Enhancing Gynecological Healthcare For Lesbian, Bisexual, And Transgender Individuals: Overcoming Obstacles And Promoting Inclusivity

The world has become more inclusive and accepting of different sexual orientations. The LGBTQ community involves persons that identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer. The healthcare system has mainly altered its practices by incorporating this patient population and focusing on meeting their unique health needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand better gynecological health care for lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals.

Gender and sexuality concepts.

Sexual orientation is fluid and includes various identities; however, for this discourse, the focus is on lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons. A bisexual person is a person who is attracted to women and men (The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2023). A lesbian is a woman who is emotionally and physically attracted to other females. The term transgender is used to describe a diverse cohort of people who transcend customarily described gender types such that they abandon the traditional gender norms (CAP, 2021). The group encompasses transsexuals, transvestites, drag queens and kings, bigender persons and transgenderists.

Social and political context.

The social and political environment for lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons differs depending on the region. Although the world has become more liberal about gender identities, there are still obstacles hampering this population’s freedoms. In particular, not all nations around the globe recognize same-sex marriage as such; some regions deny this population marriage rights. For instance, Uganda has banned same-sex marriages, and whoever is found engaging in such is sentenced to death. Further, socially, the media has played a fundamental part in influencing societal perceptions by representing this population in movies and music videos. Notably, media can shape attitudes and views about a population. Mainly, NETFLIX has done a tremendous job influencing viewers’ attitudes and opinions about this population in the films they produce, such as sex education.

Social determinants of health affecting lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals.

The social determinants of health impacting lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender individuals include mental health problems, drug and alcohol abuse, sexual stigmatization, sexual and reproductive health disparities and harassment and bullying. Sexual stigmatization impacts health by prompting unequal access to healthcare. Mainly, this stigma linked to sexual orientation affects life opportunities and social conditions provided to sexual minorities. People from this population have limited access to social networks, social support, prestige, power and money (Rosendale, 2022). Also, This population is at risk of mental health problems such as depression and anxiety as they are prone to discrimination from people in society. The stigma they feel in the community impacts their emotional and psychological well-being, which, in severe circumstances, may result in suicide. Another problem encountered by this population is drug and alcohol abuse, where they seek comfort from drugs and alcohol to counter the emotions and feelings from stigma and discrimination from society (CAP, 2021). The more this population use drugs and alcohol, the more they rise the number of persons experiencing mental health issues. Lastly, this population encounters sexual and reproductive health disparities where they have no access to culturally competent health services for sexual and reproductive health (CAP, 2021). As a consequence, this population encounters inequality in contraceptive access and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

Barriers to health care.

This population may encounter various obstacles hamper them from accessing healthcare services crucial to improving their overall well-being. One obstacle is the lack of culturally competent healthcare professionals, which is disadvantageous as it discourages this population from accessing these healthcare services as they fear being judged (Aleshire et al., 2019). Another barrier to healthcare for this cohort is the lack of financial sources. Mainly, same-sex couples may have inadequate resources to get insurance coverage. Moreover, transgender people have economic challenges that bar them from affording crucial healthcare services (CAP, 2021). Besides, transgender individuals are excluded from some insurance policies. Therefore, they are hindered from getting essential services to improve their well-being.

Health care disparities.

The healthcare disparities this population encounters refer to the differences in access to healthcare services compared to other patient populations. These disparities include the following: one, lesbians, transgender and bisexual individuals have inadequate access to healthcare services as they encounter culturally incompetent healthcare professionals, have a fear of judgment and experience discrimination in society (Yerra & Yarra, 2022). Secondly, this population encounter high levels of mental health issues, which are exacerbated by discrimination and sexual stigmatization. The mental health disparity continues to increase since the existing mental health services fail to meet the unique needs of this population. Another health disparity this population encounters is substance abuse differences, where they seek comfort from drugs and alcohol to deal with stigma and discrimination in society (Yerra & Yarra, 2022). Another health difference is sexual and reproductive health disparity, where bisexuals and lesbians have a tough time acquiring contraceptives for planned parenthood. Besides, transgender individuals have a problem accessing reproductive healthcare services that consider their unique needs and challenges.

In summary, this discussion examines the evolving landscape of healthcare for transgender, bisexual and lesbian individuals. Although the world has become more accepting of diversity, this population faces various barriers when accessing healthcare services. Tackling these obstacles requires collaborative efforts from society, legislators and healthcare institutions. Every person, regardless of their sexual or gender identity, should be granted equal and fair access to healthcare services.


Aleshire, M. E., Ashford, K., Fallin-Bennett, A., & Hatcher, J. (2019). Primary care providers’ attitudes related to LGBTQ people: A narrative literature review. Health promotion practice, 20(2), 173-187. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839918778835

CAP. (2021). Protecting and Advancing Health Care for Transgender Adult Communities. Retrieved from Center for American Progress: https://www.americanprogress.org/article/protecting-advancing-health-care-transgender-adult-communities/

The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2023). Defining LGBTQ Terms and Concepts. Retrieved from The Annie E. Casey Foundation: https://www.aecf.org/blog/lgbtq-definitions

Rosendale, N. (2022). Social determinants of health in neurology. Neurologic Clinics, 40(1), 231-247. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2021.08.012

Yerra, S., & Yarra, P. (2022). Understanding health disparities among LGBTQ populations and future needs. Evidence-Based Nursing, 25(1), 21-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebnurs-2020-103328

Equity, Diversity, And Inclusion (EDI) Initiatives Royal Ontario Museum’s (ROM)


EDI stands for equity, diversity, and inclusion. The main goal of this evolving presentation is to make a space that actively values and includes different points of view while also recognizing differences. Cultural institutions must represent the diversity of viewpoints in their communities since they are tasked with narrating society’s stories.

The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) becomes an important place to visit. The ROM is a stronghold of cultural heritage, but that doesn’t mean its only job is to keep it safe. It also has to play an active role in the story of inclusion by making sure that its programs, exhibitions, and leadership reflect the rich variety of Toronto and Canada (Ashley, 2010). This essay details EDI within the ROM, looking at how it works now, offering changes, and imagining a brighter future for this cultural staple.

Background of the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM)

Royal Ontario Museum was founded in 1912. Its dedication to linking the past and present is mirrored in the architectural fusion of historic and contemporary buildings. The ROM is an important cultural landmark for Canadians and Torontonians, offering a vibrant inquiry, learning, and introspection environment. Its function goes beyond the conservation of artifacts; it serves as a dynamic center where many stories come together.

EDI In Arts and Media

During the first week of our investigation into Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) in the media and arts, several essential themes surfaced that are incredibly pertinent to the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM). The talk emphasized how important it is for cultural institutions to adopt EDI principles as a strategic need and a moral duty. The conversation, pertinent to the ROM, insisted on having various perspectives on leadership positions, exhibition content, and curatorial judgments. The ROM’s dedication to EDI becomes crucial in creating stories that connect with the many groups it serves because it is a cornerstone of culture.

The Representation Across the Spectrum of Arts and Media

The talk, “On Stages and In Boardrooms: Representation Across the Spectrum in Arts & Media,” shed light on essential aspects requiring that varied representation be included in cultural institutions. When we consider the observations, it is clear that the discussion has significant application to the Royal Ontario Museum (Simkó & Stadhouders, 2020). The main ideas emphasized how leadership roles and creative activities are tied to representation.

Discussion on Guided Questions

Examining the guided questions further reveals that the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is central to the conversation around Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI). Understanding the apparent relationship between leadership positions at the ROM and representation in creative practice is crucial. The ROM needs to ensure that the voices that contribute to its exhibits are represented at the levels of decision-making if it is to represent diversity genuinely. Thus, diverse viewpoints are added to the organization, and creative representation catalyzes inclusive leadership.

EDI Reflection- Personal Statement

Students interacting with Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) subjects within the framework of the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) find that the EDI Reflection assignment, which strongly emphasizes personal and reflective expression, is a crucial step in the process. This assignment is not only an academic exercise; it encourages students to reflect on, relate, and make connections between their own stories and more giant society tales (Poulin, Coxon, Anema, Helwig & Corbeil, 2020). The reflection’s intimate quality highlights the application of EDI principles in real-world situations and challenges students to examine their prejudices, privileges, and viewpoints.

Common Elements Across Equity, Diversity and Inclusion

Beyond simple representation, equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) have several characteristics in common. Destroying systemic obstacles is a structural requirement of EDI, guaranteeing equitable access and opportunities for all (Forni, Crooks & Fontaine, 2019). Situational considerations draw attention to the subtle contextual factors that shape people’s experiences in organizations and society. Consequently, the standard components of EDI, both situational and structural, highlight the necessity for the ROM to consistently develop its dedication to inclusion, diversity, and equity.

Representation of Black Women Arts and Media

The perceptive examination of Black women’s portrayal in the arts and media by Daphne Brooks sheds light on a frequently ignored or dismissed story. Her research explores the lives of trailblazing individuals such as Zora Neale Hurston, Mamie Smith, and Abbey Lincoln, highlighting both the institutional erasure these women endured and their creative accomplishments. Brooks stresses the importance of thorough and complex storytelling by exposing a collective history of Black women left out of the historical canon.

Importance of Collective History, Education, and Models

The ROM is one of the organizations that need to give diversity the structural peace it needs to flourish. Support systems, like community outreach initiatives and mentorship programs, act as catalysts to shatter barriers. Education serves as a gateway to opportunities. Through funding educational programs, the ROM may equip its employees and guests to understand and value other points of view (MacKenzie, 2017). In addition, role models are essential in both the creative and professional spheres.

Ways Forward for the Ontario Museum

The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is committed to a more varied, inclusive, and egalitarian future; therefore, strategic objectives and practical measures are critical. Initially, to ensure that its personnel and leadership represent the larger community, the ROM should undertake focused recruitment initiatives. Through creating a broad talent pipeline, mentoring programs help promote an accepting and encouraging workplace atmosphere. Working with artists and local communities can provide authenticity to exhibitions and solve the problem of telling stories that connect.


The suggested actions serve as a road map for the ROM’s revolutionary journey toward a more inclusive future. They range from focused recruitment to community partnerships and educational projects. Important conclusions highlight how leadership, narrative authenticity, and representation are all intertwined in cultural institutions. Promoting a common understanding, stability, support, education, and role models is crucial while the ROM navigates the challenges of representing multiple ideas. These components operate as pillars for establishing a setting that actively connects with Toronto’s and Canada’s multicultural mosaic, reflecting it as well.

Most importantly, this investigation highlights the continued dedication needed to advance inclusion, diversity, and equity. As a curator of culture, the ROM must always change, molding its procedures to fit the dynamic stories of its many communities. Cultural organizations like the ROM have the potential to develop into busy, contemplative, and welcoming places with consistent work, helping to create a future in which all voices are valued and acknowledged.


Ashley, S. L. (2010). Museum Renaissance?: Revisioning’publicness’ at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. Toronto: York University.

Forni, S., Crooks, J., & Fontaine, D. (2019). Activism, objects, and dialogues: Re-engaging African collections at the Royal Ontario Museum. In Museum activism (pp. 186-196). Routledge.

MacKenzie, J. M. (2017). Canada: The Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto and the Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. In Museums and Empire (pp. 44-77). Manchester University Press.

Poulin, J., Coxon, H., Anema, J. R., Helwig, K., & Corbeil, M. C. (2020). Investigation of fogging on glass display cases at the Royal Ontario Museum. Studies in Conservation65(1), 1-13.

Simkó, K., & Stadhouders, H. (2020). How do you manage the hallow art of crafting strings of amulet beads? Answers from a Late Babylonian tablet in the Toronto Royal Ontario Museum. Le Journal des Médecines Cunéiformes, (36), 23-36.

Generational Perspectives On Family: An Interview With Mrs. Thompson


As society and cultures have changed, so too has the concept of family. In this study, we look at the generational differences and the story of Mrs. Thompson, a grandmother who is also my mother-in-law. We intend to look at Mrs. Thompson’s ideas about family in order to see how the concept of “family” has changed through time.

Importance of Understanding Generational Perspectives on Family

It is imperative to appreciate how generations look at their family structure for better understanding. As generations pass, new ways of experiencing life, norms, and values create the perception of family. These perspectives make it possible to close the gap between then and now for a better appreciation of societal effects on families.

Interview Methodology

The questionnaire consisted of a checklist of queries that sought to capture Mrs. Thompson’s opinion on different facets of the family. The questions covered such issues as traditional family values, mixed racial marriages, gay or lesbian marriages, cohabitation without legal marriage, mixed ethnic marriages, working mothers and stay-at-home dads, and single-parent households. The responses were kept down in order to have a holistic view of Mrs. Thompson’s ideas concerning these diverse family constructions.

Traditional Family Values

This exploration uses the meaning of family for Mrs. Thompson in her generation as the basis. For several older people, the family was based on mutual trust, joint duties, as well as love towards each other (Ris et al., 2019). A change is noticeable in the meaning of family as we tread time into the present day. This has led to the prevalence of various family forms that are a departure from the nuclear family model that was previously dominant, mirroring societal dynamics.

This comparison of the generational perspective reveals the significance associated with traditional family values. The reflections of the interviewer may involve issues such as extended families, filial piety, and community support in a family. These understandings are further supported by references to traditional families, which relate historical practices with senior citizens’ understandings of family.

Mixed Racial Marriages (Black-White)

This exploration goes beyond the structural transformation of families and explores the views of the elderly about racial intermarriages, mainly between Black-White unions. In their time, societal attitudes towards such relationships may have been determined by historical prejudices and discriminatory practices. Societal progress can be observed by the changes in societal attitudes towards Black and White marriages (Sauvignon-Markowski, 2021). The interviewee’s stance is understood against the background of historical and modern interpretations of interracial relationships. The opinions that might have been personally expressed during the interview can illustrate the emotional and social complications in interracial marriages at different times.

Gay or Lesbian Marriages

My interest in the topic increased as we proceeded to talk about family relations, and I wanted to know what opinion Mrs. Thompson had about same-sex marriages at that time. She talked about a period where unions like her’s were, at most, fringe and usually frowned upon. During the middle of the twentieth century, societies were strict on family norms that mainly focused on same-gender relationships.

Looking back at her youth, Mrs. Thomson said that it was difficult for society to acknowledge marriages of gay and lesbian people. She narrated situations in which these unions were concealed and people victimized for choosing. At the time, love and commitment beyond the norms of heterosexuality were hard to accept because of its dominant attitude rooted in conservative ideology (Carrigan et al., 2018).

While we discussed, we talked about how the perception of gay and lesbian marriages has changed over time. In the 21st century, LGBTQ+ rights have undergone remarkable changes whereby legal recognition and acceptance are growing more widespread. Mrs. Thompson could not believe the success that could be achieved by opening up to differences and demolishing prejudicial barriers that enslaved personal freedom.

For example, Allen et al. (2020) emphasized the changing legal landscape and social progress around the redefinition of family by tracing the evolution of LGBTQ+ rights. This timeline outlined the journey from the Stonewall riots to the legalization of same-sex marriages in different countries and depicted a resilient community that would not back out from demanding recognition and equality.

Mrs. Thompson’s thoughts on changing norms were subtly incorporated into our discussion. She stressed the importance of empathy and understanding in fostering diversity while appreciating the fact that love is limitless. In this regard, her changing perception reflected the overall shift in society’s concept of a family influenced by transforming norms.

Living Together Without Being Legally Married

In relation, Mrs. Thompson gave an overview of the opinions that existed in her time with regard to the dynamics of living together without legal marriage. In the 20th century, society expected the sacredness of marriage, and cohabitation without legal connections was usually frowned upon. Mrs. Thompson remembered a period when people frowned upon the so-called strange living arrangements. Her time revolved around traditional values that encompassed strict adherence, and any deviation would result in the raising of the eyebrows.

Transitioning from traditional to modern landscape, we considered how perceptions of alternative ways of living had changed. The 21st century has seen a shift away from rigid family norms into more tolerant views about different types of families (Becvar et al., 2023). There has been a reevaluation of cohabitation as not being automatically a sin simply because a couple chose not to marry legally. A broader cultural shift was reflected by references discussing changing societal norms about cohabitation. Studies and surveys highlighted the acceptance of different family structures; in effect, living together without marriage became normal. Changing gender roles, consideration of economics, and modernized concepts of commitment brought about a vibrant tableau of the contemporary family structure.

Personal comments from Mrs. Thompson were encompassed in our discussions. She narrated stories of people who defied the expectations of society, preferring love to marriage certificates. Her stories depicted the power of love that endured the pressures of society to redesign the concept of modern-day families.

Mixed Ethnic Marriages (Mexican American-African American)

Mrs. Thompson recounted her memories of her childhood, which was a time when interracial marriages were no ordinary occurrence like today. “Back then,” she said, “people stuck to their own kind, as they’d say. They didn’t have to be doing it just because it was evil, but they knew that marrying within the community was an understood thing. Mrs. Thompson gave a perspective in which she explored her thoughts on mixed-ethnic marriages during her time and how couples who dared to break the mold of traditionalism faced challenges. She remembered the “raised eyebrows and whispers.” However, these courageous couples met the world as pioneers in transforming society.

Mrs. Thompson pointed out the tremendous change that has taken place in our society about the acceptance of diverse ethnic unions. It’s exciting now to see people with various backgrounds joining forces. Today, we are more tolerant, and many diverse communities are worth celebrating, unlike during my earlier days. In the conversation, we weaved in the historical and contemporary attitudes towards mixed ethnic marriages, looking at pivotal points in the history of changes. Mrs. Thompson spoke of friends who dared to challenge conventional ideas and who now had love stories that showed them what time could do.

Working Mother and Home Dad

The discussion moved on to changing perceptions of parenting gender roles. Mrs. Thompson talked about how mothers were expected to stay at home and watch after their children while men worked to provide for the family. According to her, “It was the way it always was, and questioning it was rare”. Modern concepts about staying-at-home fathers and working mothers sparked some excitement in Mrs. Thompson’s eyes. This, “she exclaimed, “I’m thrilled to see.” That is how modern women pursue careers, and men are into caregiving roles. Wow, that is nice! It smashes the old prejudices. Equality.

Single Parent Household

In our journey into single-parent families, Mrs. Thompson was contemplative. She disclosed that in her time, single parenthood was perceived as a stigma since people often condemned individuals finding themselves in such situations. Mrs Thompson talked of the hardness and the bravery shown by people struggling with it alone in her era by exploring her own experiences growing up in single-parent households. But as I have said, “it was not easy, but they were some of the strongest people I ever have known,” she said.

We looked at how attitudes towards single parenthood changed, highlighting how the stereotypes were gradually being broken down. Family life is very complex, and in this context, references to the challenges and strengths of single-parent families enriched our discussion, giving a complete impression.

We ended our interview in an emotional way following Mrs. Thompson’s personal input. In the end, it is love and support that make a family, and one can make a family no matter the configuration as long as there is love. The changes in social conventions and family life were portrayed in this trip within Mrs. Thompson’s memories and reflections. The interview was a picture showing how strong people can be in the worst situations. The things that we value most in life are not constant, and they refer here to our families.


Mrs. Thompson is a senior citizen, and her opinion in the interview has opened our eyes to the different points of view regarding what family means among the generations. Thus, we traveled through different family types, conventional values, interracial marriages, homosexual relationships, cohabitation without legal marriage, cross-racial marriage, gender roles, single parenting, and so forth.

Societal change and cultural shift, coupled with individual experiences, have been intricately intertwined in the web of how family definitions have evolved. Just like the changing society at large, her path from the era of traditional values to the modern varied family constellation of today is a parallel. The stories help unfold the story of family evolution, depicting the ability of families to make adjustments with time.

Therefore, it is essential when it comes to developing empathy as well as appreciating different people’s understanding of what family entails. The story of Mrs. Thompson shows that we need to accept changing standards, break stereotypes, and acknowledge that love does not belong in categories.

Finally, the study highlights that family is a relational concept that remains constant across time and space. It is always evolving and constantly influenced by the diverse range of human experiences, and recognizing such heterogeneous forms of family relationships facilitates an understanding of society. Indeed, Mrs. Thompson’s insights constitute a link between the past and the present, inviting us to think about how such transformations affect what matters most: our families.


Allen, K. R., & Lavender‐Stott, E. S. (2020). The families of LGBTQ older adults: Theoretical approaches to creative family connections in the context of marginalization, social‐historical change, and resilience. Journal of Family Theory & Review12(2), 200-219.

Becvar, R. J., Becvar, D. S., & Reif, L. V. (2023). Systems theory and family therapy: A primer. Rowman & Littlefield.

Carrigan, T., Connell, B., & Lee, J. (2018). Toward a new sociology of masculinity. In The Making of Masculinities (Routledge Revivals) (pp. 63-100). Routledge.

Ris, I., Schnepp, W., & Mahrer Imhof, R. (2019). An integrative review on family caregivers’ involvement in care of home‐dwelling elderly. Health & social care in the community27(3), e95-e111.

Sauvignon-Markowski, G. (2021). An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis of Black Women and White Men Towards Interracial Marriage in America (Doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University).