Elite Bargaining In Dictatorships Essay Example For College

In Chapter 4 of “How Dictatorships Work: Power, Personalization, and Collapse” by Barbara Geddes, Joseph G. Wright, Joseph Wright, and Erica Frantz, the authors dig into the impacts of elite factionalism within dictatorships. Chapter 4 presents an intriguing analysis of the relationship between elite bargaining and the consolidation of power by a dictator.

One Interesting Aspect of the Chapter is the authors ‘ contention that elite factionalism can both work with and block the course of personalization (Geddes et al., 2018). On one hand, factionalism can keep an eye on the leader’s power by giving elective power habitats and compelling their capacity to hoard assets. This can advance more aggregate dynamics inside the system and possibly moderate the dangers related to personalized dictatorships.

Then again, the chapter features how factionalism can likewise add to personalization. The authors contend that when groups inside the first class compete for power and impact, the pioneer might take advantage of these divisions to solidify power in their own hands. The despot can debilitate possible challengers by playing groups against one another and increment their command over the system. This examination reveals insight into the perplexing elements of tip-top bartering and how they can shape the direction of fascism.

Nonetheless, one chapter of the section that I find less persuading is the authors’ restrictive spotlight on elite factionalism as the principal driver of personalization (Geddes et al., 2018). While factionalism is, without a doubt, a significant variable, different components like institutional designs, external threats, and philosophical factors likewise assume critical roles in personalization. Disregarding these extra elements might restrict the comprehensiveness of the analysis.

In summary, Chapter 4 of “How Dictatorships Work” offers significant knowledge of the connection between elite factionalism and the process of personalization within dictatorships. The chapter features the dual role of factionalism in constraining and facilitating a leader’s consolidation of power. Nonetheless, a more far-reaching comprehension of personalization would require thinking about different variables past elite factionalism, guaranteeing a more holistic analysis of the peculiarity.

Milan W. Svolik’s book, “The Politics of Authoritarian Rule,” provides an insightful analysis of elite bargaining within authoritarian regimes. Svolik contends that authoritarian regimes are not static and homogeneous substances but are molded by power struggles among elites. The book investigates how elites inside these regimes participate in strategic associations to get their inclinations, keep up with power, and impact policy outcomes.

One part of the book that I find especially fascinating is Svolik’s accentuation of the significance of elite cohesion in dictating regime stability. He contends that effective tyrant systems frequently depend on a core group of cohesive elites who are joined in their support for the regime’s leader. These cohesive elites can control dissent and forestall difficulties in the system (Svolik, 2012). Svolik’s examination features the meaning of elite cohesion as a vital determinant of the system’s capacity to endure internal and external threats.

One more charming part of Svolik’s examination is his attention to the role of institutions in facilitating or constraining elite bargaining. He contends that institutions, like governing bodies and ideological groups, can go about as systems through which elites arrange and determine their struggles. By analyzing various kinds of establishments and their effect on tip-top dealing, Svolik gives significant experiences into the elements of dictator governmental issues.

Nonetheless, one part of Svolik’s less persuading contention is his affirmation that authoritarian regimes are intrinsically delicate and helpless against elite factionalism. While the facts confirm that a few tyrant systems have encountered interior power struggles for control and world-class fracture, there are likewise situations where authoritarian regimes have shown considerable flexibility and strength over overstretched periods (Svolik, 2012). Svolik’s investigation will, in general, neglect the expected wellsprings of toughness and versatility inside dictator frameworks, for example, support institutions, coercive mechanical assemblies, or viable command over the media.

In synopsis, Svolik’s book offers an exhaustive examination of world-class bartering inside authoritarian regimes. His accentuation on world-class union and institutional elements gives important bits of knowledge into the working and soundness of such systems. Nonetheless, his contention that authoritarian regimes are innately delicate may ignore the variables that add to their life span. Generally, “The Governmental issues of Tyrant Rule” contributes essentially to how we might interpret dictator legislative issues, albeit further investigation of the wellsprings of system sturdiness could improve its examination.


Geddes, B., Wright, J. G., Wright, J., & Frantz, E. (2018). How dictatorships work: Power, personalization, and collapse. Cambridge University Press.

Svolik, M. W. (2012). The politics of authoritarian rule. Cambridge University Press.

Evolution Of Policing: The Role Of Technology In Shaping Policing Eras Writing Sample

Policing has experienced transformative changes in response to the evolving social, political, and technological climates throughout history. Advancements in technology have played a significant role in shaping policing methods, allowing law enforcement agencies to improve and adapt their capabilities over time. This essay explores how technology has impacted policing across three distinct eras: the Political, Professional, and Community Oriented. It further examines the overarching effects of science and technology on policing while discussing both benefits and challenges that result from these interactions.

During the Political Era (mid-19th to early 20th century), police departments were primarily concerned with maintaining social order and supporting political establishments. Technology in this era was relatively limited, with advancements mainly focused on communication and transportation. According to Greene (2000), police officers relied on telegraphs, telephones, and bicycles to respond to incidents swiftly and communicate information efficiently.

Technology in patrol during the Political Era brought about notable changes. The introduction of telegraphs facilitated faster dissemination of information among police stations, aiding in coordinating responses to criminal activities. Additionally, the use of bicycles allowed officers to cover larger areas, enabling more effective patrolling and quicker responses to incidents. However, the impact of technology on policing methods was relatively modest compared to later eras.

The Professional Era (1920s-1970s) witnessed a shift towards a more centralized and bureaucratic model of policing. Technology during this era was crucial in improving communication, record-keeping, and investigation capabilities (Vitale, 2021). Police departments adopted two-way radios, police call boxes, and early computer systems to streamline operations and enhance efficiency.

In patrol, technology revolutionized policing methods. Two-way radios enabled real-time communication between officers, enabling better coordination during patrols and emergency responses. Police call boxes installed in various locations facilitated incident reporting, enhancing law enforcement personnel’s reach (Zedner, 2006). Moreover, advancements in computing technology led to the development of early crime databases and record-keeping systems, allowing officers to access information more readily and aid in investigations.

Finally, the Community Oriented Era (1980s-present) marked a paradigm shift in policing, emphasizing collaboration between police departments and communities. Technological advancements during this era focused on information management, crime analysis, and community engagement (Skogan & Hartnett, 2019). The advent of the internet and digital communication revolutionized policing practices.

Technology profoundly impacted patrol methods in the Community Oriented Era. Computer-aided dispatch systems improved response times by automating call handling and dispatching processes. Ghose (2001) recognizes the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows officers to visualize and analyze crime patterns, enabling proactive policing strategies. Using surveillance cameras in public spaces enhanced situational awareness and crime deterrence. Additionally, social media platforms provided avenues for community engagement, enabling police departments to build trust and effectively share information with the public.

The effect of science and technology on policing extends beyond specific eras. According to Byrne and Marx (2011), the onset of forensic science, including DNA analysis, ballistics, and fingerprinting, remarkably reformed crime inquiries leading to more accurate identifications and convictions. In addition, the utilization of surveillance technologies has proven substantially efficient in identifying criminals and tracing lost individuals. Predictive policing algorithms and data analytics have helped allocate resources more efficiently by identifying high-crime areas and predicting future incidents.

The advancements in communication systems, information management and crime analysis have increased law enforcement agencies’ efficacy and productivity. With technological developments, officer safety has improved greatly while response times and investigative capabilities are enhanced to ensure better prevention and resolution of criminal activities (Koper et al., 2015). While such reliance on technology yields desirable results for policing, it poses certain challenges, like privacy concerns due to increased surveillance technologies and vast amounts of data collected.

In conclusion, technology has been instrumental in shaping the different eras of policing, from the limited communication tools of the Political Era to the sophisticated information management systems of the Community Oriented Era. The impact of science and technology on policing extends beyond specific eras, revolutionizing investigative techniques, enhancing officer safety, and improving community engagement. While the benefits are undeniable, challenges must be addressed to ensure the responsible and effective use of technology in policing.


Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal of Police Studies20(3), 17–40.

Ghose, R. (2001). Use of information technology for community empowerment: Transforming geographic information systems into community information systems. Transactions in GIS5(2), 141–163.

Greene, J. R. (2000). Community policing in America: Changing the nature, structure, and function of the police. Criminal justice3(3), 299–370.

Koper, C. S., Lum, C., Willis, J. J., Woods, D. J., & Hibdon, J. (2015, December). Realizing the potential of technology in policing: A multi-site study of the social, organizational, and behavioural aspects of implementing policing technologies. In Report to the National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice. Fairfax, VA: Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, George Mason University and Police Executive Research Forum.

Skogan, W. G., & Hartnett, S. M. (2019). Community policing. Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 27-44.

Vitale, A. S. (2021). The end of policing. Verso Books.

Zedner, L. (2006). Policing before and after the police: The historical antecedents of contemporary crime control. British Journal of Criminology46(1), 78–96.

Executive Leadership Development Program For StellarTech Essay Example


The American technology solutions group, operating for a decade, has swiftly risen to become a major participant in the sector. As the organization progresses, it realizes the significance of allocating in the growth of its executive leadership team. To ensure sustained success, a carefully crafted leadership initiative that aims to cultivate the talents and capacities of those guiding the organization has been put in place by the collective. The executive leadership development program is constructed to correspond with the group’s strategic vision and principles (Guinan et al., 2019). It is a foundation for nourishing leadership talent within the organization, preparing leaders to propel strategic initiatives and guide the company through the constantly changing technology landscape. By allocating in the development of its executive leaders, the group ensures that it has a robust leadership pipeline in place, ready to tackle the difficulties and prospects of the future.

The initiative concentrates on providing those in charge with the vital abilities to master their positions. It seeks to boost their tactical reasoning, choice-making talents, and difficulty-resolving techniques (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). Furthermore, it stresses the significance of cultivating a cooperative and original environment, where leaders are urged to empower their crews and generate beneficial organizational transformation. Through the executive leadership evolution initiative, StellarTech aims to construct a leadership framework that promotes liability, clarity, and productive communication. This framework guarantees that leaders at multiple levels have the skills and knowledge to steer their teams and make well-informed choices.

StellarTech acknowledges that bolstering its upper management squad signifies funding not just the triumph of distinct trailblazers but, moreover, the total victory of the establishment (Kane et al., 2022). The strategy secures that the corporation possesses adept pioneers who can traverse convoluted difficulties, propel advancement, and energize their crews to attain phenomenal outcomes. Furthermore, it grows a civilization of unremitting erudition and vocational progression, which lures and conserves premier endowment within the trade.

Executive Leadership Strategy:

The leadership improvement plan at StellarTech focuses on building a strong leadership ethic matching the company’s goals and principles. This broad leadership growth method aims to develop high-ranking managers who, along with showing the needed skills and knowledge, embody the key beliefs on which the company is founded (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). The firm guarantees a united push toward its strategic goals by promoting an empowering leadership spirit that unites leaders at all levels in a shared commitment to achieving StellarTech’s business vision. A necessary consequence of instituting a scheme to enhance leadership abilities is the creation of a reserve of skilled leaders (Guinan et al., 2019). By investing in the development of its leaders, StellarTech ensures that there is a continuous supply of individuals who can effectively lead their teams and make critical decisions. This helps maintain operational excellence and enables the organization to navigate complex challenges.

Furthermore, the leadership development program at StellarTech facilitates succession planning. Targeted assessments and development initiatives identify and nurture high-potential employees for future leadership roles. This proactive approach to succession planning ensures a smooth transition during leadership changes and reduces the risk associated with key positions becoming vacant (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). The leadership structure at StellarTech is designed to promote collaboration, innovation, and accountability. Different leaders are assigned responsibilities for specific functions and teams, creating a framework that encourages effective communication and coordination. This structure enables leaders to collaborate to drive innovation, solve complex problems, and achieve strategic objectives. It also fosters a sense of accountability, as leaders are responsible for the outcomes of their respective areas.

Assessment of Leadership Capabilities:

StellarTech utilizes varying means to measure management abilities. An approach includes gathering input from higher-ups, coworkers, and underlings. This furnishes an all-encompassing perspective of one’s aptitudes and regions needing improvement (Guinan et al., 2019). Moreover, authority potential can be surveyed through meetings, contextual analyses, and reenactments to evaluate critical thinking skills, dynamic capacities, and critical reasoning. Authority speculations, for example, change initiative and situational administration, will be the reason for settling on educated choices regarding authority advancement and choice.

Assessment Tool:

StellarTech recognizes the importance of accurately assessing leadership capabilities within the organization. To identify and evaluate these capabilities, StellarTech will utilize a leadership competency framework as an assessment tool (Moldoveanu & Narayandas, 2021). This framework will provide a comprehensive overview of the key competencies for effective organizational leadership. The leadership competency framework developed by StellarTech will outline the specific skills, knowledge, and behaviors that leaders should possess to drive success. These competencies may include strategic thinking, effective communication, decision-making, adaptability, team collaboration, and innovation (Kane et al., 2022). The framework will be aligned with the company’s vision, values, and strategic goals, ensuring that leaders possess the necessary attributes to guide the organization toward success.

Using the leadership competency framework, leaders at StellarTech will undergo assessments to evaluate their performance against these competencies. The assessment process may involve a combination of self-assessment, peer assessment, and feedback from supervisors and subordinates. This 360-degree feedback approach provides a holistic view of a leader’s strengths and areas for improvement (Moldoveanu & Narayandas, 2021). The assessment tool will provide valuable insights into the current capabilities of leaders within StellarTech. It will identify their strengths, allowing the organization to leverage and further develop those areas. Additionally, it will highlight areas for improvement, guiding leaders in their development journey. This assessment process will be conducted periodically, allowing leaders to track their progress and growth.

Based on the results of the assessment, leaders will receive personalized feedback and development plans (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). This feedback will highlight their areas of strength, affirming their leadership capabilities and encouraging continued growth. It will also identify areas for development, guiding how leaders can enhance their problem-solving skills and ability to arrive at sound solutions. The development plans will include targeted learning opportunities, such as training programs, workshops, mentoring, and coaching, to support leaders’ growth and development.

Using the leadership competency framework as an assessment tool, StellarTech ensures a systematic and objective evaluation of leadership capabilities (Kane et al., 2022). This approach enables the organization to identify and develop high-potential leaders, foster a culture of continuous improvement, and align leadership capabilities with the organization’s strategic goals. Ultimately, it contributes to the overall effectiveness and success of the executive leadership development program at StellarTech.

 Developing Problem-Solving Skills:

StellarTech acknowledges the significance of cultivating problem-solving abilities in its directors. Problem-solving constitutes a crucial capability for proficient leadership, as it empowers leaders to pinpoint and tackle obstacles and make well-informed choices. Leaders will engage in experiential learning pursuits to hone these talents, like case analyses and simulations (Moldoveanu & Narayandas, 2021). These pursuits imitate real-world situations, permitting leaders to rehearse problem-solving in a secure milieu. Moreover, leaders will be admitted to unremitting learning openings, such as workshops and seminars, to boost their analytical thinking, inventiveness, and decision-making faculties.

Leadership Training Facilitation:

To facilitate leadership training at StellarTech, human resource professionals utilize various trends and approaches. One prominent trend is blended learning, which combines online and in-person training methods (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). Blended learning provides flexibility and accessibility for leaders to engage in training programs, leveraging technology platforms and interactive modules. Another trend is incorporating coaching and mentoring programs, where experienced leaders mentor and guide emerging leaders, fostering their growth and development. Leadership training may involve guest speakers, industry experts, and networking opportunities to expose leaders to diverse perspectives and best practices.

Benefits of Executive Leadership Development Program:

Implementing a formal executive leadership development program offers numerous benefits to StellarTech. Firstly, it ensures a steady supply of competent leaders who can effectively drive the organization’s strategic initiatives and navigate complex challenges (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). This enhances the company’s competitiveness in the market and positions it for sustainable growth. Secondly, the program facilitates succession planning by identifying and grooming potential organizational leaders (Kane et al., 2022). This reduces the risk associated with leadership vacancies and provides a smooth transition during leadership changes. Additionally, the development program fosters a positive leadership culture and increases employee engagement, as employees perceive growth opportunities and investment in their professional development (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). Lastly, it creates a talent pipeline and improves retention rates by providing leaders with a clear path for advancement within the organization.


In conclusion, by implementing a comprehensive development program, StellarTech recognizes the importance of investing in its executive leadership team. By structuring leadership roles, assessing capabilities, and utilizing assessment tools, the organization ensures the selection and development of competent leaders (Brock & von Wangenheim, 2019). Training facilitation methods, including blended learning and coaching programs, equip leaders with the necessary skills, such as problem-solving and decision-making. A formal executive leadership development program ultimately enhances StellarTech’s competitiveness, fosters a positive leadership culture, and establishes a strong talent pipeline, driving the company’s continued success in the technology solutions industry.


Brock, J. K.-U., & von Wangenheim, F. (2019). Demystifying ai: What Digital Transformation Leaders can teach you about realistic artificial intelligence. California Management Review61(4), 110–134. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536504219865226

Guinan, P. J., Parise, S., & Langowitz, N. (2019). Creating an innovative digital project team: Levers to enable Digital Transformation. Business Horizons62(6), 717–727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2019.07.005

Kane, G. C., Nguyen Phillips, A., Copulsky, J. R., & Andrus, G. R. (2022). The Technology Fallacy. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/11661.001.0001

Moldoveanu, M. C., & Narayandas, D. (2021). The Future of Executive Development. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781503629813