English Language Learning In Special Education Essay Example

In this analysis of a language learning process, a 20-year-old female, Carry, was invited to participate in an interview. She is a friend of mine, and it was not difficult to organize a meeting and ask several questions to study her decision and the peculiarities of bilingualism. According to Thompson, language use in the American context is not a simple issue because English is one of the most widely used languages around the globe, and the motivation to learn a foreign language depends on many personal factors (1). English is her native language; and when she was 17, she met a Canadian boy, so the decision to learn French was spontaneous as she wanted to strengthen her relationships with his family. During the next three years, she was learning a new language. Now, in her 20s, she considers herself a strong bilingual and enjoys knowing English and French at a profound level.

From her childhood, Carry visited a local school where she studied English basics and improved her grammar and style regularly. At home, all her family members speak only English, and it was not difficult for her to find a practical application to her theoretical knowledge. English courses were always interesting, and the girl paid much attention to the details like the history of this language and its linguistic characteristics. However, English spelling was a challenge for the girl, and she worked hard to achieve progress. Regarding the strength that English was studied in a group of peers from her childhood, Carry was fascinated with her progress and abilities to use her language correctly. She had never faced the urgency of studying a foreign language. Still, when she fell in love with a new Canadian boy, Liam, at school, her priorities underwent considerable changes. In less than one year, Carry realized that her relationships with Liam played an important role in her life. During her first visit to his parents to Montreal, she “met” the French language and “fell in love” almost the same way she did with Liam.

When she came back home, she wanted to learn this language independently. She bought several study books, a French phrasebook, and listened to a French audiobook for beginners. Then, Liam showed Carry a local French community in her city, and they visited it from time to time. Both French and English descended from Latin, and they share many similarities. However, Carry saw that French spelling was harder than English, and she decided to address a professional educator who could help. She visited French classes regularly, and, what was more important, she enjoyed the process. With time, Carry discovered the strengths of learning English and French, like easy traveling to Canada, international relationships, and even prospects for her future job market. Weaknesses were all neglected because she felt excited about her knowledge and skills.

Now, Carry knows that English is her native language, and their relationships are more than professional because she cannot imagine her life without speaking it. French is another type of affairs that have lasted for four years. Carry is proud of being bilingual as it is her own choice and achievement. She can live and never use this language, but she does not want to quit French. She continues her relationships with Liam, and they plan to go to Paris next summer. They speak both English and French fluently as it is an ordinary part of her life. The next step Carry wants to take is to bring up her parents bilingually because she and Liam want to get married one day. She thinks that if her parents are aware of simple French phrases, it will be easier for them to understand Liam’s family and share common values.

Reference

Thompson, AS. Language learning motivation in the United States: an examination of language choice and multilingualism. Mod. Lang. J. 2017; 101(3): 483-500.

Sampling And Non-Probability Methods

Probability and non-probability sampling are techniques utilized to select part of a target population to conduct a survey. Probability sampling refers to a sampling method that involves the probability theory whereby the likelihood of any unit’s knowledge of being selected is employed (Langer 2018). Therefore, every target population member has an equal selection chance. Some probability sampling methods are cluster sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, and simple random sampling. The non-probability sampling technique, to the contrary, doesn’t give all target population members equal chances of selection for participation in a study. This makes the selection chances of each target population member pre-determined and known. It, therefore, allows the researcher to use subjective judgment in the sample selection and not a random selection.

Probability sampling has been used in the first instance, where a manager goes to the discharge area to interview the leaving patients. All patients leaving the hospital have equal chances of being interviewed because they leave via the same area. The second instance involves nurses on the floor distributing questionnaires to all patients to complete before returning them to the discharge counter as they leave. In this particular instance, it should be noted that nurses’ judgment is not utilized to determine participants in the survey.

Since each member has a chance of participating, then it signifies that probability sampling has been employed. In the third instance, the CEO selects some patients randomly from a particular group (those about to be discharged). This shows that the CEO employs judgment to collect the samples, amounting to non-probability sampling (Etikan&Bala, 2017). The last instance sees the patients grouped by departments by the CEO and a patient randomly selected from each department. Therefore, the chances of a patient being selected from every department are known, amounting to non-probability sampling.

References

Etikan, I., &Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149.

Langer, G. (2018). Probability versus non-probability methods. In The Palgrave Handbook of Survey Research (pp. 351-362). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Most Prisoners Can Not Return To Normal Life After Being Outside Of Society

Criminal statistics worldwide indicate a concerning rate of repeated imprisonment, especially among those offenders who were released within a year before new arrest. There is an opinion that a number of physiological factors influence the propensity for illegal activity for ex-prisoners. Additionally, the social environment usually promotes consistent negative emotions which result in an unstable mental state. With the lack of social support and growing outer pressure, most offenders fail to adapt to normal life after long prison sentences. The temptation to relapse and proceed with criminal behavior, however, grows rapidly and is extremely difficult to resist. This paper will prove that successful re-entries are almost impossible due to multiple social and cultural barriers impeding newly released prisoners’ return to normal life.

To begin with, there is an established strategy of re-entering society after long-term imprisonment. Durnescu (2018) observed it and identified five stages: prerelease-anticipation, recovery, reunion, activation, consolidation, and relapse, which would allow ex-prisoners to become fully functioning members of society again. Although theoretically, a clear strategy and outer monitoring can ensure one will settle down and begin a new career, this path has a lot of weak points and can be easily interrupted.

According to Durnescu (2018), one of the most common obstacles met after release is temptation. While being in a somewhat euphoric state of mind, criminals feel the desire to steal again, in order to resolve their financial issues (Durnescu, 2018). If one succumbs to this compulsive urge, all of his rehabilitation progress would be gone. With this in mind, it is clear that the re-entry process is extremely fragile, and even small interruptions can lead criminals to failure.

Another significant issue to consider is the detachment from social life, which makes ex-prisoners vulnerable to their negative emotions. During the long period of imprisonment, people are usually isolated as they do not have access to social networks, news, or media. A rapid return to them would naturally cause a lot of stress and anxiety. When some offenders have wider social circles and can shortly begin searching for jobs or friends through social media, others with no resources «feel trapped into a lifestyle of crime» (Durnescu, 2018, 2211). A dramatic introduction to the fast and complicated reality brings newly released criminals fear and hopelessness.

They begin to feel that relapse is the only possible way to cope with the struggles of their new lives (Durnescu, 2018). This evidence allows one to conclude that the social and media environment directly influences criminals’ behavior and often pushes them to return to illegal actions.

There is one more crucial factor in the process of rehabilitation for those who survived long prison terms – informal social support. It is expressed through special psychological programs or simple interpersonal communication, and it noticeably changes depending on the person’s gender. Pettus-Davis et al.’s (2018) study has proved that women receive significantly more positive support from their parents, families, and friends than men.

Negative social support often aimed at male offenders appeared to be one of the risk factors driving them to relapse and rearrest (Pettus-Davis et al., 2018). Apart from the direct judgment that causes anger and irritation, negative support also adds to the hopeless state discussed in the previous paragraph. Positive support, in its turn, contributes to the faster establishment of social connections and intimate relationships. As it can be seen, informal communication can have both positive and negative effects on ex-criminals, and it often provokes relapse, especially for men.

Not only gender differences, but other background details have been noticed to influence prisoners’ adaptation plans, and those are age, race, and relationship status. In Durnescu’s (2018) paper, there was noticeably more progress made by people with families than by single individuals. Some family traditions, such as intimate gatherings, serve as distractions and promote law-abiding behavior, while isolation only contributes to maintaining the same prison routine and preserving a criminal worldview. Also, the additional observations from Pettus-Davis et al.’s (2018) show that people of color, as well as older people, receive positive support more often than their younger white counterparts. It is often perceived as natural to act judgementally towards young offenders and not deplore their time in prison.

However, this kind of attitude very often adds up to their urge for new crimes. Despite all of those background factors being subtly, they are definitely able to shape the rehabilitation process towards either full recovery or relapse.

To summarize, it appears that there are a concerning number of barriers to ex-prisoners’ path towards adaptation. The stages on the way to complete re-establishment in society are complicated and can easily be interrupted. Also, detachment from social life, and the media causes anxiety and leaves offenders with the feeling of hopeless fear. The equally important factor of informal support through communication is often insufficient due to the gender, race, age, and relationship status of prisoners. Since male criminals, white, and young people who are lacking social contacts often get less encouraged to a law-abiding lifestyle, they become prone to repeating crimes.

All those factors combined make it common for newly released offenders to relapse, return to custody and never fully adapt to society. Evidently, rehabilitation is a complicated process from a psychological perspective, and it needs to get more attention.

References

Durnescu, I. (2018). The five stages of prisoner reentry: Toward a process theory. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(8), 2195-2215. Web.

Pettus-Davis, C., Veeh, C. A., Davis, M., & Tripodi, S. (2018). Gender differences in experiences of social support among men and women releasing from prison. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 35(9), 1161-1182. Web.