Effect Of Environment On Health Essay Example

Introduction

The environment is basic for the endurance of living. It is the obligation of nations and all individuals worldwide to deal with the environment. Remoundou and Koundouri (2009), features that the strength of the environment similarly upholds human well-being. However, with the developing human population, urbanization, and free enterprise, the strength of the environment is in danger. A well-being environment upholds the personal satisfaction of people and increments life span. The crumbling of the environment’s well-being can harm human existence. As of late, on all sides of the world, environmental degradation is developing at a higher rate, essentially brought about by human exercises. Every year, millions of tons of poisonous air are discharged into the Climate, which later influences the well-being of people and other living things. Resnik and Portier (2015) contend that it stays the essential worry of worldwide countries to invest more energy into the security of the Climate. In such a manner, the strength of the Climate influences the soundness of people inside it is a significant subject of conversation.

Effects of the Environment on human health

The level of natural contamination is creating at an exciting rate. As highlighted, many harmful gases are conveyed into the environment consistently, despite measures taken by various foundations generally. As needs be, the Climate influences human prosperity, and those effects are shown here.

An unhealthy environment reduces the quality of life.

To begin with, the undesirable environment diminishes the personal satisfaction of individuals. In a sound environment, individuals are likely to live longer and less likely to encounter complexities partnered with natural contamination. As Resnik and Portier (2015) indicated, environmental degradation adversely affects the well-being of people. Environmental degradation is one of the main sources of death in individuals. World health organization. (2016) accounts that more than “23% of deaths in grown-ups and 26 per cent in kids under five years” happen because of ecological contamination. The impact of environmental contamination is broad and enduring. It is approximated that more than 9 million individuals bite the dust because of complexities related to natural contaminations. Most of those deaths are accounted for in megacities worldwide. Because of environmental degradation, many people do not approach clean air, clean water, or both. Most metropolitan tenants do not approach clean air, adversely affecting their well-being. As featured by WHO, approximately more than 200 million individuals are impacted by poisons which are harmful to their lives of individuals.

Causes health complication

Environmental pollution is the significant reason for the greater part of the ailments, particularly breathing-related difficulties. As per Remoundou and Koundouri (2009), contamination of the environment presents a serious toxicological impact on human well-being. The wellsprings of contamination fluctuate from smoking to modern and vehicle exercises. Air contamination is credited to respiratory sicknesses like bronchitis, asthma, cardiovascular dysfunctions, irritations, and disease. Individuals living in vigorously dirtied air will probably visit well-being offices for the respiratory framework. As Resnik and Portier (2015) state, air contamination will adversely affect the soundness of small kids, particularly those under five years.

Consequently, recent exploration has revealed environmental pollution’s effect on richness/fertility. Some studies show higher instances of infertility in districts with a more significant level of air contamination. In their exploration, Ghorani-Azam et al. (2016) have effectively studied and analyzed “higher traffic congestions, people living in that neighbourhood reported higher infertility cases”. As needs be, studies show that cases of infertility have been characterized to rise when there is an extension in air contamination. Be that as it may, different examinations by Ghorani-Azam et al. (2016) highlight that it needs to be determined whether the defilement impacts fatherly or maternal barrenness.

Remoundou and Koundouri (2009) suggest that “environmental pollution mostly contributes to low birth rates and parental pregnancy”. In this case, pregnant ladies who are surviving and characterized to have been affected by air pollution are therefore denoted to have a low birth rate, which is a huge challenge to their health and difficult for the entire world as it results in decreased population. On the other hand, “ladies abiding in higher spots with higher wrapping levels of carbon monoxides report low birth weight” (Brusseau et al., 2019). An expansion in air contamination unfavourably impacts birth weight and preterm births. Thus it is a concern to avoid all these areas for a conducive environment for women.

Effect of water pollution on the health of humans.

Remoundou and Koundouri (2009) recommend that the disposal of human waste and other poisonous substances is a great way of influencing water pollution. In this case, it has been attributed that an estimation of more than 200 million individuals worldwide does not have adequate access to clean water that focuses on their safety. Due to the increasing population, and their free efforts to reduce the impact of water pollution, more waste has been attributed to lying in the present-day affluent and many sewages are diverted into water sources. Therefore, Brusseau et al., 2019, say that water contamination is owing to the shortfall of water quality and supply in many spots of the world. Consequently, polluted water is the major supplier of “waterborne infections” (Brusseau et al., 2019). The study shows that water tainting accomplishes cases of the spread of waterborne diseases which have complexities in our bodies, like cholera, hepatitis A, and typhoid. According to the WHO, there are around 4 billion occasions of an outflow of water-related messes every year, which achieves ordinarily 2.2 million demises.

Impact on the Environment on Malnutrition

The new changes in the Climate adversely affect human well-being. Because of a dangerous atmospheric deviation, various regions of the planet are encountering changes the climatic examples. These various parts are additionally displaying sensational change in their natural examples and hence coming about to weighty misfortunes regarding the impacts of contamination. Some of these impacts are emotional, as they can restrict the possibilities of endurance. Some locales encounter weighty and delayed precipitation, while others experience dry spells (Remoundou & Koundouri, 2009). The progressions in the climatic increment the multination issues, which decreases human existence’s quality and life span. For example, a few African nations are encountering extreme dry seasons, leaving most youngsters starving to death while others face hunger.

Conclusion

Resnik and Portier (2015) contend that human exercises significantly support environmental pollution. For example, modern exercises and environmental pollution from vehicles are driving specialists for air contamination. Additionally, the unfortunate removal of human and modern waste contributes fundamentally to water and soil contamination. As per NASA, various ecological changes have been seen worldwide because of natural contamination. Global warming has become a main pressing issue for the worldwide local area because of its negative ramifications. Hence, it is great to comprehend the impact of environmental pollution on our soils. For example, if people expect to establish a helpful climate, they should continuously focus on disposing of the pessimistic impacts of contamination to expect for their future.

References

Brusseau, M. L., Ramirez-Andreotta, M., Pepper, I. L., & Maximillian, J. (2019, January 1). Chapter 26 – Environmental Impacts on Human Health and Well-Being (M. L. Brusseau, I. L. Pepper, & C. P. Gerba, Eds.). ScienceDirect; Academic Press. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128147191000264

Ghorani-Azam, A., Riahi-Zanjani, B., & Balali-Mood, M. (2016). Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran. Journal of Research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5122104/

Remoundou, K., & Koundouri, P. (2009). Environmental Effects on Public Health: An Economic Perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(8), 2160–2178. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph6082160

Resnik, D. B., & Portier, C. J. (2015, September 23). Environment, Ethics, and Human Health – The Hastings Center. The Hastings Center. https://www.thehastingscenter.org/briefingbook/environmental-health/

Transitioning From A Student To A Nurse University Essay Example

New nurses sometimes find fitting into the new working environment very challenging. This period may be simultaneously characterized by happiness and joy, anxiety, stress, and frustrations. As they struggle to manage the anxiety of getting into the new workstation, employers are ever keen to establish if they can produce the intended results. Sometimes it becomes very difficult for them to immediately produce these results because they are yet to learn how things are done and have not yet adjusted to the new culture. As a result of the high expectations, anxiety, and fear of making mistakes, the new workers find themselves in a hard situation which may make their first moments in the facility very unfriendly. Despite all these, they are expected to have basic skills and attitudes associated with this profession and reveal their capacity to handle complex and dynamic healthcare challenges. This study explores the roles of new nurses and the expected skills, attributes, and knowledge. The issues and challenges of new nurses in the workplace and strategies for assisting them in transitioning to this new profession are also highlighted.

According to Powers et al. (2019), new nurses majorly play a central role in healthcare provision by supporting other healthcare workers in providing essential healthcare services. They are also given other primary roles, like providing instant medical care during times of emergency. In today’s complex healthcare environment, new nurses collaborate with other physicians and nurses to devise and provide individualized care plans to patients. They work under the guidance of chief nurses or preceptors to monitor the condition of the patients, assess their needs, interpret their symptoms, and provide the necessary care (Gysin et al., 2019). They assist the surgeons and other physicians as they undertake different procedures.

The nursing leaders expect new nurses to possess certain skills, knowledge, and attributes like willingness to jump in and assist whenever called upon, show the strength of character, ability to learn faster, show confidence in what they do, and manifest high levels of motivation. They may also desire these new hires to be critical thinkers with strong work ethics. The ability of these nurses to follow instructions carefully, communicate effectively, and show physical and mental endurance gratifies the nursing leader a lot (Labrague et al., 2020).

Nursing leaders say some new nurses lack essential skills, knowledge, and attributes. Some of these include physical and mental endurance. Some new nurses struggle to keep up with the huge workload and tedious duties. Others may take a long time to connect with the patients. This hinders their effectiveness. Nurse leaders also have a problem with new nurses who do not connect with other physicians, thereby frustrating teamwork spirit and outcomes. Inflexibility and poor time management are other issues that team leaders normally have with new nurses.

New nurses face challenges in new workstations, including information overload (Labrague et al., 2020). No matter how many years one spends schooling, one will always encounter new terminologies, techniques, technology, and cultures. Even after a comprehensive induction program, it is almost impossible for the new hires to come to terms with all terms and practices that take place in the workstation. Another challenge is waning confidence (Hawkins et al., 2019). One starts doubting his or her abilities due to exposure to new ways of doing things. Every working station has a unique culture. This culture dictates how people behave and how they work. The new practices may make the new hire feel as if they are not adequately prepared for the task ahead of them and lose confidence in their capabilities. Time management could be a serious challenge for new hires. The new job comes with new schedules and programs. The employee is also expected to adjust to the new roles. It may take some time before the worker is fully oriented to the new programs and the timings of the events. Getting along with coworkers is another issue with joiners (Hawkins et al., 2019). Some workers are not easy to get along with unless one gets to know them well. It becomes difficult to engage or share new ideas with them. This may develop a feeling of isolation in the workstation.

Some common strategies for supporting new nurses to transition to the profession include showing empathy when they face new challenges. Connecting with them and encouraging them helps them to get along easily. It also makes the working environment friendly and fun and, as a result, helps them give their best. Another key strategy involves being patient with them even when they make mistakes. The joiners make mistakes as they adjust to new cultures, technology, and practices (Powers et al., 2019). Being patient with them is very relieving. Praising them and helping them gain recognition after performing well encourages them to become better day after day.

In conclusion, workers sometimes find fitting into the new working environment very challenging. This period may be simultaneously characterized by happiness and joy, anxiety, stress, and frustrations. The confusion experienced may make the new worker appear to have a wrong choice for the new task, majorly because of their propensity to make some mistakes. Therefore, it is important for the peers and the senior workers to help them settle and get oriented to the new environment as quickly as possible. The management should also lower their expectations of what these workers can achieve in their first moments in the working environment. It is also important to prepare the other employees to accommodate the joiners most appropriately so that they can find their stay very convenient and to allow them to give their best.

References

Gysin, S., Sottas, B., Odermatt, M., & Essig, S. (2019). Advanced practice nurses and general practitioners’ first experiences introducing the advanced practice nurse role to Swiss primary care: a qualitative study. BMC family practice20, 1-11.

Hawkins, N., Jeong, S., & Smith, T. (2019). Coming ready or not? An integrative review examining new graduate nurses’ transition in acute care. International journal of nursing practice25(3), e12714.

Labrague, L. J., & De los Santos, J. A. A. (2020). Transition shock and newly graduated nurses’ job outcomes and select patient outcomes: A cross‐sectional study. Journal of nursing management28(5), 1070-1079.

Powers, K., Herron, E. K., & Pagel, J. (2019). Nurse preceptor role in new graduate nurses’ transition to practice. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing38(3), 131-136.

Empirical Research On Economic Policy Uncertainty And FDI Of Bangladesh Free Sample

1. Introduction

The most reliable form of international capital flow is the foreign direct investment (FDI). Based on the accessibility of beneficial resources and competencies, enterprises can now disperse their manufacturing operations across the globe thanks to the global value chain (GVC) (Adams, 2009). In most locations with competitive production variables, proximity to the regional or international production network, and potential regional markets, FDI followed the GVC pattern. In the past, FDI has been recognized as a catalyst for economic development by promoting the adoption of cutting-edge management techniques, technologies, and ideas in developing nations (Nistor, 2015). Foreign innovation and the possibility of beneficial spillover can be provided via GVC and FDI.

Additionally, they have provided production processes and quality control methods, creating job chances and opening up access to financing that is only sometimes simple to come by locally (Osei & Kim, 2020). However, during the past 20 years, nations worldwide have cracked their doors to entice FDI using a variety of incentives, including preferential tax treatment and open economic policies (Paul & Feliciano-Cestero, 2021). Three effects of FDI on the recipient economies’ supply sides of the economies include the size effect, compositional effect, and technological effect. The scale of the FDI’s impact on economic activity depends on the input and output of the home country. The effect of the composition of FDI is demonstrated by a structural movement from traditional to modern production methods, such as the transition from the pre-stage to the take-off stage, which modifies the manufacturing mix of recipient countries.

In contrast, the technical influence of FDI is focused on disseminating innovative concepts, knowledge, and cutting-edge technology. FDI impacts income inequality and the welfare systems of FDI-recipient countries on the consuming side of the economy. This research aims to investigate the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a developing country that has experienced significant economic growth in recent years, but its FDI needs to be more consistent. Economic policy uncertainty is a potential factor that may affect FDI inflows into Bangladesh.

2. Objectives

The objectives of this research are to:

  1. Explore the current state of economic policy uncertainty in Bangladesh
  2. Examine the trend and pattern of FDI inflows in Bangladesh
  3. Analyze the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and FDI inflows in Bangladesh
  4. Evaluate the impact of economic policy uncertainty on FDI inflows in Bangladesh

3. Research Questions

The research questions that will guide this study are:

  1. What is the current state of economic policy uncertainty in Bangladesh?
  2. What is the trend and pattern of FDI inflows in Bangladesh?
  3. Is there a relationship between economic policy uncertainty and FDI inflows in Bangladesh?
  4. What is the impact of economic policy uncertainty on FDI inflows in Bangladesh?

4. Literature Review

The literature review will provide an overview of the existing literature on economic policy uncertainty and FDI inflows. The review will include theories and empirical studies related to the case studies topic. It will also identify gaps in the literature and highlight the need for further research. Traditional economics holds that foreign direct investment (FDI) has three significant effects on a country’s economy, society, and government. Micro and macro effects on the economy are distinguished. Capital provision, output growth, level of employment, the balance of payments, wages, and trade flows are the significant macroeconomic implications of FDI.

Nevertheless, FDI’s microeconomic effects are linked to changes in business and organizational structure, productivity, residents’ training, transfer of knowledge, and market structure (Paul & Benito, 2018). Many economic theories describe the dynamics of international capital flows notwithstanding the importance of FDI in economic growth and development. The product life cycle theory, institutional theory, and resource-based view (RBV) are all well-known in the literature on foreign investment and trade, as is the ownership, location, and internationalization (OLI) advantage theory. The internationalization theory explains why and how a company engages in foreign direct investment. When the cost of internalization exceeds the cost of the external transaction, the theory states that multinational corporations will invest abroad (Carrizosa et al., 2020). As a result, companies that participate in foreign direct investment (FDI) look to the host country’s unique factor advantages rather than their own (Verbeke & Kano,2016). In addition, new empirical research has elaborated on the internationalization paradigm [44] by describing FDI in the context of regionalization and global value chain integration (Nedosekin et al., 2019)

How organizations compete in foreign markets by leveraging existing resources like ownership advantage (O), location advantage (L), and internalization is the topic of the eclectic ownership, location, and internalization (OLI) paradigm. The benefits of ownership are tied to the company’s intangible and tangible assets, which can be transferred more cheaply among subsidiaries of the same multinational corporation. Some businesses can increase earnings or decrease marginal costs by expanding into international markets. Regarding transnational cooperation activities, such as transportation costs, manufacturing costs, telecommunication costs, market size, etc., different nations with distinct features and resources have comparative advantages compared to host countries. Locational benefits also include social and political aspects, including favorable government policies, travel time, cultural variety, trade liberalization, and investment reforms.

After WWII, Vernon (1992) proposed the product cycle theory, which centers on industrial FDI flows from the United States to Western Europe through multinational corporations. This idea clarifies the product cycle’s four phases: introduction, expansion, maturity, and decline. The concept proposes that in the initial manufacturing phase, the firm sells the product within the company, making the technology widely known. The second phase involves the company taking advantage of the standardized opportunity by beginning to export to international countries. In the third phase, the company identifies the LCCs with the lowest manufacturing costs and moves production there. The most cutting-edge innovations and technologies are developed with the domestic market in mind and refined over time. Because of this, many factories have moved to other, less developed nations that are rapidly industrializing. The institutional theory and the dynamic capability view (DCV) are two more FDI theories that describe the organizational structure, business behavior, and underlying causes of FDI flows, respectively. Institutional elements, such as business costs, macroeconomic environment, political stability, institutional quality, transparency, and property protection, are said companies driving forces behind foreign investment and FDIpanies (Contractor et al., 2020). Institutional restrictions, such as state involvement, poor institutional support, the unpredictability of public policy, and political risk, are, on the other hand, significant barriers to foreign direct investment (FDI) flows.

The preliminary literature assessment shows that many economic theories can explain the reasons for international capital mobility. The overarching purpose of these concepts is to explain why a corporation could choose to set up a shop in a different country. All of these ideas, notwithstanding their differences, agree that a company expands internationally to reap the benefits of internationalization in terms of geography, the firm itself, or the target market. Theories like this stress the importance of home and host government policies in luring foreign direct investment (FDI).

5. Methodology

The study will use a quantitative research design. The data will be collected from secondary sources such as the World Bank, the Bangladesh Bank, and other relevant government and non-government organizations. The study will use regression analysis to examine the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and FDI inflows. The study will also use descriptive statistics to analyze the trend and pattern of FDI inflows in Bangladesh. In order to better understand the impact of economic policy uncertainty on FDI inflows to Bangladesh, the study described above has been designed. To begin, this study employs a quantitative approach, which necessitates collecting and analyzing numerical data for hypothesis testing and drawing definitive conclusions. Research of this sort is frequently employed in the social sciences for quantifying concepts, identifying trends, and extrapolating future outcomes.

This research will use the World Bank, the Bangladesh Bank, and other applicable governmental and non-governmental organizations as secondary sources. This means the researchers will not collect their own data but instead use information that has already been gathered and made public. Using secondary data for analysis can help save time, and the mound may provide a more complete and trustworthy data set. Regression analysis will be used to look at how economic policy uncertainty affects foreign direct investment. Using regression analysis, statisticians can assess the nature and direction of any relationship between multiple variables. In this case, regression will determine if economic policy uncertainty correlates with a rise in foreign direct investment (FDI) in Bangladesh. Finally, descriptive statistics will examine the pattern and trend of FDI inflows into Bangladesh. You can summarise and characterize the critical aspects of a data set with descriptive statistics. Researchers in this study will use descriptive statistics to summarise FDI flows into Bangladesh over a specified time period (say, the past decade) and highlight any discernible patterns or trends.

6. Expected Outcomes

The study is expected to provide insights into the current state of economic policy uncertainty in Bangladesh and its impact on FDI inflows. This study aims to shed light on the factors that influence FDI in Bangladesh and the role that economic policy uncertainty plays in luring or driving away foreign investors. Uncertainty in economic policy may have a chilling effect on Bangladesh’s foreign direct investment (FDI). Foreign investors may be wary of investing in a country with an unclear economic policy because of the inherent risks associated with doing so. In the case of Bangladesh, where the political and economic climate is notoriously unstable, this may be especially true. However, the study’s findings could show that economic policy uncertainty has little to no bearing on FDI in Bangladesh. This result may result from less essential factors that discourage foreign investment, such as the need for more natural resources, infrastructure, or a skilled workforce. Uncertainty in economic policy may also benefit Bangladesh’s foreign direct investment (FDI). If the instability opens the door for foreign investors to enter the market, they may reap the benefits of future growth. The study will also provide recommendations for policymakers to reduce economic policy uncertainty and attract more FDI inflows to Bangladesh.

7. Conclusion

The study will contribute to the literature on economic policy uncertainty and FDI inflows, particularly in the context of Bangladesh. The findings of this study will have important implications for policymakers, investors, and academics interested in understanding the factors that influence FDI inflows in developing countries.

8. References

Adams, S. (2009). Foreign direct investment, domestic investment, and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of policy modeling31(6), 939–949.

Carrizosa, M. J., Stankovic, N., Vannier, J. C., Shklyarskiy, Y. E., & Bardanov, A. I. (2020). Multi-terminal dc grid overall control with modular multilevel converters. Записки Горного института243, 357-370.

Contractor, F. J., Dangol, R., Nuruzzaman, N., & Raghunath, S. (2020). How do country regulations and business environment impact foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows? International Business Review29(2), 101640.

Nedosekin, A. O., Rejshahrit, E. I., & Kozlovskiy, A. N. (2019). A strategic approach to assessing economic sustainability objects of mineral resources sector of Russia. Записки Горного института237, 354-360.

Nistor, P. (2015). FDI implications on BRICS economy growth. Procedia Economics and Financepp. 32, 981–985.

Osei, M. J., & Kim, J. (2020). Foreign direct investment and economic growth: Is more financial development better? Economic Modelling93, 154-161.

Paul, J., & Feliciano-Cestero, M. M. (2021). Five decades of research on foreign direct investment by MNEs: An overview and research agenda. Journal of business research124, 800-812.

Paul, J., & Benito, G. R. (2018). A review of research on outward foreign direct investment from emerging countries, including China: What do we know, how do we know and where should we be heading? Asia Pacific Business Review24(1), 90-115.

Verbeke, A., & Kano, L. (2016). An internalization theory perspective on the global and regional strategies of multinational enterprises. Journal of World Business51(1), 83-92.

Vernon, R. (1992). International investment and international trade in the product cycle. In International economic policies and their theoretical foundations (pp. 415–435). Academic Press.