Educational Seduction And The Doctor Fox Lecture Homework Essay Sample


The article under analysis deals with the effects the educator’s presentation style and charisma can have on the learning process. The study described in the article is based on the assumption that learners can be seduced quite easily by the personality of the educator and appreciate the learning experience even if it is characterized by irrelevant content. This assumption is well-supported by studies that involve middle- and high-school students. Naftulin et al. examine the way experienced educators evaluated a lecture that was interesting in terms of presentation and rather irrelevant when it came to its content (630). The experiment described in the article revealed some peculiarities of learners’ perception and learning motivation.


The experiment involved the participation of three groups of educators in such areas as psychiatry, psychology, and social work. The third group consisted of the educators who had a bachelor’s degree and other credentials. The overall number of participants was 55. The educators who took part in the experiment had a lecture. The lecturer was an actor who was presented as a knowledgeable professional with substantial credentials. The lecturer presented the material with the use of humor and various real-life stories, but the factual information on the matter (game theory in mathematics) was limited and often meaningless with conflicting statements and ideas. The lecture ended in a short discussion that was similar in nature. The participants completed questionnaires evaluating the lecture. It was found that the overall attitude of the vast majority of participants (from 70% to 90% depending on the group) was favorable although some people provided quite negative commentaries.

On the basis of this information, the researchers come to the conclusion that learners can be seduced by the educator’s charisma and presentation style irrespective of the level of their background knowledge on the matter. Naftulin et al. express their surprise at the easiness the participants were deceived as no one guessed that it was not a real lecture (634). Importantly, the researchers conclude that the results of the experiment show that there should be a balance between content and presentation. Another observation was associated with learners’ motivation. Some participants wanted to study the article used as the basis of the lecture even after learning about the purpose of the research. The authors conclude that

Naftulin et al. emphasize that the nature of the lecture could affect the results as the lecturer contemplated quite a general topic (634). The findings could be different if the topic of the lecture was more specific. The authors also add that the sample size is not large, which makes the data ungeneralizable. Nevertheless, the researchers stress that the obtained information is valuable as it provides insights into the correlation between the learning process and learning content and presentation. The authors even claim that actors can be invited to serve as charismatic educators in order to increase learners’ motivation and facilitate the learning process.

Work Cited

Naftulin, Donald H., et al. “The Doctor Fox Lecture: A Paradigm of Educational Seduction.” Journal of Medical Education, vol. 48, 1973, pp. 630-635.

Tobacco Dependence Treatment In Inpatient Psychiatry

The following research critique is aimed at critically reviewing Prochaska et al.’s quantitative study “Efficacy of initiating tobacco dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatry” to determine its validity and thus assess its value for the nursing practitioners. The scientific rigor, minimization of research bias, and logical interpretation of the results are necessary to confirm the applicability of the findings. Thus, the paper explores the ethical background of the study, the appropriateness of the data collection methods, the analysis process, and the logic behind the authors’ conclusions in separate chapters to either confirm or disprove the findings of the research team.

Protection of Human Participants

The authors do not explicitly identify either risks or benefits of participating in the study. However, since all the participants are inpatients of mental health facilities, and the exclusion criteria list the high violence risk. Considering the fact that the participation was negotiated orally and the criteria for defining the possibility of violent behavior is not specified in the paper, it is possible to assume that the risk of violent outbursts existed during the study. The benefits, while not specified by the authors, are evident from the introduction section: a better understanding of the treatment of smoking in persons with current mental illness is the key advantage of the study (Prochaska, Hall, Delucchi, & Hall, 2014). Informed consent was obtained from the participants, although it is worth noting that in some cases the hypersomnolence or severity of psychiatric symptoms restricted the research team from obtaining it. In these cases, another attempt was made after some time to avoid the lack of comprehension. The researchers mention that the participants were interested ion the study, which means that the participation was voluntary. The approval obtained from the institutional review board of the University of California, San Francisco is specified at the end of the paper (Prochaska et al., 2014).

Data Collection

The paper specifies both the dependent and the independent variables. The former include intervention versus control condition and those which differed by condition at baseline or predicted attrition (Prochaska et al., 2014). The latter are “demographic variables, tobacco use, psychiatric symptoms, and substance use as potential covariates of treatment effects” (Prochaska et al., 2014, p. 1559). The descriptive data was collected using printouts which were filled by the participants. The data included the dependent variables, such as housing stability, income, employment, education, and marital status, among others. The participants were also interviewed extensively on their substance abuse behavior with several credible tests, including the Thoughts about Abstinence scale, Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, the 12-item Short Form, and the and the Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, among others. The outcome data was measured based on the reports by the patients.

The claims of those who reported abstinence were biochemically verified “with an expired air carbon monoxide (CO) sample analyzed by a Bedfont Smokerlyzer” (Prochaska et al., 2014, p. 1559). On the occasions when the participants failed to report their abstinence status for some reason, the data was obtained from the informants. Finally, the information on hospitalization was queried orally and recorded using an electronic billing system at Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute. The authors do not provide justification for the selected methods of data collection, but considering the voluntary nature of participation, it is possible to assume that the non-binding methods were preferred to reduce pressure on the participants and avoid adverse reactions. The data was collected in a 29-month period (July 2006 to December 2008) on a weekly basis. A sequence of data collection consisted of the one-time descriptive inquiry in the beginning, a weekly oral report on the abstinence and possible hospitalization (or a proxy data collection in cases when he was not able to report on his own), a biochemical confirmation of the claimed abstinence, and a verification follow-up on the third, sixth, twelfth, and eighteenth month (Prochaska et al., 2014).

Data Management and Analysis

Two data analysis methods were used in the course of the study. For the descriptive data, which described the extent of delivery of the intervention and stratification of sample characteristics, a simple comparative method was used: the treatment conditions were compared to the baseline descriptive characteristics to propose to control for predictors of attrition. For the primary outcome data (the abstinence rates) a generalized estimating equation model was utilized. Finally, for the secondary outcomes (the hospitalization rate) a logistic regression analysis was implemented. To complete the analysis, the demographic data was matched with the psychiatric symptoms, tobacco, and other substances use to establish if any of them can be viewed as covariates of treatment effects. To ensure the reliability of the results, a statistical software was used, namely PROC GENMOD logit link function from the SAS version 9.2 of the SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina (Prochaska et al., 2014). Also, several steps aimed at minimizing the effects of research bias were taken. First, the associations of secondary were tested in univariate analyses to locate and include the significant variables into the final analysis. Second, a computer-generated random assignment program was used to randomize the sample. Third, the researchers were blinded to the schedule of randomization. However, the use of literature to verify the abstinence rates and examine any missing data could serve as a potential source of bias.

Findings / Interpretation of Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

The researchers suggest two primary conclusions of the findings. First, the patients with psychiatric illnesses can enter treatment and show significant improvement in quitting smoking. Second, the tobacco cessation treatment does lead to the positive outcome, although the effect is not thoroughly consistent. In other words, the study confirms the hypothesis that it may decrease the risk of hospitalization, although the magnitude of the effect is smaller than was previously expected. We can safely conclude that despite minor discrepancies the study was conducted with the required scientific rigor and consistency, and its results are thus valid and indicative of reality. There were no logical inconsistencies in interpreting the results. Finally, the results are consistent with the previous findings. However, several limitations were identified by the research team. First, the sample size, while bigger than that of the other studies, is still insufficient for the conclusive results. Second, the sample was restricted to a single inpatient psychiatry unit. While there is allegedly no reason to expect the generalization of results, the researchers suggest to replicate the study using a more diverse demographics. Nevertheless, the results can be applied to the nursing practices aimed at treatment of smoking among the inpatients of the mental health facilities.


Throughout the critique, no signs of inconsistencies were detected. Thus, we can conclude that the results are reliable enough to be safely utilized in the nursing practice. The tobacco cessation treatment was previously yielding controversial results, and its efficiency was debated. While it was thoroughly researched, its effect on the mentally ill remained questionable. The sensitivity to stress associated with it is particularly undesirable for these patients. Thus, the findings of the research increase our understanding of the effects of cessation practices and open up new opportunities for a successful treatment. On a separate note, the decreased chance of rehospitalization is particularly useful for the organizational nursing practices, since the hospitalization is a time- and resource-consuming process and should be avoided. Finally, the critical analysis skills gained in the process of the analysis are useful for utilizing in similar under-researched situations.


Prochaska, J. J., Hall, S. E., Delucchi, K., & Hall, S. M. (2014). Efficacy of initiating tobacco dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatry: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 104(8), 1557-1565.

The Paradox In “The Importance Of Being Earnest” By Oscar Wilde

There is a generally accepted view that Oscar Wilde is a ‘king of paradox’. This opinion can be effectively illustrated by his play The Importance of Being Earnest, a piece of literature that includes a paradox in its title. According to Merriam-Webster, paradox relates to a seemingly impossible situation or a notion that is composed of two opposites (par. 1). Despite the fact that some view paradox as an unnecessary turn of phrase, which usually bears no semantic load, the way in which Oscar Wilde ‘played’ with it in The Importance of Being Earnest deserves even more attention than it has already received.


Satire of the Victorian Society

To explore the concept of paradox as well as its contribution to The Importance of Being Earnest, it is worth mentioning the fact that the play was intended as a complete satire of the high-class Victorian society (Sparknotes par. 2). To create comical characters that become representatives for the deficiencies present in the society, Oscar Wilde integrates paradox into their speech: “My dear fellow, the way you flirt with Gwendolen is perfectly disgraceful” (Wilde 5).

By combining two words “perfectly” and “disgraceful” that have opposite connotations, Wilde underlined the insincere nature of the Victorian society that hid its dissatisfaction with the reality under the covers of their intricate turn of phrase. Therefore, since the nature of Victorian society was, indeed, paradoxical, the literary device chosen by Oscar Wilde fully reflects the realities, which accompanied the play’s setting.

Paradox and Parody

The notion of paradox is tightly intertwined in Wilde’s parodic representation of characters and situations they were in; therefore, paradox should be examined in the context of parody. According to Niederhoff, parody predominantly responds to a certain text while paradox relates to an opinion (41). However, Oscar Wilde managed to merge the two concepts into one through taking set comedic expressions and changing one word in it, creating a paradox and a parody at the same time: “The amount of women in London who flirt with their own husbands is perfectly scandalous. […] It is simply washing one’s clean linen in public” (Wilde 44). By changing the set expression “washing dirty linen” into “washing clean linen” Wilde managed to create a parodic paradox.

Purpose of the Paradox

The most important point to mention relates to the tone and the purpose of The Importance of Being Earnest as a literary piece. It is a comedy intended to make fun of society and expose its faults in a manner that will not be offensive to readers and viewers; rather, comedy is used to teach people to laugh at themselves (Rahman 3). In the same way Ernest, the main character that lied about who he was, learned to tell the truth and became “earnest”, the audience is supposed to learn more about themselves and see how their actions look on the outside. Paradox, in this case, is not a mere literary device used to create comedy; it is a tool for teaching.


Thus, a paradox is not just a play on words that has no specific purpose or meaning. On the contrary, it can be concluded that the notion of paradox in the context of Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest is an effective literary device used to create a comedic effect. It was integrated into the play to show the faults of the society and teach people to take themselves a little less seriously.

Works Cited

Merriam-Webster. Paradox. n.d.

Niederhoff, Burkhard. “Parody, Paradox, and Play in The Importance of Being Earnest.” Connotations 13.1. (2004): 32-55. Print.

Rahman, Mahbubur. The Importance of Being Earnest Themes. n.d.

Sparknotes. The Importance of Being Earnest: Themes, Motifs, and Symbols. n.d.

Wilde, Oscar. The Importance of Being Earnest, London, UK: Penguin Books, 1995. Print.

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