Emerging Technologies: Intelligence Building Writing Sample

The growing concerns about the emerging threats to security mean that intuitions have to upgrade their security system to include intelligence gathering system based on information technology. In this hospital security as well as information technology officers concerned with security issues do want to upgrade and include intelligent building IT based systems in a new medical office building housing. Intelligence building works on the platform of GPS that integrates a variety of functions that includes sensing, tracking and information gathering systems. These systems are used for improved control, monitoring and management of buildings (Wang, 2010). However upon consideration this system has been forum to have a number of risks. In spite if the risks, the system are still applicable as it is possible to secure this system to ensure that the risks are minimized.

Intelligence building and gathering technologies use Global Positioning System (GPS). For this systems, to be effective in the hospital new building it means that specimens, staffs and certain object must be installed with a tracking device, which will be sensed by remotely installed sensors (seed nodes) which provide information including the movement, speed, direction of movement, the location as well as the time. There a number of risks involved in establishing this type of systems. The systems have been know to record and reality incorrect data especially when the tracking device is being read from a longer distance, moisture content of the air as well as when working in the vicinity of tall buildings. In this case the sensing seed nodes may not be able to accurately record the correct location, speed or time of the object being tracked (Klingbeil & Wark, 2008). That the system can be inaccurate thus brings to the fore another risk. In case the system provides inaccurate information that may led to any for of losses to the hospital, the issue begs the question as to who become liable for bearing the weight of such losses. The hospital intends to use this system and require that all staff carry with them a tracking device for easier monitoring. This will improve the efficiency of human resource management as well as responding to emergencies. However, another risk emergences when such an occurrence is evaluated. Tracking device placed on staff may have the tendency to reveal private information to the hospital administration and as such the privacy of such employees is comprised in efforts to ensure work process efficiency. This may reduce employee morale. Furthermore, private GPS systems, the platform under which this system operates on is subject to interference by government security agencies. Incase of extreme occurrences such as terrorism, the government has the right to shut other system to allow for efficiency and accuracy of is own system (Michael, McNamee & Michael, 2006). This renders the system useless.

These systems can however be secured to improve efficiency and thus overcome these risks. To improve the accuracy of information begin relayed, the system can employ the enhanced hardware component to improve the strength of the signal. Such equipment includes the Radar system that significantly strengthens signal especially for tracking within the same building. Ultrasonic receivers also help in enhancing the accuracy of information regarding locations and movement using the angle of arrival model. Ultrasonic receivers are also capable of recording of both radio and sound waves and using this combination they can relay much accurate data about time. Common algorithm used to calculate and encrypt data collected by the system has a number of weaknesses. They are affected by such factor as noise. However localization algorithm can solve this risk as it operate above such interferences and sis also able to trace motion of an object if lost to new locations when the object finally come to view (Klingbeil & Wark, 2008). To reduce the chances of the device relaying private information the staff will only be required to wears the tracking equipment when on duty. This means that the employee cannot be tracked when off duty. Furthermore, to secure the system from recording private information, there are certain areas within the hospital that will be designated as out of range. Employee’s data cannot be read when employees are within these vicinities. Such areas include toilets and canteens and other place where the staff intact with the public for reason that are not related to work (Michael, McNamee & Michael, 2006).

Intelligence building systems have been found to be more efficient than just reliance on human ability. The hospital business practice needs better management practices and improved efficiency. This system enhances the efficiency of the business. However there are risks associated. Ethics issue scuh as the compromising on privacy of staff emerge. Furthermore this system is known to be insecure and can at times relay inaccurate due to interference from external and factors relay inaccurate information. There is however modern hardware and software solutions developed to ensure the efficiency of this system. These enhanced features thus make the system more secure and as such the hospital should consider them during the planning stage.

Reference List

Klingbeil, L., & Wark, T. (2008). A wireless sensor network for real-time indoor localisation and motion monitoring. Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 39-50.

Michael, K., McNamee, A., & Michael, M. G. (2006). The emerging ethics of humancentric GPS tracking and monitoring. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB’06), 1-10.

Wang, S. (2010). Intelligent buildings and building automation. Oxon: Spon Press

The Disparities In The Legal System About Women

Women account for one of the groups most affected by the disparities in the legal system. Therefore, this sphere has been an area of intense interest for feminist researchers and activists. Subsequently, various standpoints are expressed through different means of communication, calling for an equal approach to justice for both sexes. Such kinds of activism positively affect society, as they attract the public’s attention to a topical issue. Willison and O’Brien (2016) state that the incarceration rate of women in the United States has grown at a quicker pace than a similar number for men. Accordingly, it is possible to conclude that the country is currently experiencing the phenomenon of mass female incarceration, which reflects the unfair side of the legal system.

Postmodern criminology researchers are capable of introducing various feminist perspectives to the discussion. It is necessary to inform the public on existing disparities. Willison and O’Brien (2016) argue that feminist social workers must “adopt an anti-oppressive orientation to justice-involved women, build social work responses around national reform measures, and advocate for decarceration and restorative justice” (p. 37). This way, society and the system will have a comprehensive framework, within which it will be possible to create effective solutions.

References

Willison, J. S., & O’Brien, P. (2016). A feminist call for transforming the criminal justice system. Affilia, 32(1), 37-49. Web.

Unmanned Control Aerial Systems Review

Introduction

Unmanned vehicles have grown in popularity, especially because of their versatility in use. These autonomous vehicles are used in multiple areas such as monitoring disaster areas, an inspection of projects and infrastructure, military operations, and spraying of agricultural chemicals, among others. The unmanned vehicles are also equipped with cameras, sensors, GPS, and communication equipment essential in sending and receiving instructions from the human controllers and other navigation purposes. The focus of this research is on the control systems of the unmanned vehicles, including the equipment, how time delays influence the manual control methods, the source of time delays, components and technologies. The unmanned vehicles identified for this discussion are unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned surface vessels, and unmanned ground vehicles.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

The UAV or drones are designed to fly in areas inaccessible to humans. The UAVs are equipped with sensors, actuators, light carbon bodies, rotors, peripherals, and in-flight controllers designed to automate basic flight maneuvers and modes (Emel’yanov et al., 2016). These drones are equipped with intelligent control systems that are capable of performing non-trivial, intelligent tasks essential for flight, such as planning, coalition formation, and goal prioritization. For instance, the UAVs have radio essential for wireless communication with remote control or the ground control system (GCS). A study by Saleem et al. (2015, pp.3) noted that UAVs operate on the IEEE S-Band, IEEE L-Band, and Industrial, Scientific and Medical band, as well as wireless networks. Additionally, they can operate on licensed or unlicensed spectrums without interfering with the primary users, which is intended to address the spectrum scarcity problem.

The automatic control of the UAVs is done using various software technologies. For instance, a study by Atoev et al. (2017) explored the use of ArduPilot Mega (APM) 2.8 software used to control fixed-wing aircraft and multi-rotor helicopters, including the traditional helicopters. This software is fully capable of autonomous stabilization, takeoff, and landing, and two-way telemetry and inflight commands using MAVLink (Micro Air Vehicle Link Communication) protocol. MAVLink protocol is essential in drones because it facilitates bidirectional communications between the GCS and the UAV. Messages sent between the drone and GCS have an ID that ensures they reach the intended recipient.

Latency in communication between the two channels might result in delayed control. The study by Atoev et al. (2017) noted that latency varies depending on the range of the UAV from the control room. The farther the UAV from the GCS, the higher the latency. A delayed response can have devastating impacts on the drone and people. For example, Lu et al. (2017) reported that 417 drone accidents were experienced in the United States. Therefore, strategic measures have been put in place to ensure safety when operating UAVs. For instance, drones are built to detect abnormal sounds, abnormal rotations, and infrared imaging is used to detect overheating (Lu et al., 2017). These mechanisms are implemented using algorithms, and they are meant to control the UAV in case the connection is lost. The study by Saleem et al. (2015) proposed the use of directional antenna in drones as a way of reducing signal hop and latency, which significantly reduces signal interference. It helps in maintaining communication over a long distance. The implementation of closed-loop mechanisms also boosts the stability and safety of the UAVs.

Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV)

The USVs are equally important as UAVs because of their wide range of applications, including surveillance, spill collection, exploration task, marine survey, transportation, and placing nets, among others. However, the performance of these vessels is contingent on the effectiveness of control methods and components applied in maintaining navigation. In normal systems, the steering machine controls the rudder angle to maintain the course of the vessel. Similarly, Azzeri et al. (2015) noted that the USV system for keeping course relies on feedback from a gyrocompass that measures the heading. Several automatic systems have been in use since the 1970s when the gain scheduling adoptive autopilots were introduced. These systems usually changed the speed of the vehicles. New and robust systems were introduced that rely on feedback from controllers and artificial intelligence (Azzeri et al., 2015). These control strategies help in maintaining the direction and location of the USV.

The control systems are equipped with complex components that ensure USVs steer in the direction commanded. Klinger et al. (2016) gave an overview of WAM-V USV14, an advanced twin-hull pontoon-style vessel. The guidance, control, and navigation components of the vessel contain a single-board computer, a motherboard, inertial measurement unit, tilt-compensated digital compass, pulse-width-modulation signal generator, radio-frequency transceiver, and GPS. These components are housed in a water-resistant plastic box. The most important components on the USV are inertial measurement units, GPS, and sensors as they measure the position and orientation of the vessel and relay the information to the single-board computer that logs maneuvering data. The radio-frequency transceiver is essential in enabling the human to control the vehicle using a remote control or autonomous navigation.

Latency is a common problem in USVs, and it is influenced by the distance between human controllers and the vessel, as well as the bandwidth of the connection. Higher latency means that the signals are weak and might lead to delay in communication and commands. These delays could lead to a collision. Azzeri et al. (2015, pp.3) noted that one way of eliminating collision is to compensate for the error in position and reduce as much as possible. This approach uses various techniques such as optimal control that contains differential equations describing variable that minimizes the cost function. Adaptive and intelligent control approaches are also applied in USVs. In USV, closed-loop controllers are more preferred because they allow for the changes in the displacement and vehicle resistance linked to the recovery of the vessel payload.

Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV)

UGVs are popular, especially with the continued growth of Tesla. These vehicles use sensors to localize their position within the environment. According to De Simone and Guida (2018), the data collected from the environment is passed onto the onboard controllers, where it is processed. Based on the instructions or commands assigned, the controllers manage the actuators. For example, Kaltenegger et al. (2016) indicated a race car fitted with an Arduino Uno microcontroller, which was useful in controlling the reading sensors and interpreting the data in a useful way. When data was interpreted, it was passed onto a motion controller that controlled the steering of the vehicle. These controls help in ensuring the car maintains the desired path.

The control signals might be sent from a close range or a distant location, a choice influenced by the strength of wireless communication. To facilitate communication, cameras are mounted on vehicles to help in providing the human controllers with live images of the environment (Bonadies et al., 2016). The GPS systems are used to determine the position of the vehicle, and the controllers decide the navigation goal—the quality and cost of the systems used influence the reliability of the autonomous vehicles.

There are various types of sensors used in UGVs. The Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) uses a rotating mirror to reflect light from objects or surfaces, which helps in determining the location of the distance between the two (Babak et al., 2017). Identifying the distance helps in determining the speed of the vehicle, and could apply brakes when the obstacle is identified. The Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging) uses electromagnetic waves to send echoes that detect and track objects. The inertial measurement unit is used in UGV to determine linear and angular accelerations (Babak et al., 2017), which is essential in improving the accuracy of GPS. The sensors are a useful way for the UGV to determine the location and avoid obstacles on the road.

Conclusion

Control of autonomous vehicles is crucial because it determines the safety or unsafety of the systems. These vehicles have grown over the years with the advancement in technology. As observed in this research, the three types of autonomous vehicles contain sensors, GPS, and microcontrollers/computers that are used to process the signals and determine the location and navigational objectives. Most of these vehicles also rely on wireless networks for communication. Additionally, the distance between the ground controllers and the autonomous vehicle influences the signal strength, which in turn affects the accuracy of the control commands. Finally, good closed-loop systems are viewed as effective because they reduce external disturbances and increase the accuracy of the vehicles.

References

Atoev, S., Kwon, K. R., Lee, S. H., & Moon, K. S. (2017). Data analysis of the MAVLink communication protocol. In 2017 International Conference on Information Science and Communications Technologies (ICISCT) (pp. 1-3). Web.

Azzeri, M. N., Adnan, F. A., & Zain, M. M. (2015). Review of course keeping control system for unmanned surface vehicle. Jurnal Teknologi, 74(5), 11-20. Web.

Babak, S. J., Hussain, S. A., Karakas, B., & Cetin, S. (2017). Control of autonomous ground vehicles: a brief technical review. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 224, No. 1, p. 012029). IOP Publishing.

Bonadies, S., Lefcourt, A., & Gadsden, S. A. (2016). A survey of unmanned ground vehicles with applications to agricultural and environmental sensing. Autonomous air and ground sensing systems for agricultural optimization and phenotyping (Vol. 9866, p. 98660Q). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

De Simone, M. C., & Guida, D. (2018). Identification and control of a Unmanned Ground Vehicle by using Arduino. UPB Sci. Bull. Ser. D, 80, 141-154. Web.

Emel’yanov, S., Makarov, D., Panov, A. I., & Yakovlev, K. (2016). Multilayer cognitive architecture for UAV control. Cognitive Systems Research, 39, 58-72. Web.

Kaltenegger, B. E., Binder, B., & Bader, M. (2016). Controlling and Tracking an Unmanned Ground Vehicle with Ackermanndrive. Proceedings of the Austrian Robotics Workshop (ARW-16), Wels, Austria.

Klinger, W. B., Bertaska, I. R., von Ellenrieder, K. D., & Dhanak, M. R. (2016). Control of an unmanned surface vehicle with uncertain displacement and drag. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 42(2), 458-476. Web.

Lu, H., Li, Y., Mu, S., Wang, D., Kim, H., & Serikawa, S. (2017). Motor anomaly detection for unmanned aerial vehicles using reinforcement learning. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 5(4), 2315-2322. Web.

Saleem, Y., Rehmani, M. H., & Zeadally, S. (2015). Integration of cognitive radio technology with unmanned aerial vehicles: issues, opportunities, and future research challenges. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 50, 15-31. Web.

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