Effects Of Nurse Burnout Sample Essay

Nursing is a demanding profession that requires nurses to provide high-quality care while managing a heavy workload and complex patients while keeping up with a healthcare system that is constantly changing. All these factors put together can take a toll on nurses and result in burnout, characterized by emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment. Nurse burnout has been linked to several adverse outcomes, which can have significant implications for the nurse and the patient. This essay will address the following research question: What are the causes and consequences of nurse burnout, and how can it be addressed? Relevant, high-quality sources will be used to answer this research question and provide insights into the factors, implications, and strategies to overcome nurse burnout.

Nurse burnout is a complex phenomenon that results from a combination of factors. Job demands are one of the primary contributors to burnout. Nurses who work long hours, face high patient loads, and deal with emotionally demanding situations are at a higher risk of experiencing burnout. Van der Heijden et al., 2019 found that job demands such as increased workload, time pressure, and insufficient resources were significant predictors of nurse burnout. These factors typically result from poor facility management, which can stem from a lack of support from colleagues and supervisors. Tucak & Macuka, 2021 demonstrated that nurses who do not have control over their job and do not receive adequate social support are more likely to experience burnout. This lack of support can leave nurses feeling isolated and unsupported, increasing their risk of developing burnout. According to Lee et al., 2020 compassion satisfaction, working hours per week, and marital status, among other factors, were also contributors to burnout among nurses. It is plausible that nurse burnout can have significant implications for both nurses and patients.

Nurse burnout has significant implications for the healthcare system, with its effects being felt by patients, healthcare organizations, and nurses. One of the ways nurse burnout impacts patient care is through poor sleep quality and decreased relaxation, which can result in reduced vigilance and attention to detail, compromising patient safety. As Gillet et al., 2020) noted, nurses experiencing burnout are more likely to make errors in medication administration, miss important patient information, and provide less effective care. Nurse burnout also affects nurses’ ability to provide compassionate care, which is essential for building therapeutic patient relationships. Lee et al. 2020 found that nurses experiencing burnout had decreased compassion satisfaction and increased compassion fatigue, which led to a lack of empathy and emotional exhaustion. This can make nurses less attentive to patients’ needs, negatively impacting the patient experience. In addition to the effects on patient care, nurse burnout has economic implications for healthcare organizations. Burnout is associated with increased absenteeism and staff turnover, leading to staffing shortages and decreased organizational performance. According to Tucak & Macuka, 2021, high job demands, low job control, and low social support are predictors of burnout, which can result in staff leaving the organization. Staff turnover can be costly for healthcare organizations, as they must spend time and resources recruiting and training new staff, which can impact patient care. To address nurse burnout, healthcare organizations can implement various strategies that have been proven effective.

Nurse burnout is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted approach to address its causes and consequences. Organizational interventions, individual coping strategies, and supportive work environments are crucial in preventing and managing nurse burnout. Tucak & Macuka, 2021 suggest that job control, social support, and job demands significantly predict job satisfaction and burnout in Croatian palliative care nurses. Providing nurses with more control over their jobs, adequate resources, and social support can help prevent burnout and create supportive work environments. Additionally, training nurses in coping strategies, such as mindfulness and relaxation techniques, can help them manage job demands more effectively and reduce the risk of burnout (Gillet et al., 2020). In addition to organizational and individual interventions, promoting self-care among nurses is also crucial in preventing and managing burnout. Nurses must prioritize their physical and emotional well-being to avoid burnout (Lee et al., 2020). Practicing self-care can include engaging in healthy activities outside of work, setting boundaries, and seeking support when needed.


Gillet, N., Huyghebaert-Zouaghi, T., Réveillère, C., Colombat, P., & Fouquereau, E. (2020). The effects of job demands on nurses’ burnout and presenteeism through sleep quality and relaxation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(3-4), 583-592, DOI: 10.1111/jocn.15116.

Lee, H., Baek, W., Lim, A., Lee, D., Pang, Y., & Kim, O. (2020). Effects of Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Stress on Burnout of Nurses: The Korea Nurses’ Health Study. Compassion Fatigue, and Stress on Burnout of Nurses: The Korea Nurses’ Health Study (3/28/2020).

Naceur, A., & Zriba, N. (2015). Burnout and coping in the perspective of job demands-control-support model among nurses. Psychology, 6(14), 1841.

Tucak Junaković, I., & Macuka, I. (2021). Job demands, job control, and social support as predictors of job satisfaction and burnout in Croatian palliative care nurses. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 72(3), 225-231, DOI: 10.2478/aiht-2021-72-3556

Van der Heijden, B., Brown Mahoney, C., & Xu, Y. (2019). Impact of job demands and resources on nurses’ burnout and occupational turnover intention towards an age-moderated mediation model for nursing. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(11), 2011, doi:10.3390/ijerph16112011.

Essay On Financial Accounting University Essay Example

Financial accounting is a constituent part of accounting that encompasses documenting, compressing, and relaying the financial dealings of a commercial establishment. It requires the construction of financial documents, such as the equity report, earnings statement, and cash inflow statement, which divulge facts and figures about the financial position, execution, and cash movements of an enterprise (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2018). The main goal of financial accounting is to furnish timely, trustworthy, and relevant monetary insights to stakeholders, comprising investors, creditors, government agencies, and the general public, to aid in their decision-making processes.

Cheques in Transit

A cheque in transit pertains to a cheque produced by the remitter (the individual who composes the cheque) but has yet to be presented to the bank for remittance. In other words, the cheque is being validated. The funds still need to be subtracted from the remitter’s account or added to the receiver’s (the individual who will receive the payment) account (Dhanva, Harikrishnan, & Babu, 2018). Throughout this period, the cheque is considered to be in transit or in the validating process, and the receiver will not be able to access the funds until the cheque clears.

Adjusting Entries

Adjusting entries are a fundamental accounting process component that guarantees financial statements are precise and dependable. These entries are established at the end of an accounting interval to modify accounts that have not been properly documented or to distribute expenses and incomes correctly (Libby, Short, & Libby, 2014). They are necessary because most accounting systems document transactions when they happen, not when the equivalent cash is transferred. Adjusting entries are typically utilized to document accrued expenses, pre-paid expenses, accrued incomes, and unearned incomes. By constructing Adjusting entries, enterprises can update their financial records to correctly display the current fiscal position (Abdul-Rahamon & Adejare, 2014). For instance, if a business still needs to disburse a bill, but the service has been given, an adjusting entry can be created to record the expense and update the accounts payable balance. A similar alteration entry may be made to record unearned wages and revise the liabilities account if a company has been paid for administrations that have yet to be rendered.


GAAPs, moreover known as, by and large, acknowledged bookkeeping standards, are a collection of guidelines, controls, and rules that indicate how money-related statements must be created and displayed. These rules are implied to ensure that all organizations’ budgetary data is exact, tried and true, and steady for clients (Young, 2014). The presentation of financial statements, revenue recognition, asset and liability recognition, and other crucial accounting concepts are all covered by various GAAP rules and principles. According to Ghazali, Shafie, and Sanusi (2015), the main goal of GAAP is to ensure that financial statements provide relevant and trustworthy information to stakeholders, including investors, creditors, and regulators.

Source Records

Any documentation that backs up a financial transaction is referred to as a source document in accounting. They serve as evidence of a commercial transaction and provide a paper trail. Several source papers are available that improve accounting and corporate operations (Hall, 2015). A sales invoice is a crucial source document to start with. It offers a thorough explanation of the products or services that a business sells to a consumer. The date of the sale, the number and kind of products or services sold, the price per unit, and the total amount owed are all included in sales invoices. Sales invoices are used to monitor income and accounts receivable and provide proof of a sale (Sadiqin, 2021). A credit note is yet another often-utilized source document. A vendor reduces the amount owing for products or services by issuing a credit note to a customer. A credit note contains details such as the justification for the credit, the transaction date, the credit amount, and any account modifications. Credit memos are used to fix billing problems, settle customer disputes, and document modifications to accounts receivable.

Enterprise Entity Concept

The idea that a company organization is a separate and distinct entity from its owners or stakeholders is known as the business entity concept, and it is a basic accounting principle. Concurring to this theory, a company’s money-related activities and its owners’ accounts ought to be treated independently in bookkeeping (Tricker, 2015). The thought presupposes that the company may be a diverse substance from its proprietors or shareholders, with its claim personality. The business’s money-related articulations, counting salary explanations, adjust sheets, and cash stream articulations, ought to be created autonomously of the owners’ accounts. The business entity concept is basic for exact budgetary announcing because it permits investors, leasers, and other partners to assess the budgetary execution of the commerce based on its possess merits. Additionally, it helps to ensure that business owners do not commingle their finances with those of the business, which can result in legal and tax implications (Fung, 2014).

Cash Flow

Adjusting the net profit for non-cash items= Rs. (200,000+20,000-10,000)= 210,000

Subtracting the increase in accounts receivable= 210,000-15,000=195,000

Adding the decrease in inventories = 195,000+25,000= 225,000

Hence, the cash flow in that trading year is Rs. 220,000.

Adjusting Entries for supplies

Supplies Expense 230,000

Supplies 230,000

Explanation: The supplies used during the year can be calculated by subtracting the beginning balance of supplies (Rs. 70,000) from the total supplies purchased during the year (Rs. 300,000) and then subtracting the ending balance of supplies (Rs. 75,000). Therefore, the supplies used during the year is -= Rs. (300,000 – 70,000 – 75,000)= Rs. 230,000

To adjust the supplies on hand at the end of the year:

Supplies=Rs. 75,000

Supplies=Hand Rs.=75,000

The supplies on hand at the end of the year are =75,000.

Hence, these adjusting entries, the Supplies account = (Rs. 300,000 – Rs. 230,000)=70,000

This reflects the actual amount of supplies still on hand at the end of the year. The Supplies Expense account will have a balance of Rs. 230,000 to reflect the supplies used during the year.

Accounting Equation

Accounting Equation is Assets= Liabilities +Equity

In this transaction, assets will be affected and will be reflected in the cash account (3000*3=9,000)

The transaction will not affect liabilities. Hence, they will remain unchanged.

Similarly, the transaction will not affect Equity. Hence, they will remain unchanged.

Hence, Accounting Equation; 9000= 0+0

Classification of Idle cash investment

The 8% certificate of deposit (CD) has an alluring interest rate of 8% and a maturity of 90 days. Because it reaches maturity within a mere 90 days, less than a year, it should be categorized as a current asset on the balance sheet, as is expounded by financial experts. More specifically, it should be reported as a short-term investment or marketable security to reflect its financial position accurately. The amount invested in this financial instrument should be duly recorded at its fair value on the balance sheet, indicating its value at the purchase time. In addition, there is a more exciting option for investors in the form of the 112-day CD, which offers an even better interest rate of 9%. Xu and Zhang (2014) assert that an investment that matures in less than one year; should be classified as a current asset on the balance sheet. Hence, similarly to the first CD, it should be reported as a short-term investment or marketable security at its fair value, as this represents the most accurate financial position of the organization. As a result, when the December 31 balance sheet is published, the first CD should be classified as a short-term investment or marketable security at fair value, while the second CD should also be classified as a short-term investment or marketable security at fair value.


Abdul-Rahamon, O. A., & Adejare, A. T. (2014). The analysis of the impact of accounting records keeping on the performance of the small-scale enterprises. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences4(1), 1-17.

Dhanva, K., Harikrishnan, M., & Babu, P. U. (2018, April). Cheque image security enhancement in online banking. In 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT) (pp. 1256-1260). IEEE.

Fung, B. (2014). The demand and need for transparency and disclosure in corporate governance. Universal Journal of Management2(2), 72-80.

Ghazali, A. W., Shafie, N. A., & Sanusi, Z. M. (2015). Earnings management: An analysis of opportunistic behavior, monitoring mechanism, and financial distress. Procedia Economics and Finance28, 190-201.

Hall, J. A. (2015). Accounting information systems. Cengage Learning.

Libby, R., Short, D., & Libby, P. (2014). EBOOK: Financial Accounting. McGraw Hill.

Sadiqin, A. (2021). Implementation of Accounts Receivable Control Against the Risk of Doubtful Accounts at PT. Radhar Delta Bersaudara Sidoarjo Branch. Jurnal Ekonomi, Manajemen, Bisnis, Dan Sosial (Embiss)1(2), 109-114.

Tricker, R. I. (2015). Corporate governance: Principles, policies, and practices. Oxford University Press, USA.

Weygandt, J. J., Kimmel, P. D., & Kieso, D. E. (2018). Financial Accounting with International Financial Reporting Standards. John Wiley & Sons.

Xu, J., & Zhang, X. (2014). China’s sovereign debt: A balance-sheet perspective. China Economic Review31, 55-73.

Young, S. (2014). The drivers, consequences, and policy implications of non-GAAP earnings reporting. Accounting and Business Research44(4), 444-465.

Global Business Environment Writing Sample

1. Introduction

This paper emphasises the dramatic changes in international trade over the last several years due to fluctuations in the supply chain, consumer preferences, and other factors. As a result, businesses of all sizes, even multinational conglomerates like CRH, have had to learn to adapt quickly to shifting market circumstances and client preferences (Miguel, 2022). CRH, a top provider of construction products and services worldwide, interacts with customers and other parties in more than 30 countries. The corporation has had to adapt to various geopolitical, social-cultural, and technical forces and developments to stay competitive and viable (Rogge and McGinley, 2022). An in-depth analysis of the core business processes and activities that help CRH remain competitive and thrive in the dynamic global market has been conducted for this paper. Besides discussing how CRH has responded to various international political and social events, the paper also determined whether or not CRH is prepared to compete in the next industrial revolution.

2. Company Overview

The Dublin, Ireland, headquarters of CRH plc, a worldwide manufacturer of construction products. The firm, which began in 1970 under the name Cement Roadstone Holdings, has since expanded to become a market leader in the worldwide building materials industry (CHR, 2023). CRH’s business is divided into the European & American Materials and Building Products divisions. Cement, aggregates, asphalt, and other building materials are manufactured and distributed throughout Europe by the Europe Materials division (CRH, 2018). Aggregates, asphalt, and ready-mixed concrete are just some of the products the Americas Materials division sells throughout North America. Precast concrete products, clay bricks, roofing tiles and other related items are only some of the many produced and supplied by the Building Products division. Approximately 79,000 people are employed by CRH who have activities in more than 30 countries (GlobalData, 2023). The corporation earned €1.7 billion in net income on revenues of €24.8 billion in 2021. CRH is dedicated to eco-friendly operations and has aggressive goals for decreasing its carbon footprint and increasing resource efficiency. The organisation also prioritises health and safety to achieve a workplace without accidents. As of April 2023, CRH’s market value was at €36 billion, listed on the London and Dublin stock markets (CRH, 2023). The stock is tracked by several major indexes, including the FTSE 100 and the Euro Stoxx 50.

3. Key Business Functions

The company CRH Plc produces and sells building supplies. Products such as aggregates, agricultural and chemical lime, concrete products, asphalt, ready-mixed concrete, and insulating goods are manufactured there. The firm also sells fence and security items, glass, blocks, roller shutters, clay bricks, pavers, roof tiles, and more (CHR, 2023). Engineers, architects, and contractors may use the company’s services. Its products are used in the commercial, institutional, and institutional infrastructure sectors for repair and maintenance building tasks. The business has a global reach, with offices and representatives worldwide (Michael, 2014). The creation and manufacture of building materials is an important role. Production of high-quality goods that match client demand at reasonable prices is crucial to the company’s success. CRH can manage the manufacturing process and maintain uniform quality standards because of its vertically integrated supply chain (Rogge and McGinley, 2022). This role is essential to the company’s development since it directly affects the level of client happiness and the amount of money brought in by the business.

Supply chain management is crucial for acquiring supplies, controlling stock levels, and transporting finished goods to consumers. CRH’s worldwide procurement network facilitates cost-effective material sourcing, supply chain optimisation, and streamlined business processes (CRH, 2028). This role is essential to the company’s performance since it ensures that items are delivered to consumers on time and at the lowest possible cost. Vertical integration and an international distribution network help the corporation handle fluctuating demand for construction supplies. Its strategy for sales and marketing allows it to attract customers from all backgrounds, and the company’s back-end operations ensure its continued success (Rogge and McGinley, 2022). CRH operates in a highly competitive market, making sales and marketing a crucial responsibility. The firm caters to a wide variety of consumers thanks to its extensive product catalogue, which includes everything from professional contractors to do-it-yourselfers (CHR, 2023). Direct sales, distribution via third-party channels, and e-commerce are among the methods that CRH use to reach its target audience. The increase in the company’s revenue and the preservation of its market share are directly tied to the effectiveness of this department (Jackson, 2021).

Supporting the development and operations of the business are the corporate functions of finance, human resources, and legal (CRH, 2022). CRH’s financial health is excellent, as seen by the company’s solid balance sheet and proven ability to generate steady cash flow. Corporate social responsibility, which includes environmental sustainability, health and safety, and community participation, is a top priority for the organisation (Rodger and Lucey, 2023). These duties are essential to the company’s success, guaranteeing its continued existence and good name in the market.

When it comes to growing its business, CRH has a history of doing it via acquisitions, most notably in the United States (Michael, 2014). The company’s influence in the US cement industry was bolstered with the purchase of Ash Grove Cement, one of many high-profile deals in recent years. CRH has also invested in digital technology and innovation, which it expects to contribute to future growth and increased efficiency in its operations (CRH, 2018). The ability to gain market share, diversify product offerings, and maintain worldwide competitiveness depend on the firm taking this expansion strategy.

The company has a lot of money, so it can put a lot of money into research and development to develop new goods and increase the efficiency of the ones it already has (GlobalData, 2023). The organisation has, nevertheless, spent a considerable amount of money upgrading its current infrastructure. Holcim, which entered India and China in more significant numbers in 2005, is further diversified into developing markets than the firm is now (Michael, 2014). To demonstrate its ability to increase its R&D spending, CRH plc has produced just a tiny number of environmentally friendly projects, such as Oldcastle Precast’s Storm CaptureTM Module System in Florida, USA—sustainability report from Holcim (CHR, 2022).

4. Global events that affected CRH Plc

CRH’s operations, financial performance, and growth prospects have all been significantly impacted in recent years by several significant worldwide events.

4.1 Geopolitics

4.1.1 Brexit

Brexit has also impacted CRH since it has increased market volatility and uncertainty in Europe. CRH’s UK activities provide the corporation with a solid foothold in the nation and provide access to a sizable market in the UK (Zakaria et al., 2020). Currency exchange rate swings, greater regulatory complexity, and future changes to trade agreements are just some of how the company’s operations have been affected by Brexit’s unpredictability (Nicholas et al., 2019).

CRH has reorganised its operations and supply lines in response to the uncertainty of Brexit. The corporation has formed a special Brexit task team to monitor the situation and develop solutions (CHR, 2022). CRH reorganised its UK operations to meet new legislation requirements and lessen the impact of Brexit on the business. The corporation has prioritised the growth of its supply chain in the United Kingdom to reduce its dependency on EU imports (Rodger and Lucey, 2023). Last but not least, CRH maintained its investment in its United Kingdom business, including a significant increase in its cement manufacturing capacity.

4.1.2 China-United States war

Given its size and prominence in the US and exposure to the Chinese market, CRH has also been impacted by the ongoing trade dispute between the United States and China (Zhu et al., 2021). Uncertainty in the global economy and a decrease in the demand for building materials directly result from the trade war’s influence on tariffs, trade barriers, and international commerce. Specifically in the United States market, CRH has been able to buy assets from Chinese corporations selling up their businesses due to the trade war (Shams et al., 2021).

As a result of the rise in tariffs and trade restrictions, several Chinese businesses decided to sell their holdings in the United States. CRH also strengthened its domestic supply chain to cut down on Chinese imports (Rogge and McGinley, 2022). Finally, the firm increased its aggregates and cement manufacturing capacity in the United States thanks to ongoing investments. CRH’s strategy for dealing with political risk includes selling off its holdings in Israel in 2015 (Liu and Froese, 2020). The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its political and social challenges prompted the decision, which was seen as a preventative measure to lessen the company’s exposure to political risk (Miguel, 2022). The fact that CRH was ready to take such a strong stand despite the decision’s unpopularity speaks much about the company’s values.

4.1.3 Russia and Ukraine war

Conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and other regional disputes affected CRH’s bottom line. In Eastern Europe, CRH is well-established in countries like Ukraine, Poland, and Romania. The demand for building materials and the availability of raw materials and labour may be affected by the instability and uncertainty brought about by the Russia-Ukraine war (Nicholas et al., 2019). Similarly, CRH’s activities in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia make the corporation vulnerable to regional geopolitical developments. For instance, conflicts in countries like Yemen and Saudi Arabia may disrupt supply chains by reducing the availability of cement and aggregates (Liu and Froese, 2020).

However, CRH’s global reach and product variety help cushion the blow of unpredictable political developments. The company’s global reach and diverse product offering allow it to withstand fluctuations in local economies (Miguel, 2022). In addition, the business’ risk management and contingency preparations will enable it to lessen the effect of political unrest on its operations and bottom line. For instance, the corporation set up a global risk management department to keep tabs on international developments and determine how they could affect business. By diversifying its supply chain and procuring raw materials from several different places, CRH could lessen local events’ effect on its operations (Zakaria et al., 2020). In addition, the organisation has a crisis management department to deal with sudden problems.

4.2 Society factors

4.2.1 Covid19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most consequential occurrences affecting CRH; it has had far-reaching effects on the building sector and the world economy. As a result of the epidemic, building projects have been shut down, and supply networks have been disrupted (Jackson, 2021). Especially in the first half of 2020, CRH’s operations have been influenced by these circumstances. The firm had to change its operations to survive in the new climate, which harmed its sales and profit margins (Bruscino, 2022). The company’s geographical reach and product variety cushioned the blow of the epidemic.

The organisation has instituted company-wide hygiene and social distancing policies, issued PPE to all workers, and allowed remote work if feasible (CHR, 2022). CRH has formed a worldwide COVID-19 working committee to monitor developments and implement necessary measures. The corporation has also hastened its digital transformation plans so that workers, customers, and suppliers can all work together and communicate remotely (Jackson, 2021). Finally, CRH used its financial strength by extending payment periods and credit facilities to its supply chain partners and consumers.

4.2.2 Environmental sustainability

CRH has been profoundly affected by the worldwide emphasis on environmental sustainability. To lessen its environmental impact, the corporation has poured resources into cutting-edge green technology, including renewable energy and alternative fuels (Zhu et al., 2021). In today’s global marketplace, where consumers and other stakeholders increasingly demand eco-friendly goods and services, a company’s commitment to sustainability is essential to its continued success (Tien et al., 2019). For instance, the European Union’s regulations on using eco-friendly materials in construction have negatively impacted the sector.

There has been a rise in E.U. CRH’s R&D expenditures as a result of government policies and stringent regulations (CHR, 2023). After conducting an in-depth analysis of the industry, CRH plc has decided to focus its growth efforts on developing markets by forming acquisitions and strategic partnerships in places where demand for conventional building materials is rising, and incentives are being given (Liu and Froese, 2020). The firm has made considerable investments in green and cutting-edge technology to lessen its environmental impact, including alternative fuels and renewable energy sources. Low-carbon cement and sustainable construction materials are only two examples of the new eco-friendly goods and services that CRH has introduced (GlobalData, 2023). Water and waste management, as well as biodiversity protection, are just a few examples of the sustainable practices the firm has adopted.

CRH has shown that it cares about social and environmental concerns through its dedication to long-term sustainability. The corporation has engaged in researching and developing environmentally friendly goods and has set lofty goals for reducing carbon emissions and trash (CHR, 2023). This strategy has improved the company’s image and connections with stakeholders while reducing its activities’ potential adverse social and environmental effects. CRH has also changed its employment policies, employee training programmes, and community service initiatives to better reflect its commitment to diversity and inclusion (Shad et al., 2021). The company’s capacity to recruit and retain people from a wide range of backgrounds has been boosted and strengthened its ties with a wide range of stakeholders.

4.2.3 Consumers behaviour

Consumers in industrialised nations have shown a clear preference for environmentally friendly construction products, and the building materials sector has been compelled to adapt by government regulations (Tien et al., 2019). Consumers in developing markets are increasingly concerned about environmental impacts and choose green options. People in developing countries are eager for foreign investment to boost the economy, the job market, and living conditions. Concerns have also been raised that local businesses may need help to compete with their overseas counterparts (Bruscino, 2022). Due to rapid urbanisation, rising populations, and rising per capita incomes, demand is soaring in developing markets. The focus should be on emerging markets because of the vast untapped potential in these economies (Zakaria et al., 2020). The British firm CRH plc focuses on consolidating its position in rising areas like India and China.

For instance, CRH’s business dealings and interactions with local partners and clients in the Middle East may be affected by regional cultural norms about the appropriateness of women’s and men’s attire (CHR, 2023). CRH has responded to these difficulties by instituting training programmes for its regional staff to appreciate better and respect local traditions and values. The availability of competent staff and labour rules have been obstacles for corporations in India (GlobalData, 2023). In response to these difficulties, CRH has funded training programmes to cultivate local talent and formed relationships with local educational institutions to encourage the growth of talented personnel. The corporation needed help maintaining political stability and meeting Chinese regulations in that country. To deal with these issues, CRH has built a local management team to work within the region’s unique regulatory framework and forge relationships with local companies and suppliers (CHR, 2023).

5. Suitability of CRH in the next industrial revolution

Porter’sPorter’s five forces model was used to assess CRH’s current and future competitiveness in the global market. The analysis is presented in the table below:

Porter’s factors Effect on competitive rivalry Future effect
Threat of Entry The future threat of entry is expected to be low to moderate. Despite the high entry barrier presented by this industry, local companies have begun joining it due to global economic development, the rising need for infrastructure, and government backing (Arslan and Kivrak, 2018). Moderate
Threat of Substitutes In the years to come, the danger posed by alternatives will grow. Firms will be compelled to adjust their goods in response to government laws, environmental worries about carbon footprint and global warming, and changes in public opinion (Shams et al., 2021). Moderate
Bargaining Power of Buyers Buyer bargaining power will be around average. New businesses are constantly being founded in developing areas, and established ones are flocking there (Miguel, 2022). Since the essential inputs are standardised, and companies compete on price, consumers can transfer suppliers if they discover they are overcharged or receiving inferior products. When it comes to retail, however, CRH can still set itself apart via innovations and brand image, resulting in above-average profitability and reduced buyer leverage. Moderate
Bargaining Power of Suppliers In the future, suppliers will have less leverage in negotiations as industry mergers and acquisitions continue to shape the construction supplies market (Arslan and Kivrak, 2018). To augment vertical integration, many companies are turning to mergers and acquisitions to expand their business. Due to the proximity of the reserves and the markets, companies in this sector are often vertically integrated to oversee all aspects of their business. Low
Competitive Rivalry As businesses compete for a larger international market, the playing field will become more competitive (Liu and Froese, 2020). Today, companies compete with one another based on price and quality; tomorrow, they’ll compete based on innovation in response to public, social, and environmental demands. High

Table 1 Analysis of Porter’s five forces

The examination of the five future forces above led to the identification of 3 strategic concerns, detailed in the table below.

Strategic Issue Analysis
Increase in domestic competitors from foreign markets. There is an increase in demand for construction products globally. There has been a recent uptick in activity from domestic rivals, all with the same goal: to dominate in their area (Liu and Froese, 2020). Society also favours indigenous enterprises since they create employment and tax revenue rather than repatriating profits from overseas corporations (Shams et al., 2021).
Rise in the threat of substitute goods. Environmental concerns have led to new products with lower CO2 emissions and lower production costs than Portland cement (Shams et al., 2021).
Extreme levels of rivalry As businesses compete for a larger international market, the playing field will become more competitive.

Additionally, new domestic enterprises will emerge, and the competitive landscape will shift as a result (Arslan and Kivrak, 2018).

Table 2 Strategic issues

Therefore, with its robust commitment to innovation and technology, CRH is prepared to participate in the next industrial revolution (Bruscino, 2022). The business has made significant R&D investments and collaborated with industry-leading technology firms to create innovative new products and services. Among CRH’s innovative practices is using high-tech materials like carbon fibre in its building components. The firm has developed several digital tools and platforms, such as an e-commerce site and a database of digital building materials, to improve the speed and precision of its operations (Liu and Froese, 2020). CRH is well-prepared to participate in the next industrial revolution because of its dedication to innovation and technology, as well as its worldwide reach and diverse product line. The firm is well-established in significant regions, including North America and Europe, operating in over 30 countries (Mink et al., 2023). It sells various aggregates, cement, asphalt, ready-mix concrete, and other building products and solutions.

CRH’s robust financial standing also positions the company well for future industrial innovation. The firm has a solid financial foundation and a history of providing reliable cash flow and shareholder returns. However, CRH may need help during the industrial revolution (Bruscino, 2022). Constantly spending in R&D to keep up with quickly developing technology is one such challenge, as is keeping up with shifting market dynamics and consumer tastes.

6. Conclusion

This paper has examined CRH’s worldwide business strategy, including the company’s product offering, growth plan, and reaction to international events and cultural norms.

In light of recent global events like the COVID-19 epidemic, geopolitical concerns, and social-cultural considerations like sustainability and diversity, CRH has shown its agility and adaptation. Investments in digital tools and platforms, acquisitions and divestitures, and relationships with key stakeholders are only some of the programmes and activities the corporation has done to meet these issues. CRH is poised for continuing development and success because of a worldwide business strategy that syncs with the construction industry’s changing demands and expectations and a dedication to innovation and sustainability. To remain ahead of the curve and continue providing value to its stakeholders while the firm navigates the challenges and possibilities of the next industrial revolution, the organisation must emphasise agility, flexibility, and customer-centricity.

7. Recommendations

After reviewing CRH’s worldwide business strategy, we have come up with many solid and well-articulated suggestions for the firm to consider.

  • Focus on sustainable growth: Investment in green technology and materials, promotion of circularity in its supply chain, and establishing ambitious sustainability objectives should all be top priorities for CRH as the construction sector continues its journey towards more sustainable practices (Mink, 2022).
  • Embrace digitalisation: digital technologies are driving the next industrial revolution, and CRH has to be at the forefront of this change. The business should put money into digital tools and platforms to boost efficiency, provide better service to customers, and speed up decision-making.
  • Expand its geographic footprint: While CRH already operates worldwide, the corporation might do more to increase its presence in other regions (Bruscino, 2022). CRH may benefit from new growth prospects and diversified income sources by expanding into new markets and forming relationships with local stakeholders.
  • Foster a culture of innovation: Encourage staff to think outside the box and develop novel solutions to problems so CRH can remain competitive in a dynamic market (Shad et al., 2021). The organisation may get there by spending money on research and development, facilitating employee growth, and encouraging teamwork.

8. References

Arslan, G. and Kivrak, s., 2018. Critical Factors to Company Success in the Construction Industry. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, [online] 2(9). Available at: <https://waset.org/publications/6786/critical-factors-to-company-success-in-the-construction-industry/ [Accessed: 25 April 2023].

Bruscino, F., 2022. Sustainable investment: analysis of the ESG factor impact on financial profitability.

CRH. 2018. CRH Sustainability Strategy. [online] Available at: <http://www.crh.com/sustainability/sustainability-strategy> [Accessed: 25 April 2023].s

CRH. 2022. Creating Innovative Solutions for Sustainable Development [Online] Available at: https://www.crh.com/our-business [Accessed: 25 April 2023].

CRH. 2023. Annual Reports [Online] Available at: https://www.crh.com/investors/annual-reports [Accessed: 25 April 2023].

CRH. 2023. Creating Innovative Solutions for Sustainable Development [Online] Available at: https://www.crh.com/about-crh/strategy-business-model [Accessed: 25 April 2023].

GlobalData 2023. CRH plc company profile – CRH plc overview [Online] Available at: https://www.globaldata.com/company-profile/crh-plc/ [Accessed: 25 April 2023].

Jackson, J.K., 2021. Global economic effects of COVID-19. Congressional Research Service.

Liu, Y. and Froese, F.J., 2020. Crisis management, global challenges, and sustainable development from an Asian perspective. Asian Business & Management19, pp.271-276.

Michael, M. 2014. CRH plc: Strategy-driven achievement – proquest [Online] Available at: https://www.proquest.com/docview/1509765863 [Accessed: 25 April 2023].

Miguel, I.M.F.D.A., 2022. The effect of Brexit on the probabilities of default of the FTSE 100’s companies (Doctoral dissertation).

Mink, R., 2023. Ireland’s Miraculous Economic Growth. In Official Statistics—A Plaything of Politics? On the Interaction of Politics, Official Statistics, and Ethical Principles (pp. 233-273). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Nichols, J.L., Rasmussen, F.N. and Milios, L., 2019. Circular building materials: Carbon saving potential and the role of business model innovation and public policy. Resources, Conservation and Recycling141, pp.308-316.

Rodger, B.J. and Lucey, M.C., 2023. Private enforcement in the UK and Ireland. In Research Handbook on Private Enforcement of Competition Law in the EU (pp. 386-418). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Rogge, E. and McGinley, O., 2022. The Competing EU and UK Influence on Corporate Governance in Ireland Following Brexit. Business Law Review43(3).

Shad, M.H., Rezgui, Y., Hodorog, A. and Petri, I., 2021, June. Digitalising risk of fire resilience for UK buildings. In 2021 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation (ICE/ITMC) (pp. 1-11). IEEE.

Shams, R., Vrontis, D., Belyaeva, Z., Ferraris, A. and Czinkota, M.R., 2021. Strategic agility in international business: A conceptual framework for “agile” multinationals. Journal of International Management27(1), p.100737.

Tien, N.H., Phu, P.P. and Chi, D.T.P., 2019. The role of international marketing in international business strategy. International journal of marketing management and sales research, 1(2), pp.134-138.

Zakaria, N., Abdul-Talib, A.N. and Amelinckx, A., 2020. Advancing cultural frontiers to champion global business in emerging markets. Transcending Cultural Frontiers: Practices, Challenges, and Strategy for International Business, pp.1-10.

Zhu, M., Dai, J., Liu, R., Xu, J. and Alwisy, A., 2021. Two-period based carbon-economy equilibrium strategy for modular construction supply planning. Journal of Cleaner Production290, p.125674.