Elements Of A Successful Staff Training Session Writing Sample

A successful staff training session requires eight essential elements in order to provide staff and management with a cohesive process and a productive environment. First, an effective training program relies on skilled leadership that can adequately manage the process of learning. Second, the staff’s learning needs must be identified for the experience to address actual weaknesses and be less time-consuming. Working on staff knowledge and skills gaps is respectful to the staff and their time and allows management to apply resources only where appropriate. Third, training should be modified in accordance with an organization’s business goals. The alignment of learning needs with organizational goals allows for clarity of the training process by clarifying how learning tasks contribute to the functions of a firm.

Elements of a Successful Staff Training Session

Fourth, the sessions will benefit from correctly selected measurement metrics and goal tracking. This is because having a clear understanding of the staff’s progress allows for greater cost-effectiveness, learning quality, and time use. Fifth, the content provided to the staff should be relevant and follow modern industry standards. There is no benefit in providing outdated information and as such, it should be excluded from any training sessions. Sixth, because training programs, especially those that occur frequently, can be exhaustive or repetitive for staff, creative approaches are necessary. Because the central focus is to improve the abilities of the staff, it is vital that the environment and approach of the session are engaging, active, and not tedious.

Elements of a Successful Staff Training Session

Seventh, the session or program should be marketed strategically throughout the organization. Staff requires access and information to the program in order to join and benefit from the learning experience. Eighth, further training reinforcements are essential in order to retain all the acquired skills and information.

Narcissism In Chief Executive Officers


The selected and presented issue in the case is narcissism, which tends to be portrayed in all classes of people, including political leaders and entrepreneurs. However, the chosen client cohort for the study is the organizational chief executive officers (CEOs). According to the statistical reports, narcissism refers to an extreme personal-engagement to the scope that makes one ignore the needs of the individuals surrounding them. In that case, the CEOs experiencing narcissistic personal disorder (NPD) exhibit negative interpersonal problems, including physically and emotionally abusing others (Weiss & Miller, 2018). As a result, most psychotherapists neglect them, which makes them later have a significant impact on society, the community, and themselves, leading to more narcissists’ development even though the DSM-5 does not categorize diverse kinds of narcissism, such as vulnerable narcissists, when senior business executives who are treated early can benefit from the therapies.

Review of the Literature of the Narcissism

How Narcissists Develop and the Impacts

To a greater extent, narcissists develop, particularly when their interpersonal blossoming becomes significantly compromised. The family members continue to develop as they feel more entitled to others and do not receive the required therapy from medical professionals. NPD individuals, including the CEOs, continue emerging as they have a unique spectrum different from other humans in the general populace. The failure to acknowledge others and not to receive the required life coaching makes narcissists develop, particularly when the surrounding people do not talk to them regarding their behavior. The study shows that the behavior starts at 7 to 8 when kids evaluate themselves on how they perceive others (Weiss & Miller, 2018). However, the behavior becomes more evident after puberty, when narcissists are 18 years when the symptoms prevail. However, during adulthood, more people become diagnosed with NPD.

Most medical professionals and psychotherapists avoid treating narcissists, attending to them, and referring the victims, including the CEOs, as lost cases. Nevertheless, they fail to observe its effect on families and the general community. The narcissistic interpersonal issues make the senior organizational executive lose their careers, as they belittle and insult key stakeholders. Covert narcissists have troubled relationships and lack the much-needed empathy for other people. In the process, the family faces a massive financial crisis. In addition, the relative may encounter physical and emotional abuse, chronic gaslighting, and infidelity from the individual experiencing narcissism (Aslinger et al., 2018). To the overall society, narcissists undermine the institution’s core values, beliefs, and traditional norms, making them crumble under their leadership. Therefore, it is necessary the treatment the behavior using several sensitive approaches, including therapies, instead of neglecting the victims.

Contributing Factors

Significantly, biological, psychological, and social factors serve as key factors triggering how narcissists develop. Most of the corporate CEOs exhibiting NPD have been proven to have inherited the disorder from their parents. Several studies indicate that using standardized tests assessments; the NPD has a high heritability rate with a coefficient of 0.64 (Aslinger et al., 2018). To a greater extent, narcissists are associated with a highly inflated sense of dominance, self-importance, and empathy absence. The research investigating the environmental bases of interpersonal entitlement and grandiosity indicated that they are heritable at 23 percent and 35 percent, respectively (Adams, 2021). In addition, people with NPD have less gray matter volume in the left anterior insula, which is the portion of the brain associated with compassion, empathy, mental functioning, and emotional regulation. Such a phenomenon negatively affects the community, family, and the individuals themselves as more narcissists continue to develop.

The social factors, including the parenting style and the surrounding culture whereby a person grows, can contribute to narcissists’ development. Corporate CEOs’ early childhood encounters, including criticism and rejection by guardians, play a crucial role in causing NPD. If the interaction received from the parents is negative, it may contribute to narcissists blossoming in adulthood. While engaging with their kids, parents can massively pamper them by substantially praising them, making them start developing manipulative and entitlement traits, leading to the development of narcissists (Shure et al., 2019). Lastly, psychological factors contribute to narcissism development in organizational seniors. A CEO who encounters abuse or assault in childhood has a higher chance of emulating the behavior, which engenders how narcissists develop.

The Prevalence Rate

Most statistical reports indicate that all humans have narcissistic traits to some extent. However, in a healthy person, a typical quantity of narcissism assists them in finding joy and taking pride in their life accomplishments. Compared to senior corporate leaders, most young CEOs have the correct amount of narcissism as the personal disorder worsens in middle and old age. Multiple studies showcase that nearly 10 percent of global adults encounter at least one kind of personality disorder in any given year. Approximately 6.5 of adults develop NPD; for example, the NPD prevalence rate stands between 0.5 to 5 percent in America (Gawda & Czubak, 2017). Such a phenomenon indicates that the narcissism prevalence rate is not much higher.

However, NPD is common among men for all people on different career paths, including executive members of organizations, compared to women. In that case, almost 75 percent of all NPD in the corporate world individuals are men (Crisp & Gabbard, 2020). The prevalence of narcissism is higher in particular demographics, whereby when contrasted to other professionals, the percentage of senior corporate officials having NPD is 20 percent (Gawda & Czubak, 2017). Corporate leaders from minority groups, including Blacks, have higher chances of developing NPD as they encounter issues, including poverty and other socioeconomic factors.

The Cultural Diversity, Equality, and Inclusivity of Narcissism

From several works of literature, narcissism varies significantly across cultures. Studies show that narcissistic senior executive leaders were more in the independent culture associated with self-construal than in interdependent cultural countries (Ronningstam, 2018). In both collectivist and individualistic cultures, grandiose narcissism is not equivalent. Western countries have had extensive sprouting of narcissists as people compete in their daily activities, careers, and talents (Shure et al., 2019). Society makes corporate CEOs develop manipulative and self-importance traits compared to their counterparts, contributing to how narcissists develop. Cultural incongruence resulting from the absence of traditional similarities and comprehension between individuals in interactions gives people a higher chance of becoming narcissists as they encounter massive mental problems.

Western nations have many people from different cultural backgrounds. They have embraced capitalism, whose power distance is high, making most senior leaders, particularly men, compete with one another. Different cultures have showcased massive inequality, particularly among corporate leaders exhibiting narcissism. Such a phenomenon leads to narcissists developing as they know society has no appropriate measures to correct their deteriorated interpersonal relationships. Male senior executives are accepted to manifest narcissistic behaviors, while their female counterparts are accused, and people show bias when they encounter similar situations. The gender difference across cultures has resulted in inequality in how men and female CEOs portray NPD behavior (Ronningstam, 2018). For Western private and public sectors to reduce the number of narcissists developing, they must embrace inclusivity by developing policies geared toward people experiencing disorders and other mental challenges. Without inclusivity, narcissism will continue to increase among adults, creating favorable conditions for it to thrive. This phenomenon enables narcissists to stop blaming, gaslighting, and manipulating behaviors to seek validation from other people, which affects themselves, the community, and family members.

Effective Therapies for Organizational Executive Leaders

To a greater extent, when narcissist CEOs attend therapy, they typically attend treatment for an unassociated problem, including depression, grief, and relationship issues. However, a therapist can help vulnerable narcissists reflect inwards and question their behavior appropriately while avoiding disengagement to ensure they meet their needs without manipulative traits. The research indicates that narcissistic senior executives have low chances of seeking treatment, making them develop their behavior more as psychotherapists neglect them. They have interpersonal problems that affect the community, families, and themselves. Therefore, beginning therapy for them is more effective in treating the behavior attached to the disorder, such as physically abusing other people (Crisp & Gabbard, 2020). At first, the NPD treatment is centered around psychotherapy (talk therapy). Notably, it becomes challenging to acknowledge abusive conduct, particularly after normalization within relationships.

A therapist, family members, and friends can assist covert senior executive narcissists in identifying situations and adverse interpersonal conduct they are encountering and better managing their behaviors. Communicating with CEOs helps them rebuild their self-esteem and enables them to reconcile and talk with people correctly to build their relationships. Significantly, psychotherapy assists narcissists in relating better with others, making their interactions more rewarding and enjoyable. In that process, corporate leaders comprehend the causes of their varied emotions and what drives them to compete, despise, and distrust others, thus harming them (Adams, 2021). They stop manipulating and blaming others and meet their needs adequately while accepting their actual competence and developing the potential to relate failures and criticisms. Talk therapy helps vulnerable narcissists comprehend the need to change their issue of negative behavior by releasing their desires for unattainable and unideal goals and accepting what they can accomplish.

On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) concentrates on transitioning unhealthy sequences of conduct and how the beliefs and thoughts impact individuals’ moods and actions. CBT therapists ensure the CEO narcissists focus on their existing issues and design appropriate and meaningful methods to solve them (Werner et al., 2019). NPD senior executives have deficiencies in particular skills that deter them from adapting to change, and other contextual and environmental elements act to support violent conduct (Diamond et al., 2021). CBT uses exposure therapy, behavior modification, cognitive restructuring, skills training, and psychoeducation techniques to produce expressive conduct and thought shifts that make the individuals better. The NPD CEOs encounter loneliness, mental illnesses, and substance abuse, making them not seek treatment. However, a therapist ensures that vulnerable narcissists improve their quality of life by acknowledging their conditions, thus reducing the issue of narcissism among them.

Conceptualization of Narcissism by Comparing and Contrasting Core Models and Linking Them to Given Real-World Example

A Real-Life Example

Tonny, a senior corporate leader, was responsible for developing a mobile application in operation to enhance business activities across several countries. However, the mission execution was unsuccessful, and he experienced a problem of narcissism. Therefore, Tonny started causing unending conflicts with his junior employees and physically and emotionally abusing them for not being cooperative and following orders. To a greater extent, he believed that he was highly intelligent and talented and had the best operation blueprint to ensure the business expanded globally. His manipulative and arrogant behavior started causing drift regarding Tonny’s relationships with other subordinates. In that case, most people started neglecting and avoiding him due to his unfavorable conduct, making him face a troubled relationship within the organization.

The Person-Centered Therapy (PCT) Theory

Compared to other models (CT/RT, MCT, and TA), Carl Rogers profounded the PCT theory, which acknowledges people have an innate tendency to maximize their perspective. In that case, narcissism which results from life experiences, can distort such ability. The PCT approach works at comprehending the vulnerable narcissist’s experience from their viewpoint. Therapists value their patients in all human aspects for clients to remain genuine and open. From the real-life example given, NPD hinders senior executives, such as Tonny, from understanding their feeling. The model assists them in reconnecting with their inner values and developing a sense of self-worth, thus reducing the chances of developing further narcissism. The primary objective of PCT is to enable people like Tonny to self-actualize to utilize their identity and strengths to move forward and progress, which is not the case with other models (Zarogiannis, 2018). In that case, the corporate CEOs in the PCT model serve as the experts as they comprehend their troubles, and the therapist is only for guidance. The theory creates a psychological environment where the patient feels free from emotional and physical threats, enabling them to socialize effectively, develop trust, and hinder narcissism development.

The PCT model, contrasted with CT/RT, MCT, and TA approaches, embraces empathy, congruence, and unconditional practical regard principles to ensure that the patient derives the maximum benefits. Several factors can influence Tonny’s flourishing capability, such as a lack of self-reliance, low self-esteem, and minimal transparency to new encounters, which leads to blossoming narcissism. However, there are notable similarities between the PCT approach and other models, such as MCT, TA, and CT/RT approaches. At first, they all acknowledge personal relationships and social environment, which impact instances experienced by Tonny, and the therapy is given in a comfortable and neutral setting (Haugh, 2018). The PCT approach benefits NPD patients by addressing their particular thinking patterns, triggering issue occurrence. In that case, through these models, the corporate leaders overcome certain issues, including mental health concerns, grief, anxiety, and depression, substantially impacting self-esteem, which causes the development of narcissism, which makes them lose their careers. Since people experiencing narcissism avoid treatment, the PCT theory embraces the notion of self-concept.

The Choice Theory (CT/RT) Concept

The NPD clients, such as Tonny, tend to be highly praised, as they consider themselves superior and more talented than others. The feelings of interlinkage, closeness, belonging, and intimacy with others are vital for NPD people requiring self-object redirections. However, the NPD senior executives use demanding and pushing actions, destroying interactions that hinder meeting self-object needs, which leads to how narcissists develop. NPD patients’ utilization of external regulation damages the ability to locate satisfaction, eventually leading to adverse relationships. Such interpersonal disengagement serves as the personal mental disorder foundation. Therefore, compared to other models, including TA, MCT, and PCT models, the choice theory substitutes outward control psychology, preserves socialization and ensures patients’ maximum mental health geared towards reducing how narcissists blossom (Gildersleeve, 2019). External control psychology refers to managing other people in a way they do not like. The ideology does not authorize humans in an external environment to formulate interests regarding individual liberty. From the Tonny example, it is notable that seeking much praise and approval from people disconnects relationships, as individuals tend to lack freedom, which acts as an essential human need.

However, the choice theory, just like PCT, MCT, and TA approaches, advocates that people have command of only themselves, and controlling others results in anger, grief, and irritation. It becomes necessary for NPD people, such as Tonny, to concentrate on the internal regulation of choices and appreciate other people’s rights while meeting their needs. A therapist should educate the NPD senior executives using the CT/RT approach on caring habits. This will include identifying their self-object demands and treating them by speaking and accepting them (Yakeley, 2018). By deploying choice theory, a psychotherapist directs people experiencing narcissism toward attaining their interpersonal connectedness and effectively informs them how to use internal control psychology (Gildersleeve, 2019). By using the CT/RT model, NPD CEOs, including Tonny, become proficient at understanding other people’s needs and acquiring pragmatic self-object happiness and transferences. Setting boundaries by psychotherapists serves as an effective treatment for narcissists. The reality theory has beneficial similarities when contrasted with TA, MCT, and PCT models. They perceive behaviors as choices and acknowledge that psychological symptoms happen due to individuals’ preference to fulfill their needs rather than mental health conditions. In that case, CT/RT conceptualizes that narcissism can be reduced and managed, particularly if the vulnerable narcissists embrace the fact that they can only control themselves.

Application of Multicultural Counseling Theory (MCT) in Narcissistic Personal Disorder (NPD)

The MCT serves as a philosophy and an assessment body spearheading and embedding the extensively diverse social context in which people act. MCT is different from PCT, TA, and CT/RT approaches because the concept significantly considers the discrepancies and opposing perceptions that educate people’s worldviews from other socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Since corporate leaders, such as Tonny, encountering narcissism tend to have high blaming power for others; the MCT abolishes the onus of blame for challenges from the person while concomitantly freeing them into accepting their life path responsibilities (Symington & Grotstein, 2018). The acknowledgment of remembering the truth help treat narcissists and the way they may positively affect the general community, family, and the individuals themselves and minimize how narcissists develop. The other models do not show how culture impacts narcissists. However, the MCT model manifests how narcissists thrive in countries embracing individualistic cultures, whereby multiple traditions have made people compete with one another in all life aspects. The MCT removes all stumbling blacks to create intergroup harmony and enables NPD senior leaders to cope with stress effectively. The MCT incorporates various concepts within the therapeutic stance while countering the narcissism issue (Betchen & Davidson, 2018). Nevertheless, one of the notable similarities between the MCT and CT/RT, TA, and PCT models is that they all advocate building healthy relationships by avoiding discrimination, creating self-alertness, and improving narcissists’ self-esteem acceptable in the community. In that case, the MCT ideology perceives narcissism as driven by cultural factors and variations among individuals.

The Use of the Transactional Analysis (TA) Model

Eric Berne mainly developed the transactional analysis (TA) theory to assess individual interactions and relationships. In NPD therapy, TA is deployed to address the client’s communications and socialization, aiming to establish and support their ideologies for pragmatic change and progress, which is not the case with other models, including CT/RT, MCT, and PCT (Cornell, 2020). The NPD senior executives, such as Tonny, showcase various attitudes, emotional abuse, and sophisticated conduct that destroy relationships with other people. The TA theory shows that a person has three ego phases: parent, child, and adult, as opposed to the PCT, MCT, and CT/RT models. In the parent stage, one accepts the external events observed and experienced by the guardians, while the child stage dictates the emotions and feelings explicitly connected to external events (Tangolo & Massi, 2018). By using the TA model, Tonny can view and comprehend diverse circumstances from what is felt or observed in the adult phase, making him find the support demand and reducing how narcissists develop.

These significantly lead to narcissism and crossed transactions stimulus results in the breakdown of communication, which engenders conflict. Narcissist corporate leaders have poor communication and need to develop an innate need for social recognition to experience positive emotional and physical growth (Davey, 2021). In therapy, just like the PCT, MCT, and CT/RT approaches, the TA assists narcissists in gaining and sustaining independence by reinforcing the adult stage, taking personal responsibility for maintaining relationships and embracing positive emotions and behaviors thoughts.

Theoretical Compatibility of Core Models

The models, including PCT, CT/RT, TA, and MCT, possess theoretical compatibility regarding the common factors of internal psychological control and the importance of authentic relationships. The theories acknowledge developing a strong sense of self-efficacy, feeling confident, having personal control, and becoming more independent, which helps avoid blaming and manipulative behaviors, thus deterring how narcissists develop (Miller et al., 2018). The models advocate for the benefits of maintaining healthier relationships with other people to enable one to improve self-esteem and meet their needs effectively without subjecting one to external psychological control.

Integrative Application of PCT, CT/RT, MCT, and TA with NPD Senior Executive Leaders

The theories can be integratively applied to senior corporate executives experiencing distress due to the problem of narcissism. To a greater extent, the concepts acknowledge that CEOs with NPD, such as Tonny, act as experts in their problems. However, the models help treat the issue of narcissists by accepting and making them remember the truth and acquire support from other people. Through the assistance of therapists, narcissist leaders understand their distrustful thoughts and behaviors and their interpersonal problems negatively affect society, the family, and the victims themselves (Cornell, 2020). The models can be integratively applied to the narcissist’s senior executives by making them develop interpersonal relations, incorporate a sense of personal identity, spearhead culturally diverse relations, and train them on various situations they encounter in their life.

Evaluation of the Integrative Approach

The integrative approach of these models is highly effective as it embraces key components, including physical, cognitive, and behavioral aspects that the NPD senior executive officials portray, reducing how narcissists develop. However, during integrative therapy, it is essential to incorporate the spiritual element of the treatment to ensure that patients derive the maximum benefits in making them embrace authentic relationships and choose behaviors that meet their needs without controlling other people (Davey, 2021). The mental well-being of CEOs with NPD is crucial as it may make them cause conflicts due to poor transactional communication with others. Lastly, integrative psychotherapy enables corporate leaders to adapt sufficiently to treat the distinctive features and needs, enabling therapists to tailor their knowledge of evidence-based approaches.


The narcissism issue substantially varies across cultures, with a high predominance in individualistic countries. Several behaviors, including physical and emotional abusing others, can affect the community and the family, make people not have functional relationships around them, and engenders how narcissists develop. However, through the integrative approach of various therapeutic theories, focusing on narcissists’ physical, mental, behavioral, and affectionate well-being, they can embrace internal psychological control and develop authentic relationships in receiving treatment. The issue of narcissists can be treated by the psychotherapists accepting them, making them acknowledge the aspects of truth, encouraging them to demand support, and setting boundaries with them.


Adams, S. W. (2021). Individualized and phase-based cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of early-onset pure dysthymic syndrome in an outpatient with mixed personality features. Clinical Case Studies, 20(5), 417-432.

Aslinger, E. N., Manuck, S. B., Pilkonis, P. A., Simms, L. J., & Wright, A. G. (2018). Narcissist or narcissistic? Evaluation of the latent structure of narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127(5), 496-502.

Betchen, S. J., & Davidson, H. L. (2018). Master conflict therapy: A new model for practicing couples and sex therapy. Routledge.

Cornell, W. F. (2020). Transactional analysis and psychoanalysis: Overcoming the narcissism of small differences in the shadow of Eric Berne. Transactional Analysis Journal, 50(3), 164-178.

Crisp, H., & Gabbard, G. O. (2020). Principles of a psychodynamic treatment for patients with a narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 34(1), 143-158.

Davey, G. C. (2021). Psychopathology: Research, assessment, and treatment in clinical psychology. John Wiley & Sons.

Diamond, D., Yeomans, F., & Keefe, J. R. (2021). Transference-focused psychotherapy for pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 49(2), 244-272.

Gawda, B., & Czubak, K. (2017). Prevalence of personality disorders in a general population among men and women. Psychological Reports, 120(3), 503-519.

Gildersleeve, M. (2019). Demystifying paradoxical characteristics of narcissistic personality disorder. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 34(4), 403-404.

Haugh, S. (2018). The handbook of person-centered therapy and mental health: Theory, research, and practice. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 17(2), 188-190.

Miller, J. D., Back, M. D., Lynam, D. R., & Wright, A. G. (2021). Narcissism today: What we know and what we need to learn. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 30(6), 519-525.

Ronningstam, E. (2018). Narcissistic personality disorder with borderline features. In B. Palmer & B. Unruh (Eds.), Borderline personality disorder (pp. 163-175). Springer.

Shure, L., West-Olatunji, C., & Cholewa, B. (2019). Investigating the relationship between school counselor recommendations and student cultural and behavioral styles. Journal of Negro Education, 88(4), 454-466.

Symington, N., & Grotstein, J. (2018). Narcissism: A new theory. Routledge.

Tangolo, A. E., & Massi, A. (2018). A contemporary perspective on transactional analysis group therapy. Transactional Analysis Journal, 48(3), 209-223.

Weinberg, I., & Ronningstam, E. (2020). Dos and don’ts in treatments of patients with a narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 34(1), 122-142.

Weiss, B., & Miller, J. D. (2018). Distinguishing between grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and narcissistic personality disorder. In H. A. Brunell & J. Foster (Eds.), Handbook of trait Narcissism (pp. 3-13). Springer.

Werner, A. M., Tibubos, A. N., Rohrmann, S., & Reiss, N. (2019). The clinical trait self-criticism and its relation to psychopathology: A systematic review–Update. Journal of Affective Disorders, 246, 530-547.

Yakeley, J. (2018). Current understanding of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. BJPsych Advances, 24(5), 305-315.

Zarogiannis, P. (2018). Person-centered approach as discursivity and person-centered therapy as heterotopic practice. In M, Bazzano (Ed.), Re-visioning person-centered therapy (pp.110-127). Routledge.

Teacher Career: The Role Of Self-Efficacy

Self-efficacy is the capacity of someone to produce the desired type of effect in a particular work setup. It is worth noting that self-efficacy lowers after a practical experience with the job. It is regained after a long-term experience because one will have mastered the content. Teaching programs are educative in that they need content mastery for one to deliver error-free information (Nagro et al., 2018). Most teachers tend to master the content during their teaching program to prove their awareness of what they will be doing in the future upon completing the program (Tamah et al., 2020). In addition to self-efficacy during teaching programs, one has ample time to read and research from several sources to have every detail at your fingertips. During teaching programs, one has to struggle for job satisfaction and be keen on dealing with students’ deviant behaviors. Job experiences give one a sense of belonging to a particular profession because of the courage gained in delivering the services.

There are several ways to attain the best classroom experience, one of which is arriving in the class early before lesson time kicks in so that one can have social interactions with the learners. Review what to teach, analyze content after the other, and assess understanding of the content (Oak et al., 2019). Establishing a favorable learning environment and free talks with the learners brings a better understanding to both the teacher and the learner as they try to solve a particular classroom problem. In addition, it is good to anticipate how the session will be for one to identify any possible challenges and prepare to deal with them in case they come when teaching. Moreover, it is paramount to retain affective states and win the social persuasion of the learners. Lastly, look neat and well organized.


Nagro, S. A., Hooks, S. D., Fraser, D. W., & Cornelius, K. E. (2018). Whole-group response strategies to promote student engagement in inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 50(4), 243-249.

Oak, E., Viezel, K. D., Dumont, R., & Willis, J. (2019). Wechsler administration and scoring errors made by graduate students and school psychologists. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 37(6), 679-691.

Tamah, S. M., Triwidayati, K. R., & Utami, T. S. D. (2020). Secondary school language teachers’ online learning engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 19, 803-832.

error: Content is protected !!