Elderly With Alzheimer’s Disease: Functions And Falls Sample Assignment

Researchable Population

The fact is, approximately 5% of Alzheimer’s cases develop after the age of 65 (Nelson et al., 2012). Mental alertness is one of the most important aspects of aging, and the majority of geriatric patients tend to have memory issues (especially those who are 80 and up). Within the framework of the current research, the most appropriate researchable population would be a sample consisting of both men and women aging from 25 and up.

Therefore, the researcher is interested in this population due to the fact that the likelihood of Alzheimer’s increases with age and the nurses should have relevant experience concerning the treatment of this particular disease (Pedroso et al., 2012). On the other hand, the researcher realizes that there are numerous external factors that may influence the development of dementia and Alzheimer’s. This is why the research sample should theoretically consist of three layers – younger nurses, middle-aged nurses, and mature nurses. Nonetheless, the researcher takes into consideration the fact that women are more predisposed to the development of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (Saragat et al., 2012).

This may cause research bias due to the fact that male or female patients may tend to build better relationships with the nurses of their gender and not vice versa. The investigator does not consider race to be one of the critical factors that affect the current research but believes that there is a significant dependency between the race and the occurrence of Alzheimer’s (Stern, 2012). Due to the fact that the number of Hispanic and African-American individuals increases annually, the sample should definitely include representatives of these two races in addition to other existing races. Concurrently, the researcher expects that this particular segment of geriatric nurses will help to identify if the nurse’s race impacts the process of treatment and the development of interpersonal relationships.

Possible Challenges and the Ways to Address Them

One of the biggest challenges is to understand the values of the interviewed nurses and their attitude toward the treatment approaches (Clegg, Young, Iliffe, Rikkert, & Rockwood, 2013). Therefore, the researcher is in charge of composing all-inclusive surveys and creating a stress-free atmosphere during the interview. By eliciting correct and appropriate attitudes, the researcher will address the problem of contributing to the existing knowledge on the topic of Alzheimer’s and the ways of its efficient treatment (Lopez et al., 2013).

Another challenge is the willingness of the sample to share personal and other sensitive information concerning their nursing approaches to the treatment of geriatric patients. The researcher can address this challenge by acknowledging the personal value of each nurse and respecting their rights and freedoms. Another way to address this issue is to authorize the feasibility of these interviews. One of the biggest challenges inherent in this research project is the participants’ dignity (Saragat et al., 2012).

The researcher should realize the ethical implications of the study and guarantee that the sample will help the research and not hold it back. The researcher should address this issue by adapting to the diversity of the sample and building a positive connection with the study participants. Due to the personal nature of the research and the data that will be obtained, the researcher should be careful when dealing with research bias. The ultimate success of the interviews will depend on the communication skills of the researcher (Stern, 2012). The problem of Alzheimer’s treatment requires the researcher to apply the best available practices in order to manage the sample in the best way possible and obtain accurate and reliable data.

References

Clegg, A., Young, J., Iliffe, S., Rikkert, M. O., & Rockwood, K. (2013). Frailty in elderly people. The Lancet, 381(9868), 752-762.

Lopez, O. L., Becker, J. T., Chang, Y., Sweet, R. A., Aizenstein, H., Snitz, B.,… Klunk, W. E. (2013). The long-term effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotics in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(9), 1051-1058.

Nelson, P., Alafuzoff, I., Bigio, E., Bouras, C., Braak, H., Cairns, N.,… Del Tredici, K. (2012). Correlation of Alzheimer disease neuropathologic changes with cognitive status: A review of the literature. Journal of Neuropathology, 71(5), 362-381.

Pedroso, R. V., Coelho, F. G., Santos-Galduróz, R. F., Costa, J. L., Gobbi, S., & Stella, F. (2012). Balance, executive functions and falls in elderly with Alzheimer’s disease (AD): A longitudinal study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(2), 348-351.

Saragat, B., Buffa, R., Mereu, E., Succa, V., Cabras, S., Mereu, R.,… Marini, E. (2012). Nutritional and psycho-functional status in elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 16(3), 231-236.

Stern, Y. (2012). Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 20(2), 1006-1012.

Wal-Mart’s Performance And Business Strategy

Introduction

The principal idea of everyday low pricing (EDLP) practice is the maintenance of the stable low prices of the offered products on a regular basis. This strategy is normally opposed to the “high-low” policy that implies the occasional introduction of various discounts and special sales (Boone & Kurtz 2014). As a rule, the prices’ sustaining is achieved with the help of the close cooperation with suppliers that agree on a “better price” (Pride & Ferrell 2014).

As a rule, among the key advantages of the following practice, one tends to point out the equal spread of savings within the store and the relatively high predictability of its outcomes (Egan 2014). Its principal drawback is represented by the fact that the strategy’s efficiency depends significantly on the character of the typical customers. Thus, the relevant practice is presumed to be most appropriate for the supermarkets that mainly have the so-called “large-basket consumers” clientele (Schroth, G & Socorro Souza da Mota, M 2014).

Literature Review

The problem of EDLP practice is widely discussed in the literature. The majority of specialists agree on the point that this strategy is highly beneficial for increasing the competitive characteristics of supermarkets. Meanwhile, they point out the it is likely to show the best results on condition that it is applied to retailing industries rather than to manufacturing fields (Kazmi 2007). Moreover, numerous analysts put a particular emphasis on the clientele considering it to be the determining factor of the relevant practice. There is an assumption that EDLP strategy mainly appeals to the low-income population; thus, the most favorable store’s location is at a distance from the access to public transport (Ellickson & Misra 2008). Furthermore, some professionals assume that EDLP practice is most appropriate for the grocery-focused retailers (Shimp 2010).

Meanwhile, the critics of the relevant practice note that the prices’ stability leads inevitably to the loss of profit, which is particularly frequent with the supermarkets operating with thin profit margins (Hamister & Suresh 2008). Moreover, there is an opinion that the high-low pricing strategy is more competitive than EDLP practice as it enables a company to promote the food’s quality and ethical shopping (Solomon et al. 2009). Among the most vivid illustrations of the successful employment of EDLP strategy, one might point out IKEA and Tesco. The following cases prove that the practice under discussion can be effectively applied both to hypermarkets and supermarkets. As a consequence, the size of the retailing industry has no significance impact on the EDLP practice’s effectiveness. However, it depends considerably on the company’s clientele.

Research Results

In the course of the relevant research, one has, first and foremost, examined the organisational design and strategy of Wal-Mart. The results of the following analysis have shown that the company currently employs three strategies: EDLP practice, rollback, and special buy. The discrepancy between the fundamental principles of the relevant strategies prevents Wal-Mart from reaching its potential. Thus, there is a necessity for choosing one strategy that the company will further pursue (Bergdahl 2004).

Basing on the literature review, one has worked out the key criteria for estimating to which extent the EDLP practice is applicable to a particular company case (see App.1“Criteria for EDLP practice’s appropriateness”). Therefore, one has evaluated the appropriateness of EDLP practice for Wal-Mart. The results of the analysis are represented in the table below.

Factor Wal-Mart’s fit/unfit
Type of industry +
Clientele +
Store location +/-
Types of products +/-

Analysis

The results of the relevant research have shown that Wal-Mart’s conditions are highly favorable for the application of EDLP practice. First of all, the retailing type of industry and the prevalence of the “large-basket “clientele fully coincide with the principal requirements for EDLP strategy’s employment. As to the store location and the types of products, these points partially fit the requirements as the Wal-Mart’s stores have diverse locations, and they offer a variety of products including the grocery. Therefore, one might conclude, that the relevant practice can be chosen as the dominant price-determinant strategy for Wal-Mart company.

Recommendations for Implementation

One recommends that the implementation of EDLP practice is preceded by a careful planning procedure. First of all, it is crucial to determine a reasonably low price that, on the one hand, will be attractive for the clients and, on the other hand, will be reasonable enough for the retailers to maintain it on a regular basis. Secondly, the shift for the EDLP practice should not be excessively harsh as the sudden disappearance of rollback, and special buy options can have a negative influence on the customer’s loyalty. Finally, the executive board of the company will have to reorganize their cooperation with the suppliers taking into account the new rates. This collaboration might become mutually beneficial in case it is sensibly built.

Conclusion

The provided business research report is aimed at the examination of EDLP practice in the context of its appropriateness for Wal-Mart’s chain. The analysis of the relevant literature and the performed research’s results has shown that the suggested practice can be effectively employed in the quality of the price-determinant strategy. Such factors as Wal-Mart’s clientele and the retailing type of this industry make EDLP practice more preferable than rollback and special buy options. One should necessarily point out that the employment of the relevant strategy requires a thorough preparation process. Thus, one will have to carry out a series of actions in order to estimate the most reasonable prices, preserve the clients’ loyalty and define the new framework of the cooperation with the suppliers.

Reference List

Bergdahl, M 2004, What I Learned From Sam Walton: How to Compete and Thrive in a Wal-Mart World, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

Boone, L & Kurtz D 2014, Contemporary Marketing, Cengage Learning, Stanford.

Egan, J 2014, Marketing Communications, SAGE, London.

Ellickson, PB & Misra, S 2008, ‘Supermarket pricing strategies’, Marketing Science, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 811-828.

Hamister, JW & Suresh, NC 2008, ‘The impact of pricing policy on sales variability in a supermarket retail context’, International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 111, pp. 441-455.

Kazmi, SH 2007, Marketing management: Text and cases, Excel Books India, New Delhi.

Pride, W & Ferrell OC 2014, Marketing Express, Cengage Learning, Stanford.

Schroth, G & Socorro Souza da Mota, M 2014, ‘Agroforestry: Complex multistrata agriculture’, in NK Van Alfen (ed), Encyclopedia of agriculture and food systems, Academic Press, London, pp. 195-208.

Shimp, T 2010, Advertising promotion and other aspects of integrated marketing communications, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, Ohio.

Solomon, MR, Marshall, GW, Stuart, E, Mitchell, V & Barnes, B 2009, Marketing: Real people, real decisions, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow.

Appendices

Factor Favorable condition
Type of industry Retail
Clientele Large-basket consumers
Store location Distant from public transport
Types of products Grocery

App.1 “Criteria for EDLP practice’s appropriateness”

The US Acid Rain Program: Benefits And Costs

Introduction and Context

Authors Lauraine Chestnut and David Mills documented the benefits and cost assessment of the US acid rain reduction platform. Special attention was given to the parameters specified under the US Acid Rain Program, specifically Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To accomplish that goal, the proponents of the study compared estimates made in 1990 to estimates made a decade after. Furthermore, the need to measure the benefits of the program in the context of human health was given special attention. Chestnut and Mills utilized estimates provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to determine the health and environmental benefits of the said program.

About the geographical area, Chestnut and Mills focused the scope of the study to include only the power plant industry within the United States. Therefore, data reports from specific regions in the United States became part of the said study. This measurement process was guided by the use of the Integrated Planning model, which is a multiregional model of the country’s power plant industry (Chestnut and Mills 253). Nonetheless, the spotlight was on a 36 by a 36-kilometer grid that covers portions of the continental United States and southern portions of Canada (Chestnut and Mills 256).

The proponents of the study were focused on determining the emission rate of electric power plants in terms of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Be that as it may, it is not possible to fully understand the health issue without stating that the emissions of the aforementioned chemicals were mere precursors. The critical part of the emission reduction program was to find out the end-result when these pollutants entered the atmosphere. It was revealed later on that the most disconcerting discovery was that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions were precursors to the emergence of particulate aerosols, a compound that is harmful to human health. Therefore, the health issue was to reduce emissions to reduce particulate aerosols.

Methods and Data

To understand the cost-efficiency of the acid rain program about the perceived health benefit, it was important to figure out the estimated total annualized cost of applying the legal mandate found in Title IV. Using a report submitted to the U.S. Congress containing cost estimates derived from different assumptions and modeling tools, they were able to derive the correct data.

About the measurement of human health benefits, the study relied on data supplied by the US EPA. The US EPA in turn utilized information taken from a published source that was using a quantification method to calculate the human health benefits in the context of particulate matter aerosol. Once the estimates had been tabulated the data was fed to a simulation program called the Regulatory Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition or REMSAD.

The appropriate use of the REMSAD enabled the US EPA to determine the expected volume of particulate matter in the atmosphere in the year 2010. Once the data measuring the particulate matter became available, this information was utilized and combined with health effects made available to the U.S. EPA. As a result, the proponents of the study were able to determine the health benefits of emission reduction protocols.

The proponents of the study were also interested in determining the ancillary benefits with regards to the reduction in the emission of pollutants from electric power plants. As a result, they also wanted to find out the following outcomes: 1) effects on visibility, 2) effects on natural resources; and 3) effects of acid deposition on materials.

Results and Discussion

It was discovered that for every ton of emission reduced, the government spent at least $250. The U.S. EPA and other related agencies did not expect the low cost of reducing the emission of pollutants. The cost projections in the 1990s were much higher than the recent estimates supplied to the U.S. EPA. In other words, to achieve a significant level of reduction in emissions, the government had to spend $3 billion in 2010.

After calculating the cost of hospitalization, medical expenses related to symptoms and the reduction in productivity due to weak lungs, inflammation, and morphological changes, the proponent of the study reported a positive cost-benefit outcome of at least $100 billion. In other words, if the reduced emission resulted in the prevention of health problems, there is no need to spend a hundred billion dollars in medical expenses. The proponents of the study provided a detailed breakdown of the health benefits with regards to the following medical issues:

  1. adult mortality rates;
  2. infant mortality rates;
  3. non-fatal heart attacks;
  4. acute bronchitis;
  5. asthma exacerbations;
  6. respiratory symptoms,
  7. work loss (Chestnut and Mills 258).

The cost-benefit analysis was in favor of the reduction of the emission of pollutants. However, the article discussed ancillary benefits as well. It was made clear that the successful application of reduction protocols was beneficial to the nation’s natural resources as well. The said pollution control process also ensures the security and integrity of the food chain with regards to the threat of bioaccumulation of toxins.

Conclusions and Criticisms

There was a favorable cost-benefit assessment with the application of Title IV protocols into the proposed reduction of the emissions emanating from U.S. power plants. The positive impact of the assessment was clarified through numbers 3 and 100. It only required 3 billion dollars to achieve savings worth more than 100 billion dollars. As a result, it was easier to conclude that the implementation of the acid rain program exceeded expectations. Be that as it may, there were concerns regarding the liberal use of simulation models that supplied the estimates in cost as well as health benefits.

The proponents of the study pointed out that there are always uncertainties in the use of simulation models in generating this type of data. Nevertheless, it is imperative to refine the process. Thus, they proposed the utilization of more limiting assumptions. They also suggested the use of stringent standards in the interpretation of the literature that was used to create estimates. Nonetheless, it was acknowledged at the end that the significant difference in the expenses needed to reduce emissions versus the estimated health benefits was more than enough to acknowledge the favorable cost-benefit assessment of the said acid rain program.

Aside from inputs on how to improve the calculation of the cost and health benefits, the proponents of the study also made recommendations regarding the need to look into the ancillary benefits of the said pollution control program. Taking everything into consideration, it was clear to all parties that it is prudent to suggest further reductions in the power industry’s pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide.

Works Cited

Chestnut, Lauraine and David Mills. “A Fresh Look at the Benefits and Costs of the US Acid Rain Program.” Journal of Environmental Management 77.1 (2005): 252-266. Semantic Scholar. Web.

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