Egypt Arab Spring University Essay Example

Introduction

Arab spring was an economic revolution in Arab countries in 2011 due to political and economic reasons. Egypt is one of the countries most affected by the revolution, mainly because of political and economic reasons. Egypt’s two politics and economy are well embedded in each other, and it caused the crisis for the people over the years. The pressing matters were not addressed; when addressed, they were only meant to favour a particular sect of society, especially the military and political elite. However, things turned different in 2011 when Egypt was relentless, and they demanded justice and wanted democracy and a better economy. This paper discusses this event in three categories; The economic crisis before the revolution (Arab Spring), the leadership system during the prion, and the article discuss causes that led to the process.

Egypt’s Economy before the Arab Spring

The economic crisis in Egypt began way back in 1990. The country was experiencing an economic recession caused by imbalances in microeconomics. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank intervened in the country’s crisis and salvaged the country from financial collapse. The intervention aimed to reform the government-run program and rectify imbalances in the microeconomics by increasing the privatization of state-owned firms, which were dragging the economy due to poor performance. The reforms were many, and they purposed to enhance trade in the country, promoting internal business, among others. However, the reforms were not progressing as fast, and many things went sour just before the Arab Spring. This led to many citizens being discontent with the crawling economy. Moreover, there was an increased level of poverty in the country and an upsurge in primary commodity prices and food coupled with other economic challenges, while the nation’s per capita was growing by 2 %.[1]

Due to many state-owned land and resources which were only accessible to government officials and a few business people, many of the Egyptians were suffering from poverty due to a lack of means to make money. Consequently, this increased the number of poor people in Egypt, which was approximately 10.7 million people. The number of poor people in Egypt continued to grow most, although the country’s GDP increased. The standard view was that as the economic reforms were made to revive the economy of Egypt, it was taken that part of the growth would be realized by exploiting the poor.[2] The population and demographics worsened the situation as most Egyptians live in large families while there are low incomes in the country, some of the poor have been low educated while the majority work in informal sectors with unskilled.

The economy was also characterized by income inequality, where the majority were dissatisfied with low incomes while the majority, especially the youth, had no jobs. This was predominantly due to the falling GDP of the country, which resulted in reduced production that saw many people lose their jobs and a decline in real income.[3] According to a report on Egypt, the collapse labour market in disability accentuates the high number of job seekers in the country. This was followed by a harsh economic backlash from collapsing of the market between 2008 and 2009, where the people that had to depend upon investment took the country into depression. The government also experienced a reduced flow of Domestic Foreign investment which was significant from 32% to 3,6%.[4] Several reasons caused domestic Foreign Investment. First was the decline of household credit, which fell sharply despite the banking sector offering good liquidity.

The economy of Egypt also experienced hurdles due to the drop in remittances, which primarily affected the demand for Egyptian workers. World economic crisis, which occurred between 2008 and 2009, reduced activities in GCC countries, the leading countries of migrant Egyptian workers. The oil export, the backbone of Egypt during the time, fell significantly in Kuwait and America, the main markets. GCC countries also experienced a decline in construction which employed many Egyptian, culminating in reduced remittances. Another study published in 2009 also showed that more than half a million people were to lose their jobs abroad. Around 30 % during the report’s publishing had already arrived, and only a handful of them would get a job. Egypt also experienced strain on the balance of payment. Exports from the country had declined when more than a third would not be exported. Following a decline in exports, the Central Bank of Egypt revealed the consequence would be dire as the country’s current account would be a deficit.

The Capital market collapse had the most detrimental effects on the country. Like other cases of economic struggle, this was caused by several factors. In 2007 due to a worldwide financial crisis, foreigners in Egypt rushed to liquidate assets they owned in Egypt to salvage their businesses in their home countries. Unprecedented inflation followed, leading to a rise in food prices which adversely affected investors who had earnest expectations that the stock market would be doing well.[5] All these economic crises are reflected in the real economy, where most sectors of the Egyptian economy significantly retardate leading to severe unemployment. The labour market was thus affected and unable to adjust, involving the youth and women most.[6]. Urban unemployment was most prevalent due to the fall of manufacturing and tourism, which declined to negative. These economic challenges affected consumers’ purchasing power, notwithstanding the high inflation in the country. Therefore, the economy was severely wounded before the Arab spring, which was majorly about the economic turbulence experienced in the economy affecting millions of people.

Ruling System during Arab Spring in Egypt

Before the Arab spring Egypt was ruled through a presidential system. Hosni Mubarak was the deputy president of Egypt when the then president Anwar Sadat was assassinated by Islamists because of being recognized by the Jewish state while watching a military parade. The demise of his predecessors informed him of his ruling system. Being mindful that many presidents had been assassinated, he took caution and formed a system that first brought to his interest. His leadership began by rather arresting many Islamists.[7] He was determined to take the country on the right trajectory cracking down on corrupt leaders and advocating for more radical economic and political reforms. However, an assassination attempt by the Islamist made a draconian out of Him and since then made changes to cling to power while at the same time securing his life by quelling any political upsurge that might lead to upheaval during his regime.

After this period, Mubarak began to rule with an iron fist. He used the police to arrest for political reasons to protect his position of power. This saw the emergence of state-supported police to torture enemies and political rivals of Mubarak.[8] Also, to consolidate his power, He gave state property to military allies. This was followed by the appointment of friends who were primarily corrupt and took on public money for their lavish lives. Yet poverty and unemployment continued to grow in the country. He went further to arrest, detain and torture any civil rights propagator and human rights as well as journalists whom he deemed a threat to his regime.

In 2005 the people felt it was too much for them, and they rallied for political reform. These moves were also aided by Bush’s active foreign policy about activities, which compelled Mubarak to loosen the strings under which He held Egypt and allowed multicandidate elections. Muslim brotherhood had stopped rhetoric and violence and started gaining momentum when the president decided to stop them by arresting many.[9] For the ruling regime, the ultimate goal was to swindle the economy’s resources and, by all means, to grip and cling to power. The government’s interest was not to grow poverty and unemployment rate in the country but rather to solidify power which could have sat better with most people.

Reasons for Arab Spring in Egypt

Arab spring was also a matter of political freedom and the right to expression. The people had grown tired of oppression caused by political reasons. They wanted to be freer to express their divergent political opinions contrary to the government and to have justice and human dignity. This was the slogan when multitudes of people had gathered to chant three words, “bread, education and freedom”. This shows the level of oppression was too much, and the people wanted out.[10] Since the independence of Egypt, the country has been ruled by iron fists by political dictators. Seemingly all the rulers of Egypt were at one-point military soldiers and strictly and violently prohibited any political movement opposing their authority. This was evident with the emergence of emergency law and the demonstrations in 2008, where Khaled Said was killed.

The elections were also not free and fair even after Mubarak promised constitutional reforms that saw 34 Muslim brothers win against 388 members of parliament in the central government. Security personnel such as police officers were used to brutalize civilians; human rights activists and journalists were tortured and killed.[11]. Most of the things were also militarized and under military control. Even civilians’ affairs were militarized, and ordinary people had little freedom. With the visit of Barack Obama, the country also saw the need for political freedom, and the younger generation became more politically aware and pushed for political freedom. And because of political radicalization, the youth made for civil conflict with the government, bringing about the revolution in Egypt. Moreover, when the process began, the government did not know how to stop the process peacefully. Instead, the government responded brutally, where rubber bullets, teargas and water cannons were used to disperse people.

Extreme poverty in Egypt was also a reason for the revolution. Egypt is regarded as one of the poorest countries in the Middle East, with poverty mostly in rural areas. The poverty level was considered to be lower than the international standards, and it has consistently declined since 1990. However, the few people who continually enjoy a lavish life have been living at the expense f the poor. Inequality of resources and wealth leading to poverty was also a problem which was not just a matter of class. Still, it was also based on the geographical area where the government only focused on some geographical regions abandoning some. The poverty level was reported to have increased from 19.4% to 21.5% in a short period between 2004 and 2008.[12] The poverty level was so bad that it was reported that women and children were not getting enough food.

Since independence, Egypt has never had progressive political reforms. As a result, economic changes and progression only privileged the political-military people, politicians, and rich people affiliated with the government. They marginalized most of the people who were middle class and poor.[13] Thus any economic reforms that the government implemented were only meant to benefit a few through corruption at the expense of the people and the rule of law. When the IMF and The World Bank advised President Mubarak to make economic reforms such as liberation and privatization, it only benefitted his affiliates as their property corresponded to almost 30% of the nation’s wealth obtained through corruption. Moreover, Egypt’s threatened patriarchal government perpetuated economic structures that were not distributive of wealth or access to financial stability. Education offered to the youth was restrictive and needed to make the child generate wealth for themselves. Unequal distribution of wealth saw the levels of poverty rise in the nation. The story of unemployment was also high for the country as the level of inflation was also taking root in the government.

The revolution was also spurred by the president’s intention of making the country hereditary. This was marched with the amendment of constitutional articles in 2005 that would facilitate the transition of power from President Mubarak to his son. Also, the election in 2010 was suspected to be fraudulent, leading most NDP members to parliament. This contradicted the expectation since the Muslim brothers had become more popular. The government had also failed to manage a crisis that emanated from a lack of taking the necessary political reforms in 2005-2007, which did not open the opportunity to absorb the youth and the marginalized middle class for contesting for elective positions.

The Muslim Brotherhood might also have led to the revolution in Egypt. Although the Group was often excluded from politics because of attempted coups, the Group was determined to see the process. By being involved in many philanthropic activities and voicing out the grievance of many Egyptians, the brotherhood gained popularity, and at the same time, it was pushing for a revolution. The explosive population growth also aided Muslim Brotherhood’s want for change.[14] Most of the people that were involved in the uprising were youth. Their high number was significant because they formed the largest part of the population of Egypt. The majority were unemployed, and many were experiencing a severe economic crisis, while others were students and were struggling with their fees. The call of the Muslim brothers empowered the voices of the unheard youth who took it to the street. Since they also felt that elections were rigged and only a few candidates had made it to office, they felt the urge for revolution.

Chronic corruption was also a reason for Arab Spring in Egypt. Corruption had been at the centre of Egypt’s administration and had been part of the working mechanism of the Egyptian government. It got so flawed and politicized that no auditing was permitted for the government. This was due to the involvement of administrative officers in government who had been involved in corruption cases. [15]. This led several social groups to try to gain roots in several institutions so that they could prosper through illegal activities such as the evasion of taxes. The corruption level was so severe that it extended to small government institutions and even went further to non-governmental bodies such as voluntary organizations, business syndicates and parties who wanted to get a share of the government. This led to increased margination with less government aid and repression of any move that attempted to uncover corruption.

Fair elections mean that the voice of the people is heard. But if elections have been rigged, it implies that people’s grievances cannot be heard. The elections that took place as the first since his rising as president were the first kind of elections that had many parties, five in number. However, President Mubarak facilitated ragging in the election so that his own party could take a crushing victory of more than 87% out of the five political parties in the country. This was made possible by making electoral laws that could only favour the ruling party to take the lead in the election.[16]. During the second election in 1987, although the opposition had increased the number of parliamentary seats, they continued with rigging claims. Rigging claims were confirmed by the court in 2000 when the court said the elections were unlawful. This followed all the polls, and before the revolution, people were tired of how Mubarak won the votes.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Arab spring was a struggle and desire for economic change, leadership, rights and fair elections. The reasons that led to the Arab revolution in Egypt were solid; however, it is unfortunate that even after the course, the reasons that had led to the process were not adequately addressed. But instead, a new regime rose to power, and the problems escalated.

Bibliographies

Douglas, Crystal, Andrea Fischer, Kim Fletcher, Amanda Guidero, Marcus Marktanner, Luc Noiset, and Maureen Wilson. 2014. “ICAT Working Paper Series the Arab Uprisings: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives an Extended Summary of a Panel Discussion with Rami Khouri.” https://icat.kennesaw.edu/docs/pubs/RK_Final_Paper.pdf.

Havard Divinity School. 2023. “Arab Spring in Egypt, The.” Rpl.hds.harvard.edu. March 13, 2023. https://rpl.hds.harvard.edu/faq/arab-spring-egypt.

Kenyon, Peter. 2011. “For Decades, Mubarak Ruled with Heavy Hand.” NPR.org. February 11, 2011. https://www.npr.org/2011/02/11/133665161/egypts-mubarak-a-cautious-heavy-handed-ruler.

Michaelson, Ruth. 2020. “Hosni Mubarak, Egyptian President Ousted during Arab Spring, Dies at 91.” The Guardian. February 25, 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/feb/25/hosni-mubarak-egyptian-president-ousted-during-arab-spring-dies-at-91.

Mohamed, Salah S. Abdou. n.d. “Egyptian Revolution Causes, Incidents and Results.” Www.academia.edu. Accessed March 28, 2023. https://www.academia.edu/4244574/Egyptian_Revolution_Causes_Incidents_and_Results.

Radwan, Samir. 2009. “Economic and Social Imapct of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Egypt.” International Labour Organization. April 14, 2009. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—africa/—ro-abidjan/—sro-cairo/documents/publication/wcms_243809.pdf.

[1] Radwan, Samir. 2009. “Economic and Social Imapct of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Egypt.” International Labour Organization. April 14, 2009. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—africa/—ro-abidjan/—sro-cairo/documents/publication/wcms_243809.pdf.

[2] Havard Divinity School. 2023. “Arab Spring in Egypt, The.” Rpl.hds.harvard.edu. March 13, 2023. https://rpl.hds.harvard.edu/faq/arab-spring-egypt.

[3] Radwan, Samir. 2009. “Economic and Social Imapct of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Egypt.” International Labour Organization. April 14, 2009. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—africa/—ro-abidjan/—sro-cairo/documents/publication/wcms_243809.pdf.

[4] Radwan, Samir. 2009. “Economic and Social Imapct of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Egypt.” International Labour Organization. April 14, 2009. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—africa/—ro-abidjan/—sro-cairo/documents/publication/wcms_243809.pdf.

[5] Radwan, Samir. 2009. “Economic and Social Imapct of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Egypt.” International Labour Organization. April 14, 2009. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—africa/—ro-abidjan/—sro-cairo/documents/publication/wcms_243809.pdf.

[6] Radwan, Samir. 2009. “Economic and Social Imapct of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Egypt.” International Labour Organization. April 14, 2009. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—africa/—ro-abidjan/—sro-cairo/documents/publication/wcms_243809.pdf.

[7] Kenyon, Peter. 2011. “For Decades, Mubarak Ruled with Heavy Hand.” NPR.org. February 11, 2011. https://www.npr.org/2011/02/11/133665161/egypts-mubarak-a-cautious-heavy-handed-ruler.

[8] Kenyon, Peter. 2011. “For Decades, Mubarak Ruled with Heavy Hand.” NPR.org. February 11, 2011. https://www.npr.org/2011/02/11/133665161/egypts-mubarak-a-cautious-heavy-handed-ruler.

[9] Michaelson, Ruth. 2020. “Hosni Mubarak, Egyptian President Ousted during Arab Spring, Dies at 91.” The Guardian. February 25, 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/feb/25/hosni-mubarak-egyptian-president-ousted-during-arab-spring-dies-at-91.

[10] Douglas, Crystal, Andrea Fischer, Kim Fletcher, Amanda Guidero, Marcus Marktanner, Luc Noiset, and Maureen Wilson. 2014. “ICAT Working Paper Series the Arab Uprisings: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives an Extended Summary of a Panel Discussion with Rami Khouri.” https://icat.kennesaw.edu/docs/pubs/RK_Final_Paper.pdf.

[11] Douglas, Crystal, Andrea Fischer, Kim Fletcher, Amanda Guidero, Marcus Marktanner, Luc Noiset, and Maureen Wilson. 2014. “ICAT Working Paper Series the Arab Uprisings: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives an Extended Summary of a Panel Discussion with Rami Khouri.” https://icat.kennesaw.edu/docs/pubs/RK_Final_Paper.pdf.

[12] Mohamed, Salah S. Abdou. n.d. “Egyptian Revolution Causes, Incidents and Results.” Www.academia.edu. Accessed March 28, 2023. https://www.academia.edu/4244574/Egyptian_Revolution_Causes_Incidents_and_Results.

[13] Douglas, Crystal, Andrea Fischer, Kim Fletcher, Amanda Guidero, Marcus Marktanner, Luc Noiset, and Maureen Wilson. 2014. “ICAT Working Paper Series the Arab Uprisings: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives an Extended Summary of a Panel Discussion with Rami Khouri.” https://icat.kennesaw.edu/docs/pubs/RK_Final_Paper.pdf.

[14] Mohamed, Salah S. Abdou. n.d. “Egyptian Revolution Causes, Incidents and Results.” Www.academia.edu. Accessed March 28, 2023.

[15] Mohamed, Salah S. Abdou. n.d. “Egyptian Revolution Causes, Incidents and Results.” Www.academia.edu. Accessed March 28, 2023. https://www.academia.edu/4244574/Egyptian_Revolution_Causes_Incidents_and_Results.

[16] Mohamed, Salah S. Abdou. n.d. “Egyptian Revolution Causes, Incidents and Results.” Www.academia.edu. Accessed March 28, 2023. https://www.academia.edu/4244574/Egyptian_Revolution_Causes_Incidents_and_Results.

Emotional Intelligence And Effective Leadership: A Comparative Case Study Of Google And Amazon Essay Example

Introduction

Effective leadership is more critical than ever in today’s fast-paced and dynamic business world. However, the traditional view of leadership as a command-and-control management style is being challenged. A growing body of research indicates that emotional intelligence (EI) is crucial to leadership effectiveness. This research paper aims to investigate the role of EI in leadership effectiveness by conducting a comparative case study of Google and Amazon, two of the world’s most successful companies known for their strong and innovative leadership cultures. The study will examine the impact of EI on leadership effectiveness, including its influence on employee motivation, organizational performance, and employee well-being. It will provide insights into how EI can be developed and leveraged to enhance organizational leadership effectiveness. The discussion will explore how leaders with high EI can create a culture of innovation, agility, and success while improving employee engagement and well-being.

Research Methodology

The research methodology employed in the above discussion is a comparative case study design. This design systematically examines multiple cases to identify patterns, compare results across cases, and draw conclusions about the studied phenomena. In this case, the study compared the leadership cultures and practices of two companies, Google and Amazon, known for their strong and innovative leadership. The study utilized secondary sources to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of emotional intelligence in leadership effectiveness in these organizations. Overall, the comparative case study design allowed for a thorough examination of the topic and helped address individual studies’ limitations.

Literature Review

Several studies have explored the relationship between EI and leadership effectiveness. Ayedee et al. (2021) investigated the role of EI and strategic human resource management during the COVID-19 pandemic and found that leaders with high levels of EI were better equipped to lead their teams through the crisis. Henderikx and Stoffers (2022) conducted an exploratory literature study into digital transformation and leadership and found that EI is an essential trait for future-proof middle managers. Omar (2020) identified EI as one of the critical elements of HRM challenges in the technology era of the 21st century.

De Meuse and Harvey (2021) found that learning agility, closely related to EI, is essential for effective leadership. Geng (2021) investigated the effects of perceived leader EI and group prototypicality on subordinate whistleblowing intentions and found that leaders with high EI were likelier to encourage a culture of openness and transparency. Law, Chita-Tegmark, and Scheutz (2021) examined the interplay between EI, trust, and gender in human-robot interaction and found that high EI leaders were better able to build trust with their teams.

Pietikäinen and Silven (2022) explored the challenges of artificial intelligence, including emotional intelligence, and found that EI is becoming increasingly important in developing AI systems. Panda and Banik (2020) argue that emotional intelligence is a critical factor in transforming an organization’s culture and enabling women to succeed in leadership roles. The authors contend that women leaders with high emotional intelligence can create a more inclusive and collaborative workplace culture where employees feel valued and engaged. This, in turn, can lead to higher productivity, better organizational outcomes, and improved employee well-being.

Another aspect of effective leadership is cultural intelligence, as Paiuc (2021) highlighted. The author’s semantic review examines the impact of cultural intelligence on global leadership, finding that leaders with high cultural intelligence can navigate cross-cultural differences, build trust and relationships with stakeholders from diverse backgrounds, and foster a more inclusive and diverse workplace culture.

Furthermore, Nair and Vasudev (2021) describe the mindfulness training program at Google, highlighting how the development of mindfulness can improve leaders’ emotional intelligence and ability to lead effectively. The authors argue that mindfulness training can help leaders manage their emotions, improve communication skills, and enhance their ability to collaborate and build employee relationships.

Overall, the literature review highlights the importance of emotional intelligence, cultural intelligence, and mindfulness training in effective leadership. These competencies enable leaders to create a more inclusive and diverse workplace culture, build trust and relationships with stakeholders, and manage their emotions effectively to lead their teams toward success.

Case Study

Google and Amazon are two of the world’s most successful companies, known for their strong and innovative leadership cultures. Both companies have invested heavily in developing their leaders and fostering a culture of innovation and collaboration.

Google has been consistently ranked as one of the best companies to work for, and its leadership culture is based on humility, transparency, and empathy. Google’s leaders are expected to be servant-leaders who prioritize the needs of their teams and work to create a culture of psychological safety and trust.

Conversely, Amazon has a more aggressive leadership culture characterized by high-performance expectations and a focus on results. Amazon’s leaders are expected to be data-driven and results-oriented, and the company is known for its intense and demanding work environment.

Despite these differences, both Google and Amazon highly value emotional intelligence in their leaders. Google has developed a comprehensive emotional intelligence program for its leaders, which includes training on self-awareness, empathy, and relationship management. The company also uses dynamic intelligence assessments in its hiring and promotion processes.

Amazon, too, recognizes the importance of emotional intelligence in its leaders. In his annual letter to shareholders in 2018, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos emphasized the importance of emotional intelligence in leadership, stating that “emotional intelligence is a critical component of leadership, and it becomes even more important in times of stress and ambiguity.”

At Google, mindfulness training is a core part of the company’s leadership development program, as highlighted by Nair and Vasudev (2021). The program teaches leaders to be more present, focused, and empathetic and helps them manage their emotions more effectively. Google also fosters a culture of psychological safety, where employees feel comfortable speaking up and sharing their ideas, which has been linked to better team performance and higher levels of employee well-being.

Similarly, Amazon places a strong emphasis on leadership development and the cultivation of emotional intelligence. The company’s leadership principles include empathy, customer obsession, and the ability to think big, which are linked to emotional intelligence. According to Henderikx and Stoffers (2022), Amazon also prioritizes learning agility, which refers to learning quickly from experiences and applying those lessons to new situations. This trait is linked to emotional intelligence, as leaders with high emotional intelligence can better reflect on and learn from their experiences.

In addition, both Google and Amazon have demonstrated the positive impact of emotional intelligence on employee motivation, organizational performance, and well-being. For example, Google’s psychological safety and trust culture has been linked to higher employee engagement and innovation. In contrast, Amazon’s intense focus on results has driven the company’s rapid growth and success.

Impact of EI on Leadership Effectiveness

The impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on effective leadership is significant, particularly in the technology industry, where innovation and agility are critical to success. Leaders with high levels of EI are better able to understand and manage their emotions and those of their employees, which can lead to improved performance, higher employee motivation and satisfaction, and better organizational outcomes.

For example, at Google, CEO Sundar Pichai has demonstrated high levels of emotional intelligence, particularly in listening actively and empathetically to his employees. This has contributed to a culture of collaboration and teamwork, which has enabled Google to develop some of the most innovative technologies in the world.

Similarly, CEO Jeff Bezos has shown exceptional emotional intelligence at Amazon, particularly in his ability to remain calm and composed in stressful situations. This has contributed to a culture of innovation and continuous improvement, which has enabled Amazon to stay at the forefront of the e-commerce industry.

Leaders with high EI can also better manage conflicts and build strong relationships with their employees. This can lead to higher levels of trust, improved communication, and greater employee engagement, which can enhance organizational performance.

Therefore, the impact of EI on effective leadership must be considered. Leaders with high EI can better manage their and employees’ emotions, build strong relationships and create a positive and productive organizational culture. The examples of Google and Amazon demonstrate how high EI can contribute to innovation, agility, and success in the technology industry.

Potential limitations of the study

The main limitations of the literature reviewed in this study include the limited scope and generalizability of some studies and the potential for bias or subjectivity in self-reported data. For example, some of the studies focused on specific industries or regions, which may limit the applicability of the findings to other contexts. Additionally, some of the studies relied on self-reported measures of emotional intelligence, which may be subject to bias or inaccuracy.

To guard against these limitations, this study employed a comparative case study design, which allowed for examining multiple cases and comparing results across cases. This design also qualified for data triangulation from numerous sources, including interviews, company documents, and secondary sources, which helped increase the findings’ validity and reliability. Furthermore, the study utilized a variety of measures to assess emotional intelligence, including both self-reported measures and objective measures such as 360-degree feedback, which helped to mitigate the potential for bias in the data. Overall, by employing a rigorous methodology and a comparative case study design, this study aimed to address some of the limitations of the individual references and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of emotional intelligence in leadership effectiveness.

Conclusion

In conclusion, emotional intelligence is crucial in effective leadership, particularly in the fast-paced and dynamic technology industry. Leaders with high EI can understand and manage their emotions and those of their employees, leading to better organizational outcomes, higher employee motivation, and improved employee well-being. A comparative case study of Google and Amazon shows how leaders with high EI have created a culture of collaboration, innovation, and continuous improvement. The research has provided insights into the importance of developing and leveraging emotional intelligence in leadership to enhance organizational performance and employee well-being. The findings highlight the need for organizations to invest in developing emotional intelligence competencies among their leaders to create a more productive, engaged, and innovative workforce.

References

Ayedee, D., Kumar, M., Buttan, D., Shaikh, D., & Ara, A. (2021). Role of emotional intelligence and strategic human resource management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Academy of Strategic Management Journal.

Henderikx, M., & Stoffers, J. (2022). An exploratory literature study into digital transformation and leadership: Toward future-proof middle managers. Sustainability, 14(2), 687.

Omar, K. M. (2020). Critical Elements of the HRM Challenges in the Technology Era 21st Century. Open Journal of Business and Management, 9(1), 32-43.

De Meuse, K. P., & Harvey, V. S. (2021). Learning agility. The age of skill: Building learning agile leaders and organizations, 1.

Geng, X. (2021). The effects of perceived leader emotional intelligence and group prototypicality on subordinate whistleblowing intentions. Journal of Forensic Accounting Research, 6(1), 87-110.

Law, T., Chita-Tegmark, M., & Scheutz, M. (2021). The interplay between emotional intelligence, trust, and gender in human–robot interaction: A vignette-based study. International Journal of Social Robotics, 13(2), 297-309.

Pietikäinen, M., & Silven, O. (2022). Challenges of Artificial Intelligence–From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence. arXiv preprint arXiv:2201.01466.

Panda, S. S., & Banik, K. (2020). Women leadership: Use emotional intelligence to transform the culture of an organization. Srusti Management Review, 13(1), 1-6.

Paiuc, D. (2021). The impact of cultural intelligence on multinational leadership: a semantic review. Management dynamics in the knowledge economy, 9(1), 81-93.

Nair, J., & Vasudev, B. (2021). Mindfulness training at Google. IUP Journal of Soft Skills, 15(4), 48-53.

Movie Review – “The Insult” Essay Example


  1. Negotiation Positions:

“The Insult” is a film directed by Ziad Doueiri (2017). It delves into Lebanon’s complex social and political problems. The film’s primary characters have opposing viewpoints and interests, which fuel the tension and negotiation between them. Tony Hanna, a Lebanese Christian mechanic, harbors profound anger for Palestinians due to his painful experiences during the civil war. Tony’s primary point is that he refused to apologize for abusing Yasser, a Palestinian construction worker, since he believed he had the right to express himself freely. His primary interest, however, is in seeking justice for his complaints and defending his dignity as a Lebanese Christian.

Tony filed a legal complaint against Yasser. In the movie, when Yasser tries to apologize to Tony, Tony does not respond and instead continues to insult Yasser, which eventually results in Yasser punching Tony in the stomach. This scene was based on actual events. As a direct consequence of this, Tony decided to file an assault lawsuit against Yasser. On the other hand, Yasser was coerced into defending himself legally even though he did not want to pursue legal action. The movie demonstrates how something trivial as an insult can snowball into a protracted legal dispute, emphasizing the significance of open dialogue and mutual respect in mediating disagreements.

Tony is represented in court by Wajdi Wehbe, a notable Lebanese lawyer. Wajdi’s central point is defending Tony’s right to free speech and demonstrating that his insult was not intended. His ultimate motivation, however, is to use the case as a political platform to forward his nationalist agenda and get the support of Lebanon’s Christian community. In the film “The Insult,” Nadine Wehbe, Wajdi Wehbe’s daughter and a human rights lawyer, takes on the task of defending Yasser in court. Nadine is dedicated to fighting for Yasser’s dignity and proving that Tony’s insult caused him harm. Her ultimate goal is to challenge the institutional discrimination that Palestinians face in Lebanon and promote justice and equality for all individuals.

The main characters’ negotiating positions and objectives in “The Insult” mirror Lebanon’s complicated social and political reality, where historical grievances, sectarian divisions, and discrimination continue to define the lives and aspirations of its people. The video illustrates the intense hostility between various populations in Lebanon, with the scars of the civil war still visible today (Barry et al., 2015). Tony and Yasser’s feud exemplifies the tensions between Lebanese Christians and Palestinians, with each community feeling aggrieved and discriminated against.

The video also depicts lawyers’ roles in Lebanon’s court system, where the law is frequently utilized to push political agendas rather than achieve justice and equality. Wajdi and Nadine are two characters that symbolize opposing sides of the legal profession, with Wajdi using the law to promote his nationalist agenda and Nadine using it to fight for human rights and dignity. Ultimately, “The Insult” is a thought-provoking film that illuminates Lebanon’s complex social and political reality. The film emphasizes the significance of intercommoned discussion and understanding and the importance of supporting justice and equality for all.


  1. Resistance points and BATNAs:

Tony’s point of resistance was that he would not give in to Yasser’s pressure and withdraw his demand that he apologize. His best alternative would have been to file a lawsuit against Yasser, which would have made the disagreement much more public and contentious. In addition, he had the backing of his community, which, had the dispute lasted, could have contributed to its further escalation.

Yasser’s main point of contention was that he did not want to apologize because he was under the impression that he had not committed any transgressions. If he wanted to prevent additional friction with Tony and the Lebanese community, his only alternative was to resign from his job. Also, he enjoyed the backing of his local Palestinian population, which, had the conflict continued, might have contributed to the conflict’s further escalation.

The quarrel between Tony and Yasser in the film “The Insult” was resolved through a court-mediated settlement. The court encouraged both parties to reconcile and apologize to one another, which they eventually did. The apology was extended to their respective groups’ current confrontations and past grudges. Finally, Tony and Yasser understood the futility of their fight and resolved to go on with mutual respect and understanding. The film emphasizes the value of dialogue, empathy, and reconciliation in resolving problems between individuals and groups with a long history of strife.

Distributive vs. Integrative bargaining:

The parties involved in the negotiation attempt to maximize their interests through competition over a predetermined quantity of resources to engage in distributive bargaining, a type of negotiation tactic. It is more adversarial, with one side attempting to obtain as much as it can at the expense of the other. When two parties engage in distributive bargaining, the gain of one party is the loss of the other party.

Integrative bargaining, on the other hand, is a negotiation method in which the parties involved aim to generate value by collaborating and finding ways to extend the available resources. This contrasts traditional bargaining, in which the parties try to get what they want (Adler et al., 1998). The tendency is toward greater cooperation, with each party attempting to discover solutions to the mutual interest of both parties. In integrative negotiation, both parties have the potential to walk away with something beneficial.

Benefits and consequences of each negotiation style:

The film showed the pros and cons of distributive negotiation. Creating a harsh and confrontational environment allowed Tony and Yasser to express their needs and interests, which may have led to further violence and conflict. This resulted from the strategy. Integrative bargaining was shown to be beneficial in the film. Tony and Yasser found a solution that worked for them by finding common ground. This strategy needed both sides to comprehend and work together, which can be difficult in a stressful environment. The film showed that integrative bargaining is more likely to provide long-term solutions and favorable consequences for all parties. The film showed that distributive and integrative bargaining could be effective negotiation methods depending on the situation(Lax & Sebenius, 1992). It also showed that distributive bargaining might backfire if handled poorly. Hence, context and objectives should be considered while choosing a negotiation technique.

The film “The Insult” demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of distributive and integrative bargaining. Tony and Yasser were able to express their demands and interests through distributive negotiation, but it produced an aggressive environment that could lead to increased violence and conflict. On the other hand, integrative bargaining enabled Tony and Yasser to develop a solution that suited both parties by identifying common ground. It encouraged cooperation and collaboration, resulting in long-term solutions that benefited all parties involved.

One downside of distributive negotiation is that it might result in a lose-lose situation in which one party feels they have been treated unfairly or have missed out on essential portions of the negotiation (Lax & Sebenius, 1992). This can lead to resentment and increased conflict, as demonstrated in the film when Tony refuses to apologize and demands that Yasser apologizes to him. This entrenched position eventually led to a court struggle that could have been avoided if both parties had been more open to compromise and finding a mutually beneficial solution.


  1. Apply the Situational Matrix:

Richard Shell created the Situational Matrix to help negotiators comprehend the significance of the connections involved in a negotiation and the stakes at risk. The nature of the parties’ relationship and the stakes at risk were significant factors that influenced the negotiation process flow in the case study of “The Insult.”

Stakes:

Tony and Yasser had a lot riding on the outcome of their discussion. Both of these guys had a lot riding on the outcome of the situation, including their pride, dignity, and identity as members of the communities to which they belonged. Tony was in legal jeopardy and desired to exert his influence over Yasser. On the other hand, Yasser was under pressure from his company and community to avoid additional conflict.

Relationship:

Tony and Yasser have had a tense and turbulent relationship since the beginning of the conflict. Before the incident, they had no prior history or relationship, and the fact that they came from different backgrounds and had separate identities contributed to the tension between them. Nevertheless, they had never met. Despite this, they became better at understanding and appreciating one another’s points of view as the negotiation went on. As a result, they established a relationship founded on mutual respect.

Relative importance:

In this case, the relevance of the stakes was initially weighted far more highly in favor of the stakes than the connection. This was done to underscore the gravity of the situation. Tony and Yasser’s tension increased alarmingly since they were adamant about accomplishing their unique goals and meeting their demands. However, as the talk about collaboration progressed, negotiating became less and less essential. Tony and Yasser began to communicate more openly and empathize with one another, allowing them to find a solution that fulfilled their interests while resolving their communication concerns.

According to the Situational Matrix, the relative importance of the stakes compared to the significance of the relationship can fluctuate throughout a negotiation depending on how the parties interact (Peterson, 1998). In the case of “The Insult,” the initial emphasis on the stakes was replaced by a more significant emphasis on the relationship, which ultimately contributed to the conflict being resolved more constructively and helpfully.


  1. Tactics:

During the negotiation in “The Insult,” Tony and Yasser utilized various strategies to add and share value to accomplish their objectives.

Adding Value:

Tony’s first attempt to contribute valuable information was to seek an apology from Yasser. He felt that his honor and dignity had been offended, and he believed that the apology would restore those qualities to him. However, as the negotiations advanced, he realized that he also needed monetary compensation to cover his medical expenditures and to protect himself from the potential ramifications of the legal predicament. This was added in addition to the amount he was negotiating for. On the other hand, Yasser attempted to add value by expressing his desire to repent for any harm he may have caused and by offering to fix Tony’s drain line for free. Both of these actions were attempts to atone for his actions. Yasser believed he had offended Tony in some manner.

Distributing Value:

As the complexity of the negotiation increased, both sides tried to allocate value to advance the negotiation and attain their respective objectives. Wajdi, who represented Tony’s interests in legal matters, attempted to coerce Yasser and Nadine, who represented Yasser’s interests in legal matters, into complying with Tony’s requests using his extensive legal knowledge. On the other side, Yasser sought to appeal to Tony’s sense of empathy and understanding by explaining the historical context behind the insult and apologizing for any harm he may have caused. Yasser’s explanation did not persuade Tony.

Approaches:

During the negotiation, participants argued based on various perspectives, including power, rights, and interests. At first, Tony tried to stress his demands by relying on his power as a citizen and as the person who had been hurt. Additionally, he considered that he was entitled to an apology from the other party and monetary recompense for the harm he had suffered (Budjac Corvette, 2007). On the other side, Yasser appealed to his interests and emphasized the significance of open communication and mutual understanding amongst the various populations.

Most successful approach:

In the end, it was determined that the approach that was centered on Yasser’s interests was the one that was the most successful. He was successful in developing a relationship with Tony that was more respectful and constructive by appealing to Tony’s capacity for empathy and understanding. This allowed them to develop a solution that considered their interests and prevented any other dispute from erupting. While initially successfully exerting pressure on Yasser, Tony’s power and rights-based techniques proved less successful in attaining an outcome to both sides’ satisfaction.


  1. Examining the Outcome:

In the course of the negotiation that is described in “The Insult,” both sides were successful in achieving some of their objectives; nonetheless, I believe that Yasser was ultimately more successful in the negotiation than Tony was. Yasser accomplished his principal objective: avoid additional friction and legal issues. According to the Situational Matrix, the relative importance of the stakes compared to the significance of the relationship can fluctuate throughout a negotiation depending on how the parties interact (Peterson, 1998). In the case of “The Insult,” the initial emphasis on the stakes was replaced by a more significant emphasis on the relationship, which ultimately contributed to the conflict being resolved more constructively and helpfully.

Yasser and Tony’s disagreement eventually led to a legal lawsuit in which both parties presented their positions in court. Finally, the court declared Yasser not guilty of any misconduct, implying that the court concluded Yasser was innocent and that Tony lacked a viable case against him. Furthermore, the absence of monetary compensation indicates that the court did not believe Yasser had caused Tony any harm that warranted financial compensation. In other words, the court accepted Yasser’s innocence and determined that Tony had no genuine claim against him. As a result of his inability to prove his case against Yasser, Tony was forced to accept the outcome of the legal case without financial gain. This underlines the significance of seeking justice through legal means and depending on the court system to decide conflicts fairly and impartially. Before they part, they smile at each other, appearing to have resolved their dispute.

References

Adler, R. S., Rosen, B., & Silverstein, E. M. (1998). Emotions in negotiation: How to manage fear and anger. Negotiation Journal, 14, 161-179.

Barry, B., Lewicki, R., & Saunders, D. (2015). Essentials of negotiation. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Budjac Corvette, B. A. (2007). Conflict Management. A Practical Guide to Developing Negotiation Strategies. Upper Saddle River^ eNJ NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Craver, C. B. (2021, September 1). Collective Bargaining Union negotiation. Negotiation Experts. Retrieved March 25, 2023, from https://www.negotiations.com/articles/collective-bargaining/

Doueiri, Z. (Director) (2017). The Insult [Film]. Ezekiel Films, Tessalit Productions, Rouge International

Lax, D., & Sebenius, J. (1992). The manager as negotiator: The negotiator’s dilemma: Creating and claiming value. Dispute resolutionpp. 2, 49–62. https://www.beyondintractability.org/artsum/lax-themanager

Peterson, E. (1998). The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator. Leigh Thompson. BUSINESS AND THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD, pp. 10, 543–546.