Employment Opportunities For British Women After World War I Sample College Essay

Introduction

Military conflicts often align with significant social changes within states due to the underlying causes of confrontation and the changes that occur during their management. World War I is one of the most common examples of how social changes were propelled by the necessity to fight the oppressor and consolidate when addressing a global threat. Due to the need for Great Britain to unite and mobilize all of its resources to survive the devastating effect of WWI, the social role and the opportunities for employment changed drastically for British women.

Due to the lack of men among civilians during WWI, women had to take the job positions that were typically associated with masculinity, thus challenging the stereotypical image of a woman. As a result, the difficulties that the British economy was suffering during WWI facilitated the reconsideration of gender roles and the introduction of women into the workforce, thus providing significant support for the movement aimed at women’s liberation.

Impact of WWI on Women’s Employment Options

While the changes in the societal perception of women in Britain occurred parallel to the rise in the job openings for the specified category of population, the economic change may have affected social attitudes to a significant extent. Therefore, considering the economic changes will be the first step toward embracing the shift in the role that women played in Britain in the early 20th century. The rising need for extra workforce was one of the key characteristics of how the WWI influenced the British environment (Loughran, p. 729). Consequently, women started to be seen as potential candidates for the jobs that were in desperate need for being filled. According to Loughran,

Women’s historians who emphasised the potential of war to liberate women contrasted the constricted space of the trenches, and the consequent restriction of men’s minds, bodies and possibilities, with the opening out of women’s lives and opportunities in wartime as they entered the public realm of work and citizenship.

The increase in demand for women in jobs that were deemed as predominantly male was mostly caused by the absence of male candidates, who were recruited as soldiers. Nonetheless, the further experience has shown that women could handle jobs typically claimed to be male-oriented, which resulted in the empowerment of women in Great Britain and served as massive support for the feminist movement.

Effects of WWI on Social Attitudes toward Women

In contrast to the economic shift in the roles that women played in the society, which could be easily pinpointed on the WWI timescale, the social perception of women in Great Britain was rather fluid, with no specific event serving as the starting point for women’s liberation. However, by proving that they could perform the roles that were traditionally assigned to men, women of Great Britain demolished the social stereotypes that persisted in the specified setting for centuries. As Smith explains, the feminist statement “shifted, it modified, it metamorphosed, but the ardent desire to win the vote that had fuelled it for the decade leading up to the outbreak of the war remained as powerful as ever”. Thus, the social change occurring in British society affected the perception of women’s role and the image thereof. Since the obstacles on women’s way to participate more actively in the economic and sociopolitical landscape of Great Britain in the early 20th century were partially removed, the support for prejudices against the expansion of women’s role started to dissolve, leading to a gradual societal change. As a result, British society started changing the traditional image of a woman, introducing new elements to it, such as women being active agents in the economic development and political management of the state (Tickner and True, p. 221). While the participation of women in military actions was still not allowed, the concept of women’s social role was expanded from that one of a mother and a wife to the one of a contributor to the economic and political growth of the state (Smith 2). Consequently, the WWI has shaped the way in which women were seen in the British society significantly.

Notably, the observed change was not endemic to the social environment of Great Britain. In addition to the alterations in the perception of women’s image in British society, the role of women was changing rapidly across Europe and in the U.S. the observed change could be attributed to the vast scale of the WWI and the effects that it had on every facet of the global society (Loughran, p. 732). Nonetheless, the British suffragette movement that occurred at the beginning of the 20th century was among the most well-known forces behind the development of feminist ideas and their further promotion across the globe.

However, it would be a mistake to claim that the WWI allowed the women’s liberation movement to attain key goals and introduce gender equality into every aspect of social interactions. Despite the active introduction of women into the realm of economy and industry, as well as other domains of employment that were typically occupied by men, social stereotypes were still quite persistent in the target environment (Smith 2). The WWI did not serve as the cause of women’s liberation movement to develop; instead, it instigated it and became an important impetus in shaping the public’s opinion concerning the role of women and the image thereof.

Conclusion

Caused by the increasing need in qualified personnel and the continuous support of the workforce, the increase in employment opportunities of women aligned with the rapid reconsideration of their role in British society. As a result, greater opportunities for promoting feminist ideas and encouraging a shift in the traditional perception of gender norms appeared, affecting the relationships within British society. The economic and political implications of participating in the WWI for Britain suggested that the state should embrace the concept of gender equality, which led to drastic social and economic changes. Although the opportunities that women could enjoy were still limited, the premise for encouraging a vast change was created.

The observed phenomenon should not suggest that the WWI became the foundation for the liberation of women; instead, it simply created the environment in which British society was left with no other choice but to introduce female labor force to the tasks that were traditionally deemed as masculine. As a result, the harsh setting that the WWI created served as the catalyst for the changes in people’s vision of women and the role that they played in society. The observed alteration in the public attitude toward women did not imply that women were denied the traditional concept of motherhood and the related roles; instead, the range of opportunities that women could enjoy in the WWI British society was expanded significantly.

Works Cited

Loughran, Tracey. “A Crisis of Masculinity? Re-Writing the History of Shell-Shock and Gender in First World War Britain.” History Compass, vol. 11, no. 9, 2013, pp. 727–738. doi:10.1111/hic3.12082.

Smith, Angela K. Suffrage Discourse in Britain during the First World War. Routledge, 2016.

Tickner, J. Ann, and Jacqui True. “A Century of International Relations Feminism: From World War I Women’s Peace Pragmatism to the Women, Peace and Security Agenda.” International Studies Quarterly, vol. 62, no. 2, 2018, pp. 221-233.

Sustainable Business Policies For Better Employee Work

Introduction

Due to the rapid development of advanced technologies and modern production in enterprises, new issues, regarding environment and society appeared. In most cases, high-technology production is accompanied by massive air and water pollutions, which appears to be extremely detrimental to the environment and the population’s health. As employees present the main “engine” of enterprises’ progress, the question of their health remains topical, regardless of statuses of enterprises. Considering these aspects, it is essential to elaborate on particular policies which could decrease hazards for the environment and society and preserve the usage of high-technology for economic progress.

What Is Sustainable Business?

Since the ecological and social problems are widely discussed nowadays, there is a strong need for implementing sustainability in the majority of business strategies. The fundamental categories, included in sustainability, are the influence of business on the environment and on society, and their combination, which could produce a positive impact on at least one of these areas. Furthermore, the crucial aspect of the sustainable business is following a triple bottom line approach, which exactly recommends to focus not only on the profitable side of the business but also consider environmental and social concerns. The opposite policies are likely to lead to dreadful consequences such as social injustice or serious ecological issues, destructive for nature. According to Dyllick and Muff, the most significant feature of the truly sustainable business is the minimization of its negative effects and being able to overcome and reduce critical challenges. By combining the basic elements of the sustainable business and concentration on positive outcomes, it would be possible not only to improve the business in general but also preserve the environment.

Environmental Sphere

The environmental side of the sustainable business remains one of the most essential spheres, where proper measures should be taken before providing the business strategy. For example, the enterprise, which is interested in environmental protection, should conserve water and electricity because both these resources are valuable in production and daily life. Moreover, the conservation of these resources can be a great asset into the companies’ policies directed at saving budget. Secondly, there is a strong need for developing a unique program which could help to recycle peculiar products like electronics, paper, or supplies. Since the majority of the companies use a lot of chemicals in their business, they require the specialists which could train the employees of the company to dispose of hazardous chemicals properly. Joyce and Paquin created a tool which could “appraise how the organization generates more environmental benefits than environmental impacts.” Using this tool, it would become possible to distinguish the beneficial strategies, implemented by organizations and indicate further innovations.

Personal Motivation

The most appealing aspect of the topic of sustainable business is its importance for modern organizations and societies. Hence the world appears to be a fast-developing dynamic structure, where high technologies are often used, the policies introduced by enterprises should be progressive and modernized either. However, nowadays, most of the companies tend to concentrate on personal profit and income, ignoring all other sides of the business which contradicts the contemporary ways of thinking. By drawing more attention to the topic of sustainable business, I believe that this concept would find a lot of supporters who would care about other sides of business except for financial one.

My current research includes a thorough literature review, related to the topic which covers the basic concepts of sustainable business, its advantages, and influence on business strategies in general. I firmly believe that sustainable business is one of the most revolutionary approaches which would improve the future of our environment and social structures. One of the further ways to continue my research is to elaborately analyze each of the concepts for better understanding and further implementation in profitable business strategies. A few examples of sustainable business policies in major companies were also discovered (BMW, Adidas), which proves the success of these policies and concepts. Furthermore, it could be a good idea to not only learn theoretical knowledge of the subject but also gain some practical skills in the field. For example, I would like to participate in a project related to developing an own business model with a detailed description of its benefits and effects to test the gained knowledge and skills in real life.

Conclusion

To sum up, the question of the importance of sustainable business remains topical not only for significant world enterprises but also for smaller organizations. The benefits for different fields of life occur to be sufficient for further development of world business and improvement of the quality of life in many countries. However, if enterprises choose a strategy of ignorance or neglect of the existing problems, the consequences for the environment and society will be disastrous. Therefore, it is necessary to do elaborate research in the field, analyze its advantages and disadvantages with further explanations, and choose appropriate business strategies for successful performance.

References

Dyllick, T., & Muff, K. (2016). Clarifying the meaning of sustainable business: Introducing a typology from business-as-usual to true business sustainability. Organization & Environment, 29(2), 156-174.

Joyce, A., & Paquin, R. L. (2016). The triple layered business model canvas: A tool to design more sustainable business models. Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 1474-1486.

Criminalization Of Non-Consensual Sex

Introduction

Scientific and technological progress led to the emergence of a new way of life and caused a significant shift in traditional gender roles and culture in general. The way sex and relationships are viewed in society has significantly changed for the last hundred years. The current situation is unprecedented in multiple different ways, and it brings both new challenges and opportunities for the humanity. Advanced contraception and more accepting social norms provide men and women with a possibility to personally decide how to go about their sexual life. Well-balanced legislation becomes very important to address the issue appropriately, as the landscape of opinions regarding the subject is getting more and more diverse and nuanced. Solving problems in society that might cause a negative tendency is also very important. Non-consensual sex should not be criminalized in cases where the presence of psychological or physical coercion is not evident.

The Danger of not Creating Appropriate Regulations

Failure to develop appropriate protective measures against aggressive sexual behavior is very dangerous as it opens a possibility for abuse and discrimination. As women become victims of sexual aggression and rape much more often compared to men, lack of proper legislation will leave female citizens unprotected (Cobb & Horeck, 2018). The problem is especially significant at a workplace, where economic dependency and subordination structure allow individuals in authority to use their position as a tool in aggressive sexual activity. It is necessary to create juridical regulations that are strict enough to discourage potential sexual offenders from abusing their place in the company. Such laws will ensure safety and protection for the rights of women and healthy workplace environment. Existence of such acts will also provide an additional source of confidence for potential victims of aggressive sexual behavior, encouraging them to stand up for their rights. To promote safety and justice in society, it is critical to take sufficient regulatory measures that would decrease the likelihood of aggressive sexual behavior and provide a sense of protection for citizens.

The Danger of Creating Excessively Strict Laws

On the other hand, unduly strict regulation may have a negative impact on people’s ability to start a relationship and will allow abusing the legislation for personal and other reasons. It is vital to mention that as norms for expressing sexual behavior become too strict, it becomes more and more challenging to draw a line between an appropriate level of initiative and sexual harassment. This tendency may discourage individuals from any engagement in a romantic or sexual relationship because of the risk of being called an offender. The consequences of sexual harassments are very serious, including damage to personal reputation and criminal punishment, and the definition for this term is quite vague. Such a situation allows some individuals to pose as victims and, thus, abuse the law to gain personal benefits. It is essential to create barriers for such activity, as it causes severe damage to society, discredits the law, and diminishes the suffering of real victims. Avoiding taking excessively strict, simplistic, and one-sided measures is critical to creating effective regulation that will help improve the current situation.

The Danger of Politicization of the Discussion

Although the necessity for affirmative consent before a sexual act is universally agreed, the opinions on what can be qualified as appropriate consent differ. The public discussion regarding the matter has become politicized, leading to the polarization of opinions. Recent scandals have shown that oversimplification of the problem and lack of deep understanding of its nature may lead to negative consequences (Cobb & Horeck, 2018). At the same time, the involvement of various political and media figures can lead to using scandals and criminal investigations as a tool against political opponents (Mandell, 2017). In addition to that, the politicization of public conversation regarding the subject leads to the emergence of extreme opposite opinions that are irreconcilable. Political forces might want to use such heated arguments to win the attention and support of the audience, without offering any real solution to the problems. Thus, it is essential to find common ground between liberal and conservative values and points of view on the matter in order to bring the public to a productive discussion.

Negative Consequences of Criminalization of Non-Consensual Sex

New laws and regulations concerning the criminalization of non-consensual sexual activity will affect millions of people as the problem has become widespread, especially among the younger generation. A study has shown that over fifteen percent of women and almost eight present of male undergraduate college student report involvement in a non-consensual sexual act (Herbenick, Fu, Dodge, & Fortenberry, 2019). This statistics makes the question of criminalization of non-consensual sex even more difficult to handle, as it shows how common the problem has become, affecting teenagers and young adults. At the same time, such high parentages show that using criminal punishment for solving the problem will likely lead to the imprisonment of a high number of young people. Such tendency will potentially do more harm than good to the society in general and might not lead to any positive consequences, as the young men, who have experienced prison environment, will very likely engage in further criminal activity. In other words, although the problem in question is severe and has to be addressed, criminalization of non-consensual sex is not necessarily an optimal solution.

The Necessity for Well-Balanced Regulations

In order to adequately address the issue, the legislation needs to be balanced, nuanced, and flexible. Society needs to agree on what levels and forms of consent are appropriate to create protection from sexual aggression without creating extra barriers for regular sexual behavior and starting a romantic relationship. Such laws also need to take into account different aspects of the subject, including specific characteristics of homosexual relationships, cultural tendencies, and other factors. All relevant details are crucial as they may play a significant role in individual cases. Creating such legislation is a very complex process as opinions and attitudes in public widely differ, and norms of behavior and social environment are constantly changing. Working on effective regulation will alleviate the problem and protect the rights of both men and women regardless of position in society and sexual orientation.

Alternative Ways to Address the Problem

Other methods, including adjustment of social norms, promotion of healthy sexual behavior, and sexual education might be useful for addressing the subject. A study has shown that the perception of sexual intentions of other people and the underspending of social norms are predictors of aggressive sexual behavior among college students (Edwards & Vogel, 2015). These data suggest that non-consensual sex is often a result of misinterpretation of sexual signals and lack of understanding of the appropriate behavior in interactions with the opposite sex. Another study conducted in Peru also suggests that fighting against rape-supportive attitude among teenagers is key for reducing the problem of non-consensual sex (Moyano, Monge, & Sierra, 2017). The data shows that public tendencies contributing to the problem are similar cross-culturally, and they should be further studied to find the most effective solution.

In addition to that, watching pornography has been shown to increase the likelihood of aggressive sexual behavior (Wright, Tokunaga, & Kraus, 2015). Easy access to pornographic content via internet leads to extensive exposure of teenagers to violent sexual behavior. In the situation, where appropriate sexual education is lacking, it creates a tendency of adopting the patterns of behavior that are exhibited in such videos as normal. Regulation of this industry might help reduce the prevalence of undesirable patterns of behavior. Emphasizing the unacceptability of aggressive sexual behavior and promoting functional patterns of interactions between men and women will help educate people and have a positive impact on the problem.

The difference in opinions and interpretations in regard to the influence of alcohol and other substances on a person’s ability to express consent is another ambiguous aspect of the subject. Research has shown a correlation between alcohol use and the likelihood of non-consensual sexual intercourse (Stappenbeck et al., 2016). Such a close relationship between substance use and the subject shows that this topic needs to be appropriately addressed. Alleviating the problem of alcohol and drug abuse, especially among teenagers, will have a positive impact on the rate of misbehavior, including sexual harassment and non-consensual sex.

Conclusion

Non-consensual sex should not be criminalized because a solution to this complex problem cannot be found only by means of criminal punishment and requires a deeper understanding of the nature of the problem. A careful and well-balanced approach to new legislation is required to ensure that the question is addressed in a way that guarantees the protection of rights of all citizens and equality between sexes. It is also important that laws and regulations can evolve together with society to be able to deal with new challenges and tendencies. Achievement of this goal requires an open public discussion, as it is essential to allow all visions and opinions to be spoken. In addition to proper legislation, society should pay more attention to the factors that are associated with aggressive sexual behavior, such as alcohol and drug use and lack of sexual education. Addressing these social problems will have a positive impact on the situation and help develop and adjust norms for modern life and sexual behavior.

References

Cobb, S., & Horeck, T. (2018). Post Weinstein: Gendered power and harassment in the media industries. Feminist Media Studies, 18(3), 489-508.

Edwards, S. R., & Vogel, D. L. (2015). Young men’s likelihood ratings to be sexually aggressive as a function of norms and perceived sexual interest. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16(1), 88.

Herbenick, D., Fu, T. C., Dodge, B., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2019). The alcohol contexts of consent, wanted sex, sexual pleasure, and sexual assault: Results from a probability survey of undergraduate students. Journal of American college health, 67(2), 144-152.

Mandell, H. (2017). Sex scandals, gender, and power in contemporary American politics. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Moyano, N., Monge, F. S., & Sierra, J. C. (2017). Predictors of sexual aggression in adolescents: Gender dominance vs. rape supportive attitudes. The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 9(1), 25-31.

Stappenbeck, C. A., Norris, J., Wegner, R., Bryan, A. E., Davis, K. C., Zawacki, T., & George, W. H. (2016). An event-level investigation of factors associated with young women’s experiences of coerced consensual sex. Journal of interpersonal violence. doi: 10.1177/0886260516683178.

Wright, P. J., Tokunaga, R. S., & Kraus, A. (2015). A meta-analysis of pornography consumption and actual acts of sexual aggression in general population studies. Journal of Communication, 66(1), 183-205.

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