Many low-income countries are making remarkable progress as far as universal access to primary education is concerned. However, concerns have been raised about students gaining very little knowledge (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). Stakeholders are concerned that many children still lack basic numeracy and literacy skills even after taking a couple of years learning. Such a sluggish beggining to learning means that most learners fail to comprehend essential competencies (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). For example, reports indicate that less than 7% of learners in senior primary school are competent in reading. Less than 14% are competent in math (World Bank, 2018). While education is an essential catalyst for economic and social development, its impact will be minimal if learners do not gain any basic competencies. Malawi is among the countries in Africa where the quality of primary education is wanting. This proposal examines the primary education quality in Malawi and the social and economic impact the quality has had. Interventions to enhance the quality of education are outlined.
Malawi’s Contextual Background
Malawi is situated in the southeast of Africa. Recent statistics indicate that the country’s population has been increasing rapidly and currently stands at 17.5 million. The most significant chunk of Malawi’s population is children and young people (39.5%) (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). Up to 70% of the people in Malawi live below the poverty line. This makes it one of the poorest nations worldwide. The country’s economy is mainly agricultural-based, with up to 80% of citizens relying on agriculture for their livelihoods (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). The official language in Malawi is English, while Chichewa is the national language.
About 80% of children in Malawi learn in public schools. Primary-level education is free under a program initiated by the government in 1994. In secondary school, learners have to pay the tuition fee in public and secondary schools (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). Public secondary schools fall into community day schools, district schools, and national schools (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). The schools in the different categories differ in funding, origin, student performance, and even catchment areas. The national schools in Malawi also go by the name “Conventional Secondary Schools”. They are relatively fewer but have a nationwide catchment area (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). The national schools also have better facilities and mostly enroll children from well-to-do families. The national schools enroll top students in the “Primary School Leaving Certificate of Education” examinations. Most of the students who transition into institutions of higher education study in the national schools.
District schools, on the other hand, usually offer boarding facilities. This results from the dispersed population distribution and the poorly developed infrastructure across the country. The “Community Day Secondary Schools” admit the third tier of students, namely those who did not perform well in the primary leaving exams and come from low-income families (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). Students who get admitted to colleges and universities after going through these schools are very few despite the schools making up almost a half of the total number of high schools in the country.
Despite Malawi’s relatively higher poverty levels and the increasing pressure on the system of education due to rapid population growth, access to primary education is relatively higher than the average rate in sub-Saharan Africa (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). Estimates show that due to the implementation of the “free primary education” program, nearly all children aged six years are in school (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). Nevertheless, just 38.4% of primary school learners transition from primary school to secondary school level (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). The overall enrollment rate in secondary schools remains relatively low, with 2017 estimates indicating 17% (UNICEF, 2019).
Another major issue with the Malawian education system is that classrooms are often overcrowded. At the primary level, a classroom holds an average of 111 students (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). As a result, learning outcomes are low since children in Malawi show significantly weaker reading and math scores when compared to children from neighboring countries. Data collected in 2012 show that for students between the 4th and 8th grades in Malawi, only 22% showed proficiency in writing and reading (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). Apart from the poor learning results, Malawi also experiences high repetition rates among primary school-going children and a low survival rate. These statistics are worrying and indicate that the primary education quality in the country is poor.
Malawi’s contrasting performance with respect to quality and access can be inferred from the significant increase in the number of children enrolling in primary schools starting from 1994. At the start of the “free primary education” program, most of the attention was directed toward sustaining the high influx of students by setting up more primary schools (Altinyelken & Hoeksma, 2021). However, the government has not been able to avail enough infrastructure, adequate resources, and a sufficient number of competent teachers. As a result, serious quality concerns have emerged, and these concerns mainly impact schools serving learners from low-income families. The enrollment numbers have been increasing over the years, the main driving factor being the rapidly growing population. Nevertheless, access is not equally spread, a factor that has led to vulnerable minorities being left out.
The Challenges in Malawi’s Primary Education Sector
Malawi’s education system, especially primary education, grapples with significant challenges, including inadequate infrastructure, a limited supply of qualified teachers, and insufficient learning resources. Overcrowding in classrooms is a common problem in many primary schools, with the student-teacher ratio (PTR) varying between 50 to 160 from one district to another (National Planning Commission, 2021). This has had numerous undesired implications for studying. For instance, at least four learners have to share a textbook across all grades. Classroom resources and infrastructure have been cited as important reasons for the attrition of learners and absenteeism (Ravishankar et al., 2016). There is also a significant variation in PTR by class levels. The lower-primary class levels have the biggest PTRs, the main contributing factor being the dramatic increase in student enrollment into primary school after the government made primary schooling free.
Class size is an important challenge in Malawi’s primary, especially in light of the high PTR. Nevertheless, available evidence shows that the effectiveness of teachers could also be enhanced. It is reported that currently, the teachers lack the knowledge required to teach critical reading and problem-solving skills beyond the standard six levels (National Planning Commission, 2021). The lack of prerequisite knowledge among primary school teachers is likely to contribute to up to 75% of learners, indicating that they feel like they do not learn much in class (National Planning Commission, 2021). Estimates show that the teachers take fewer than four hours in class and spend about 20% of the time allocated to teaching on other tasks (Ravishankar et al., 2016). Another major issue contributing to the poor primary education quality in the country is chronic teacher absenteeism (National Planning Commission, 2021). While there are varying reasons why teachers miss school, they cite the distances they have to cover between their homes and schools as an important concern.
Other than the high PTR, many primary schools in Malawi have most of the classes held outside, especially in the lower grades. Conducting classes outdoors can negatively impact learning because learners are compelled to learn in harsh conditions such as poor weather. It is estimated that lower-primary students have to learn outdoors in 1 out of 3 primary schools in the country (National Planning Commission, 2021). This usually results in the cancellation of classes when it is scorching and raining. Students in lower grades (1-4) tend to be allocated outdoor classes more often than in senior grades. This could be due to higher enrollment rates in lower primary, making it hard to fit them into tiny classrooms.
Rainfall is an important challenge to outdoor learning in the country. The rainy season usually falls between December and March. The period overlaps with the final days of term 1 and entirely with term 2 of the school calendar. Children are often forced to leave school early when it starts to rain. Some students often fail to attend school if it starts to rain in the morning. Additionally, the hot sun and getting exposed to elements such as dust and wind create less-optimal learning environments. All the highlighted challenges have contributed to poor learning outcomes for primary school children in Malawi.
Programs that are Currently in Place to Address the Challenges
The government of Malawi and several non-governmental and governmental organizations have put in place programs that seek to promote the quality of education in the country. One such program is the “Basic education programme” (BEP) by the “German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development” (BMZ). The program has its basis on a properly functioning teacher training system. Under BEP, support is given to monitor and evaluate the process of educating teachers and strengthening capacities (GIZ, 2022). There are four main areas of focus under the program, one of them being “the development of internal and external evaluation systems for the attainment of the National Standards of Teacher Education (NSTE) at all eight public TTCs” (GIZ, 2022). Other areas of focus are enhancing capacities for implementing the revised curriculum, availing learning and mentoring support to student-teachers on teaching practice, and incorporating ICT as a learning and teaching tool.
Construction of Additional Classrooms
Indoor classrooms provide shelter to learners and teachers, protecting them against elements such as rain and sunshine. There is adequate evidence showing that investing in classroom infrastructure can help enhance learning and learning outcomes (Dunga, 2016) as we propose that an extra 1000 classrooms be constructed across the country. With more classrooms, more students will be able to go about their studies under a roof. We project that the learning outcomes for lower primary students will improve if the number of those taking their classes outside is reduced. We estimate that constructing a single classroom will cost approximately $ 25,400. With more students learning indoors, we expect benefits such as reduced absenteeism, better student-teacher interaction, and improved test scores in reading and math.
Providing In-service Training for Teachers
Interventions that target professional development vary with respect to delivery methods and content. Under the proposed intervention, the focus will be on early-grade foundational mathematics skill instruction. In-service training of primary school teachers is particularly critical since up to 48% of the teachers are reported not to be adequately qualified (Mkandawire, Luo, & Maulidi, 2018). Teachers who are professionally trained can positively impact the learner’s test scores and their general life outcomes. The proposed intervention will entail an activity that will run for three years, and which will avail primary school tutors with lesson plans together with foundational numeracy skill training.
The intervention targets to reach up to 40,000 teachers every year. The approach, which will be ongoing and subject-specific, will follow the current best practices in the professional development of teachers. We estimate that the training per teacher will cost about $ 540. The main benefit of in-service training is that teachers will become more competent. A high number of competent and adequately skilled teachers is expected to translate into better learning outcomes for primary school students.
The main objective of the proposed project is to improve the quality of primary school education in Malawi. The country is among the poorest worldwide, and its education sector has been grappling with several challenges. These challenges include poor infrastructure, limited learning resources in schools, and less qualified teachers. Due to these challenges, primary school education in Malawi is poor. Education stands out as an essential catalyst for economic and social development. A compromised quality, as is the case with Malawi, implies that the impact of education on learners and the economy as a whole will be limited. Just 38.4% of primary school learners manage to transition from primary school to secondary school level. Additionally, Malawian students tend to perform poorly in reading and writing compared to students from other African countries. In this project, two interventions are proposed: building more classrooms and providing in-service teacher training. Constructing an additional number of classrooms will help reduce overcrowding and outdoor learning, negatively impacting learning outcomes. In-service training of teachers will help ensure that the primary school teachers have the necessary skills and qualifications to impact learners positively.
Altinyelken, H. K., & Hoeksma, M. (2021). Improving educational quality through active learning: Perspectives from secondary school teachers in Malawi. Research in Comparative and International Education, 16(2), 117-139.
Dunga, S. H. (2013). An analysis of the determinants of education quality in Malawi: Pupil reading scores. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. doi: 10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n4p337
GIZ. (2022). Improving Basic Education in Malawi. Retrieved from https://www.giz.de/en/worldwide/20110.html
Mkandawire, M. T., Luo, Z., & Maulidi, F. K. (2018). Does the University-Industry Link Affect Solving Challenges of the Job Market? Lessons from Teacher Education and the Ministry of Education in Malawi. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 5, 2382120517738776.
National Planning Commission. (2021). Cost-benefit analysis: Improving the quality of primary school education in Malawi – Technical Report. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/GIDEON/Downloads/Improving-the-quality-of-primary-school-education-in-Malawi_v2.pdf
UNICEF (2019). 2018/19 Education budget brief. Towards improved education for all in Malawi. New York: UNICEF.
World Bank (2018). Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Washington, DC: The World Bank Group.
Enterprise Security Risk Management Free Writing Sample
The American Risk Management Association, defines risk management as “taking action to remove or lower the risk to a bearable level.” It is necessary to identify specific risks or vulnerabilities, research and investigate them, optimize risk management choices, and routinely assess security programs to ensure a successful risk management plan. Risk management is a never-ending endeavor. A company undertakes further risk evaluations and security surveys regularly to analyze and improve security and operations and deal with any new difficulties that may occur.
Building owners and municipal governments cannot defend high-rise structures from catastrophic attacks like those that occurred on September 11, 2001. As a result, minimizing the consequences of an assault is critical. Criminal acts and natural disasters are challenging to forecast or avoid. Security systems, operations, personnel, and planning, can’t foresee or avoid these tragedies. It is the responsibility of business owners and organizations to avoid them and handle them if they do occur. In the private security industry, risk management is critical. A lot has been learned from the terrible attack of September 11, 2001.
The attacks resulted in the deaths of around 3,000 individuals and the loss of monetary investments. They have taken unprecedented precautions to prevent the recurrence of these calamities and developed several systems and safeguards to counter their repercussions if they occur again through a continuous risk management program (Asisonline, n.d.). This paper discusses the necessary steps I would take to remove or lower terrorist attack risks in our high-rise building in response to preparation reinstated by the FBI.
Risk Analysis (or Risk Assessment)
I implemented Protective measures to eliminate or decrease the remaining threats. Risk mitigation was aided by implementing technical security controls and safeguards and personnel education and training. It was to be accomplished with the help of policies (Aus, n.d.). The most important approach for reducing the severity of an assault is to detect and neutralize as many dangers as possible.
After the 1993 World Trade Center bombing occurred in a parking garage beneath a tower, I completed a risk analysis of such parking spaces.
The following was my conclusion:
- In a carjacking, assault, theft, or other threats to the driver or passengers were to be assessed
- Assessed the chances for a terrorist attack on our parking structure
- Lighting, cameras, and security officers in the parking space were evaluated
The perimeter and adjacent buildings were assessed with the roofs, windows, shared occupancy, valuables areas, nighttime and extra-hours, entrance control and monitoring system, keys and key management, fire dangers, computer access, and electronic video surveillance.
Entrance and exit
The inspections covered everything from employee access and exit to access control, storage area security, and truck driver and crew interaction.
Included auditing approaches, information confidentiality, off-site storage solutions, programs, computer usage monitoring, and access control in the building.
Access Control Systems
People and vehicles entering and exiting a region or facility were monitored using devices and identification systems. Employees must display their ID badges or access cards; every building facility was similarly secured by a locking system and required a card reader to access every door (security magazine, n.d.). The human resources database was linked to the ID database. Employee terminations and other changes to access privileges are reported to the security department via this interface.
Because dogs’ noses are significantly more sensitive than ours and more advanced electronic bomb-detection equipment, bomb detection was easier for dogs than humans. The human resources manager was handed a $200,000-per-year contract for one canine and its handler.
Computerized Guard Tour Systems
Every visit, including the time and location of security patrols, is logged. They assist in keeping track of officer performance and ensuring records’ accuracy. These documents are crucial to the organization when sued for safety breaches. I used a security officers tour tracking software to ensure that all security guards completed allotted rounds on time while recording compliance, legal, and insurance requirements (City Security, 2020). For security guards, scanners attached to checkpoint stations are standard equipment. Many checkpoints were located at major intersections or the route’s extreme ends.
Our security audit included a physical inspection of all building amenities and a keen evaluation of every safety measure. It proved to be a successful approach in assisting our building’s corporate security staff in reducing crime. The survey’s findings were used to advise the high-rise building’s Corporate Security Manager (CSM) on facilitating the building’s dangers.
Its functions included photo identification, access control, and billing purchases.
Command or Control Centre
They also listened in on phone calls to see whether any threats were made. Their responsibility was to respond to situations such as crimes, fires, and invasions. Automated approaches were used to save money on staff, improve response times, and improve command center operations.
“is the risk transfer to another region or an outside entity.”. Things like security services come to mind while discussing risk transfer methods. It was possible to outsource software development and IT support (SecurityOrb, 2014). I worked with a third party to be more advantageous in the building. When you outsource the development to a third party, you’re transferring the risk to them.
Proprietary and Contract Security
I looked at everything from security to receptionists to cleaning crews regarding in-house services. Contract security guards are less dependable and consistent than in-house security personnel. Employees and visitors alike appreciated having a guard on duty every day. However, to ensure that a complete and up-to-date program is in place, I entrusted the safety of our workers and physical assets to private security contractors.
Crisis Management Teams
They coordinated all activities with the building and FBI personnel. They were centered in the control center to perform regular internal assessments or comparative benchmarking of their crisis management methods to gauge their effectiveness against terrorist attacks.
Overt and Covert Security
They monitor the building’s tenants for unusual activities and conduct covert surveillance to prevent theft
I made it difficult for an attacker to exploit the vulnerability. Risk mitigation expects something will happen, not if, but when. If something goes wrong, rules and processes must be developed. Disaster recovery and business continuity planning are examples of risk mitigation strategies (BCPs).
Private Security Systems Convergence
All corporate subsystems, such as electronic video surveillance (EVS), time and attendance (T&A), or intrusion detection (ID), were consolidated into one repository so that all data could be seen at once. Convergence refers to merging several systems, such as IT, physical security, access control, electronic surveillance, building management, human resource management, and fire safety. One approach will be built from the building’s front door to each employee’s workstation to monitor access and other functions. One of the essential advantages of networking is using human resources remotely.
I was willing to take the risk by understanding the repercussions since it is impossible to eliminate the danger. The initial step in this procedure is to determine the threat level of the data. It helped me weigh the possibility of an attack versus the vulnerability’s likelihood of being exploited. I decided on Risk acceptance by examining the controls and ensuring that risk acceptance is justified.
Electronic Video Surveillance
It is possible to capture and playback video footage at scheduled intervals by security staff or a combination of the two. The reduction of crime and disturbance, improving public safety, and providing evidence to law enforcement agencies are all objectives of electronic video surveillance.
Sensors like motion detectors were put at the building perimeter, entrance and exit doors, building windows, and other entry points to detect locomotion or intrusion. They used telephone lines to send a silent warning signal to a central monitoring center
Armed or Unarmed Guards
In a terrorist assault, armed security personnel served as a deterrence. I tried to combat guards’ turnover (losing employees through retirement and termination) to have a protected environment for the employees
Biometric Access Control Systems
The first biometric identification method used was fingerprinting. Looking at someone’s face or iris, studying their retina, assessing their hand geometry, or analyzing their facial thermogram can all be used to identify them. The most precise method is iris scanning. Facial features can be mapped and saved in databases or on a microchip inserted in the paper using cameras and computers. The strategy fails because the group of suspected terrorists and criminals lacks near-perfect illumination and fascinating topics.
It is necessary to identify specific risks or vulnerabilities, research and investigate them, optimize risk management choices, and routinely assess security programs to ensure a successful risk management plan. Risk management is a never-ending endeavor. A company undertakes further risk evaluations and security surveys regularly to analyze and improve security and operations and deal with any new difficulties that may occur.
Asisonline. (n.d.). A Brief Guide to ESRM Implementation. Www.asisonline.org. Retrieved May 7, 2022, from https://www.asisonline.org/security-management-magazine/articles/2019/11/a-brief-guide-to-esrm-implementation/
Aus. (n.d.). What Executive Protection Professionals Need to Know about Enterprise Security Risk Management (ESRM) | Allied Universal. Www.aus.com. Retrieved May 7, 2022, from https://www.aus.com/blog/what-executive-protection-professionals-need-know-about-enterprise-security-risk-management
City Security. (2020, October 28). Enterprise Security Risk Management. City Security Magazine. https://citysecuritymagazine.com/editors-choice/enterprise-security-risk-management/
security magazine. (n.d.). What is Enterprise Security Risk Management (ESRM), and How Can Your Organization Benefit From Taking This Approach? Www.securitymagazine.com. https://www.securitymagazine.com/articles/91788-what-is-enterprise-security-risk-management-esrm-and-how-can-your-organization-benefit-from-taking-this-approach
SecurityOrb. (2014, December 20). The Four Basic Strategies to Controlling Risks. SecurityOrb.com. https://securityorb.com/general-security/four-basic-strategies-controlling-risks/
Annotated Bibliography: Environmental Pollution Essay Example
Alfonso, Sébastien, Manuel Gesto, and Bastien Sadoul. “Temperature increase and its effects on fish stress physiology in the context of global warming.” Journal of Fish Biology 98.6 (2021): 1496-1508.
Sebastien Alfonso was born on 19th June 1974 in Zaragoza, Spain. He is well known for his great passion and interest in fish and aquaculture. Manuel Gesto is a senior researcher at the National Institute of Aquatic resources. He is a professor from CISPA Technology University in Bari, Italy, and Sadoul from the section for Aquaculture, DTU Aqua Technical University of Denmark, Hirtshals. He attended the University of Vigo, where he undertook his master’s in Marine biology and aquaculture and later had his Ph.D. at the same university. The authority of the authors is seen in their journals. They have included their profile, link to the source, and short biographies to include their trustworthiness in detail.
Additionally, the credibility of the authors is seen in that they exhaust the effects of global warming on fisheries and marine ecosystems in very concise and simplified information. The limitation of this source is that it is only concentrated on global warming, although other ways of environmental pollution environment negatively affect fisheries and marine ecosystems. The journal is helpful in my research because it will enable me to fully understand the content of global warming and its effects on marine life.
Chidumayo, Emmanuel N., and L. Kwibisa. “Effects of deforestation on grass biomass and soil nutrient status in miombo woodland, Zambia.” Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 96.1-3 (2003): 97-105.
Chimayo is an author from the Biological Sciences Department at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia researched how deforestation affects the ecosystem in Zambia’s natural Miombo woodland. The purpose of his research was to investigate how deforestation in central Africa reduces soil’s nutrient content and increases soil erosion. Chimayo and Emmanuel N. argue about the effects of deforestation to curb the widespread violation of environmental conservation rules. For instance, the two authors insist on creating awareness among all citizens of Zambia. Police officers also reinforce strict rules and measures to be followed. They also argue about the effects of deforestation in Miombo to acknowledge the importance of biogas by the government. The limitation of this source is that it only concentrated on the impact of deforestation in tropical areas, whereas deforestation is a global problem.
Ghenai, Chaouki, and Maamar Bettayeb. “Data analysis of the electricity generation mix for clean energy transition during COVID-19 lockdowns.” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects (2021): 1-21.
Maamar Bettayeb was born on 3rd June 1953. In the article, Chennai, a sustainable and renewable energy engineering department, college of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah UAE, and Bettayeb, from Center for Sustainable Energy and Power Systems, Research Institute for Science and Engineering University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates a data analysis of the electricity generation mix during C0VID-19 lockdowns. The primary purpose of conducting the investigation was to analyze the amount of energy supplied to companies and households during the lockdowns. The authors argue in order to enable the researchers to compare the percentage of non-renewable versus renewable energy provided and the rate of carbon emissions. The energy data was later used to show the importance and the role of the development of a clean energy system to reduce the rate of air pollution. The source is a scholarly peer-reviewed article because it includes the authors and the content, it is written for professionals, and it is pretty long. The strength of the article is its data-based analysis. The article is therefore essential for my research because it will enable me to analyze how the pandemic created a need for increased usage of non-renewable energy and how this change shapes the future of the clean energy system.
Manisalidis, Ioannis, et al. “Environmental and health impacts of air pollution: a review.” Frontiers in public health (2020): 14.
Ioannis Manisalidis is a doctorate student from Athens, Greece. The main aim or rather claim of the authors is to analyze the effects of environmental pollution on human health. Manisalidis argues how the depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere increases the risk of skin cancer and how pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds (V0Cs), dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect human health. According to him, heavy metals such as lead and mercury lead to poisoning and intoxication when humans inhale them. On the other hand, Ioannis argues how pollutants in water and air interfere with human physiology. The author also points out specific diseases that are brought about by these toxic substances in the air, such as Asthma, and therefore affect the inhalation of a person. In addition to that, cardiovascular diseases are common among people living in submarine areas. The source is a scholarly peer-reviewed article because it includes the authors and the content, it is written for professionals, and it is pretty long. The limitation of the article is that it emphasizes the frontiers of public health only, and its strength is that it shows the ways of curbing pollution.
Wimbadi, Ramanditya Wimbardana, and Riyanti Djalante. “From decarbonization to low carbon development and transition: A systematic literature review of the conceptualization of moving toward net-zero carbon dioxide emission (1995–2019).” Journal of Cleaner Production 256 (2020): 120307.
Ramanditya is a resilient development initiative from Bandung, Indonesia. He and Djalante, in this article, have evaluated the global attempt to attain a net-zero carbon dioxide emission by the year 2050. Their review aims to analyze the essential concepts of climate change mitigation about the reduction or complete elimination of carbon dioxide gas. The paper also examines the decarbonization measures that lead to progressive zero-emission of Carbon dioxide. Wimbadi and other researchers give a literature review, thereby including a systematic and coherent flow of information on how the world can attain the zero-emission of carbon dioxide. The study is essential in the field of environmental pollution because it proposes the zero-emission of carbon as one of the ways of cleaning up the environment. Also, the article highlights the effects of carbon dioxide on the life of an individual by evaluating the cause and what should be done. Environmental activists are, therefore, able to understand the logic behind environmental pollution.