Encrypted Viruses As The Plague Of The New Millennium Sample Essay

The Internet has never been safe enough – browsing online has always meant putting oneself under the threat of contracting a virus. However, as viruses become more difficult to deal with, Internet safety software is getting more complex and sophisticated (Brafford para. 1). As a result, the XXI century viruses no longer hinder the user’s net surfing or block computer programs from performing its basic functions – they encrypt the files that users store on the computer hard disk.

In his article, John P. Mello, Jr. provides a short overview of the history of the problem and outlines the major threats that the 2014 ransomware “innovations” have brought onto the cybersociety. According to Mello, “easy money” is what makes “cyber bandits” create numerous crypters. While previous types of Trojans merely encrypted the files, creating new types of extensions, the new malware scatters bits of the encrypted files all over the hard disk, thus, making the process of their assembling impossible without the original digital key (Mello para. 3).

The logics behind generating crypters is very easy to understand: demanding comparatively small amounts of money, from $100 to $300, the creators of the virus make a safe bet. Indeed, for an average user, it will be much easier to pay $100 for a digital key instead of $2,000 for a new laptop. Mello warns that crypters may become the plague of the XXI century cybersociety.

Another analysis of the cryptolockers issue, the article written by Maller, Sechan and Hope allows evaluating the effects that crypters have on business and economics. Apart from affecting average users, cryptoviruses pose a tangible threat to a range of organizations, thus, jeopardizing state economy.

True, crypters can be unblocked with the help of experts or, in the worst case scenario, by paying a relatively small ransom to the creators of the virus. However, unlocking crypters takes time, which makes them deadly for the organizations with time-sensitive deadlines (Maller, Sechan and Hope para. 1).

The FBI Moneypack and the FBR virus are currently the most dangerous ones for companies. The choice of the virus title is predetermined by the fact that such an abbreviation as “RBI” is traditionally taken very seriously. Therefore, employees trust the malware and launch it.

Though Proia does not exactly speak on the issue of crypters, he does provide an interesting analysis of the issue of “hacktivism.” More to the point, Proja relates it to the First Amendment (Proja para. 1).

The author refers to another paper on the topic, “Hacktivism and the First Amendment: Drawing the line between cyber protests and crime” (Proja para. 2). According to Proja, fighting the phenomenon of hacktivism may not comply with the First Amendment (Proja para. 4). However, the author claims that the evolution of hacktivism is expected. As a result, it will finally be recognized as one of blocks to people’s freedoms.

Proja ends his article with a quotation from the aforementioned article. Thus, the author leaves much food for thoughts. Though not devoted to the issue of cryptoviruses, the article is related directly to the problem of hacking.

Finally, the article by TheJournal.ie deserves a mentioning. The author comments on the means to fight cryptoviruses. The author offers a detailed overview of the steps to be taken when contracting a cryptovirus or receiving the warning (“UK Cyber-Crime Unit Issues Urgent “Ransomware” Warning” para. 2).

According to the author, the NCCU (National Cyber Crime Unit) has recently been formed to address cybercrime issues. However, the NCCU is helpless in this case. NCCU can only define the malware as a piece of Cryptolocker.

NCA also warns that paying the ransom does not guarantee removing the virus. Investigation has been going on for several months, with no results, though. As NCA takes the necessary actions, malware producers create new methods of getting ransom money.

Works Cited

Brafford, John.” Ransomware and the Rise of the Sophisticated, Automated Hacker.” NC Law Blog 2012. Web.

Maller, Marianne, Vidya Sechanand Bob Hope. Ransomware in the Enterprise. eMazzanti 2013. Web.

Mello, John. CryptoLocker’s Success Will Fuel Future Copycats. CSO 2014. Web.

Proja, Andrew A. “Featured Article: Hacktivism and the First Amendment: Drawing the Line between Cyber Protests and Crime.” Cybercrime Review 2014. Web.

“UK Cyber-Crime Unit Issues Urgent “Ransomware” Warning.” TheJournal.ie 2014. Web.

White-Collar Crime And Negligence

Introduction

White-collar crime is a category of non-violent criminal activities that are motivated by financial gain (Payne, 2016). Negligence refers to “the failure to use reasonable care” (“Negligence law,” n.d., para. 1). The aim of this paper is to analyze two case studies on white-collar crime and negligence.

Negligence

It can be argued that McDonald’s failed to apply reasonable care when serving scolding java in its outlets. Taking into consideration the fact that the defendant had been previously warned about the unreasonably dangerous temperature of its drinks, it is clear that the disregard of the duty was willful (Retro Report, 2015). In addition, McDonald’s failed to make a sufficient warning about the temperature of the drinks is served. As a result of the negligence exhibited by the restaurant chain, the plaintiff sustained severe damages; therefore, she was justified in seeking both compensatory and punitive damages.

In the case of the North Carolina man who sustained injuries from a cap of spilled coffee purchased in Starbucks, it can be argued that the defendant did not act negligently. It has to do with the fact that even though the coffee chain had a duty to Kohr the breach of which resulted in damages, the element of causation was not present in the case (“North Carolina,” 2015). The cap’s lid was not displaced due to Starbucks’ negligence; therefore, the jury’s verdict was justified.

The temperature of the coffee in McDonald’s at the time of Liebeck’s injury ranged from 180 to 190 degrees Fahrenheit, which was associated with the unreasonably high risk of burns (“McDonalds’ hot,” n.d.). Starbucks’ drinks, on the other hand, were served at 160 degrees Fahrenheit, which approximates 158 degrees Fahrenheit in McDonalds’ restaurants after adjustment (“McDonalds’ hot,” n.d.; “Starbucks drink,” 2016). The difference in temperatures shows that Starbucks was not liable for the man’s burns.

White-Collar Crime

The US’s corporate criminal enforcement has been using deferred prosecution agreements (DPAs) for more than two decades (“Deferred prosecution,” 2014). DPA is a legal arrangement between the US government and a corporate defender according to which a criminal case is not prosecuted if the offender meets certain conditions (“Deferred prosecution,” 2014). DPAs can benefit an organization by sparing it from a lengthy court process and damage to the corporate image associated with it. The use of the scheme in legal arenas is associated with the public outcry because DPAs skew the incentive framework of the criminal justice system (Larkin, 2014). It should be mentioned that employees and stakeholders of a corporate entity can be negatively impacted by a DPA process because collateral damages associated with it often exceed potential monetary penalties that can be sustained by an organization. For example, a corporation might suffer from a lack of contracts with the federal government or suspension of licenses (Larkin, 2014). The company’s customers are negatively affected by DPAs due to generous settlements that drive up costs of a company’s products.

The application of DPAs to individuals cannot be defended on ethical grounds. By allowing white-collar criminals to escape sentences, it is possible to create additional incentives for crime. Taking into consideration a substantial impact of white-collar crime on the society, it is hard to argue for relieving guilty individuals from criminal convictions. Even though the imposition of financial penalties on individual defendants can reduce the prison population, it will disproportionately benefit wealthy criminals.

Conclusion

The paper has analyzed two case studies on negligence and white-collar crime. In the first case, it has been argued that Kohr is not justified in seeking compensatory damages. In the second case, it has been maintained that DPAs should not be applied to individuals.

References

Deferred prosecution agreements: The US experience and the UK potential. (2014). Web.

Larkin, P. (2014). The problematic use of nonprosecution and deferred prosecution agreements to benefit third parties. Web.

McDonalds’ Hot Coffee Case – Read the facts not the fiction. (n.d.). Web.

Negligence law and legal definition. (n.d.). Web.

North Carolina cop spills free coffee, sues Starbucks for $50, 000. (2015). Web.

Payne, B. K. (2016). White-collar crime: The essentials. New York, NY: Sage.

Retro Report. (2015). Liebeck V. McDonalds: The big burn | Retro Report [Video file]. WEb.

Starbucks drink guide: Terms. (2016). Web.

Effective Nursing Leadership Skills And Approaches

Continuous Quality Improvement and Patient Satisfaction

Nowadays rapidly changing world sets new opportunities and challenges in the field of nursing. Nevertheless, proposed by Florence Nightingale as the top priority, permanent improvement and patient satisfaction remain important. McFadden, Stock, and Gowen (2015) define quality improvement as a combination of knowledge, skills, and characteristics of a service that provides the opportunity to meet existing or perceived needs of patients continuously.

From the point of view of a patient, his or her family, and society, quality of nursing care should ensure that patients stay satisfied with the provision of nursing assistance in general, both as a result and a process (McFadden et al., 2015). This means that the conditions in which nursing intervention was performed, professionalism of nurses, their personal qualities, communication, and the result of care should correspond to patients’ expectations.

From the standpoint of health care, quality improvement of nursing care is the performance of functional duties in strict compliance with legal and regulatory documents, which means the professional competence of nurses expressed in the ability to work in a team, create and maintain a positive working environment, and ensure patient safety.

Nursing Leaders and Managers Implementing the Issue

There is a range of strategies, methods, and techniques that may be used by nursing leaders and managers. However, not all of them proved to be effective to reach the key goal of patient satisfaction. The review of the related scholarly literature shows that the roles performed by nurse managers and leaders are different. In particular, nurse managers are expected to ensure productivity of nursing care by performing administration tasks.

They focus on the attitude of nurses to their professional duties, the distribution of their working hours, the organization of the workplace, the promotion of personal qualities of nurses, the material and technical equipment of the department, and other issues. In this connection, a nurse manager should use all the available resources to organize the process of health care, thus shaping the very foundation for the continuous quality improvement.

Among the variety of theories and principles, the method of benchmarking seems to be one of the best options to be implemented by nurse managers. Ettorchi-Tardy, Levif, and Michel (2012) claim that benchmarking in health care refers to the “process of comparative evaluation and identification of the underlying causes leading to high levels of performance” (p. 109). Benchmarking contributes to openness and efficiency as it provides the organization with early warning signals of its backlog, finds out the level of organization in comparison with the other institutions, and leads to the rapid implementation of new approaches with the minimized risk.

Nurse managers using benchmarking approach are likely to increase the effectiveness of the provision of nursing services, allocate resources rationally, and also reduce the number of costly ineffective treatment methods.

Consistent with nurse managers, nurse leaders may apply benchmarking, yet in accomplishing different outcomes. For example, the study by Ettorchi-Tardy et al. (2012) shows that such a method may increase staff motivation to achieve significant results. I think that a nurse leader is a stable and experienced person who has the ability to prioritize and coordinate the efforts of team members. It is the individual who leads the organization based on consolidation and integrity of staff.

At this point, it is essential to emphasize that nurse satisfaction acts as one more important factor affecting patient satisfaction. Rather often, nursing teams with fewer employees achieve better results than those that are composed of a large number of specialists. Therefore, the role of a leader is to ensure that each team members feels comfortable while performing his or her job. As noted by Janicijevic, Seke, Djokovic, and Filipovic (2013), nurse satisfaction affects care quality and improvement, since an unsatisfied nurse cannot provide the required level of services because of stress and fatigue. Using communication strategies, a leader is expected to motivate others, thus serving as the landmark to focus on.

Even though nurse leaders and managers perform different functions, they aim at the common goal of health care quality improvement. Therefore, it is necessary for them to work in collaboration, consider each others’ views, and try to address any challenges that occur in the course of health care quality improvement, as it is emphasized by Janicijevic et al. (2013) in their recent research. Both of them are involved in decision-making, effectiveness of which requires them to know not only what and how staff works, but also why they do it, what meaning they put into their work, and what satisfaction they receive from their services (Kallas, 2014). In other words, success of either a leader or a nurse depends on resolving common tasks, individual needs of team members, and their ability to communicate with them.

Personal and Professional View

In my opinion, nursing leaders and managers should be considered in their integrity as a means of leadership and engagement. It seems to me the choice of the specific management or leadership style depends on the changing situation. The concepts of styles are to be considered in terms of the situational theory, which is also called the theory of unforeseen circumstances. It focuses on the nurse’s adaptability and ability to change the style depending on the organization’s goals and paying attention to the expectations and motivations of the staff. At this point, continuous monitoring and evaluation of the activities of nurses should contribute to the constant improvement of the quality of medical care in a medical institution.

More to the point, the introduction of a system of assessing the quality of nurses’ activities ensures the better performance of the tasks assigned to them, and, therefore, helps to solve the main problem – patient satisfaction. It allows organizing the systematic quality control over the activities of nursing staff, which is to be conducted according to uniform criteria and objectives. All the errors in the performance are to be taken into account, and work is being done to eliminate them. I believe that this method allows achieving strengthening of professional growth, better care for patients, and their increased satisfaction with the services provided.

Summing it up, I would like to emphasize that the approach that best fits my professional and personal philosophy relates to the situational theory of nursing. Depending on certain circumstances, I prefer to change my strategies to remain aware of the situation and be prepared to act timely and appropriately. In an attempt to ensure continuous quality improvement and patient safety, I will try to conduct regular evaluations and implement corresponding changes. In general, proper attitude towards staff and the situation as well as skilful use of knowledge and available resources identify good nurse leaders and managers.

References

Ettorchi-Tardy, A., Levif, M., & Michel, P. (2012). Benchmarking: A method for continuous quality improvement in health. Healthcare Policy, 7(4), 101-119.

Janicijevic, I., Seke, K., Djokovic, A., & Filipovic, T. (2013). Healthcare workers satisfaction and patient satisfaction – Where is the linkage? Hippokratia, 17(2), 157-162.

Kallas, K. D. (2014). Profile of an excellent nurse manager: Identifying and developing health care team leaders. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 38(3), 261-268.

McFadden, K. L., Stock, G. N., & Gowen III, C. R. (2015). Leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement: Impact on process quality and patient safety. Health Care Management Review, 40(1), 24-34.

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