if certain guidelines are followed, and teachers and parents understand their responsibility, computers can play a very significant role in the children’s overall education and growth.

Works Cited

NW Regional Educational Laboratory. 19 Sep. 2001. Technology in Early Childhood Education. <http://www.nwrel.org/request/june01/child.html> (30 April 2006).

Northwest Educational Technology Consortium. Learning & Technology. <http://www.netc.org/earlyconnections/preschool/technology.html > (30 April 2006).

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