Enterprise Application Software And Value Chain Management Essay Example For College

Technology advancement and globalization have resulted in stiff competition among firms operating in domestic and global markets. Sustaining the current competition requires firms that can manage their value chain effectively by integrating modern technologies, looking for advanced competitive advantages, and fostering customer delight (Presutti Jr. & Mawhinney, 2013). Enterprise application software (EAS) has become a great asset for a range of modern businesses in maintaining their value chain. EAS is a system platform designed to hold and improve access to large amounts of data in a corporate environment. EAS comprises organizational modeling utilities, shared business applications, and a group of programs that make the software scalable, distributed, component-based, and mission-critical with unparalleled functionalities. Today, businesses are driven by data, and EAS improves efficiency and productivity in any firm that utilizes a computer-based information system. Therefore, the unit 5 assignment makes a compelling argument about how EAS can be used successfully to manage an enterprise’s value chain to achieve competitive advantage and customer value.


Compelling Argument

EAS performs a range of functions such as procurement, production scheduling, order processing, customer information management, accounting, and energy management. All these business functions comprise an enterprise’s value chain. The EAS ensures they are typically hosted on servers over a computer network, making it possible to provide simultaneous services to many users. EAS satisfies organizational needs rather than individual users by ensuring information flows throughout the organization. Ensuring all the phases of an enterprise’s operations are integrated into computer systems improves efficiency, coordination, and decision making. As a result, the firm can achieve uniform business processes and data standards in all departments, which help in achieving customer value. Apart from improving relationships between an enterprise and customers, EAS makes a company more efficient, lowers costs and resources, and saves time and money, which are excellent sources of competitive advantage.

 Three Types of Enterprise Application Software

Many types of EAS fit into different organizations or departments to manage a firm’s value chain and achieve superior customer satisfaction and competitive advantage. Examples of EAS are business intelligence (BI), customer relationship management (CRM), precise analytics, and accounting software. Different types of EAS perform additional tasks in an organization to manage an enterprise’s value chain and achieve customer value and competitive advantage.

Business Intelligence (BI) Software

BI software supports collecting and analyzing large amounts of data in an organization. Data analysis in an organization is vital because it provides a firm’s current status and position based on the past, present, and future data. Understanding the firm’s production or service delivery situation helps make informed decisions on how to achieve customer value. Using past data can help improve the firm’s current performance in fostering customer delight and attaining a competitive advantage. BI software can handle large amounts of data quickly, thus promoting analysis and informed decision-making. As a result, the firm can improve the quality of goods or services using the data analysis capacity of BI software, which is an added competitive advantage in the current stiff market and fosters customer satisfaction.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software

CRM software helps manage the relationship between a business and its clients. CRM software comes with live chat applications and a calling system where customers can air their complaints and get quick responses that build trust and satisfaction. A business can use the software to get information about their clients, such as their location, age, gender, preferences, and ambitions. As a result, they can integrate all this information in product development or improving service delivery. A better understanding of the target customers gives a firm a competitive edge over its rivals in delivering goods or services tailored to achieve superior customer satisfaction.

Clear Analytics Software

Clear analytics is an excel based software used to analyze, generate, and visualize a firm’s critical data useful in organizational management and visualizing the overall business outlook. Clear analytics software has the potential of consolidating a vast range of data that can take human days to complete. Apart from saving time in data analysis, the software provides a firm with the intelligence required to add value to customer needs. As a result, a business using clear analytics software is best placed to compete favorably in the market by offering superior customer satisfaction through data-driven production.

Accounting Software

Accounting software is used in keeping financial records for an enterprise. Accurate calculations and storage of financial data for easy retrieval are crucial for any business entity because it provides information on organizational performance and a basis for comparison with other market players. Financial calculations are among businesses processes that are time-consuming and tedious for any firm, but accounting software makes data compilations and analyses more straightforward and more accurate. As a result, the software saves on time and gives a firm more accurate data for decision-making on product development and performance in the market.

Examples of Use of Enterprise Application Software

Google Company is an example of a Fortune 500 Company that has successfully used EAS in the management of the value chain. The firm uses Google Analytics software to locate its customers’ locations worldwide and obtain more information regarding their needs and preferences, which allows the firms to create products and services tailored to meet their specific needs (Google Analyitcs, n.d.). A range of firms has adopted Google analytics to help better understand their clients to offer better services to customers.

However, a corporation like Vodafone Group is among the Fortune 500 Companies that have not been successful with using EAS in managing the value chain. At one point, Vodafone failed to transfer its billing and customer relations to the Siebel platform that supports the EAS billing system and CRM software (Vodafone Group, 2022). The migration process took longer than expected, and after completion, the platform could not take in all Vodafone’s customers. As a result, the firm was forced to operate both the new and old systems, especially for customers’ transactions that could not reflect in the new billing system.


EAS has significantly transformed the business world, especially in managing day-to-day operations. Many types of EAS can fit in different businesses and functions. However, applying the technology correctly is paramount because it determines the ability of the firm to compete with its rivals, sustain the current competition, achieve a competitive edge, and provide superior customer satisfaction. Failure to apply the EAS technology correctly can ruin a firm’s performance, as with Vodafone Group.


Google Analytics. (n.d.). Welcome to Google Analytics. https://analytics.google.com/analytics/web/provision/#/provision

Presutti, Jr., W.D., & Mawhinney, J. R. (2013). Understanding the dynamics of the value chain. Business Expert Press, LLC.

Vodafone Group. (2020). About Vodafone Group. https://www.vodafone.com/about-vodafone

Epidemiology And Historical Epidemiologic Events Free Writing Sample

Concepts of Epidemiology

One of the concepts of epidemiology is population. The term population refers to a group of persons having a common characteristic and whom public health officials wish to learn about. In the assigned article titled, “Zika arrived in Florida 3 months before detection, study says,” the population of focus were travelers infected with Zika. Distribution is concerned with the pattern and frequency of a health event in a population (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012). Pattern represents the occurrence of such an event by person, place, and time. Most people infected with the Zika virus did not get sick except pregnant women. There was a lag in the arrival and detection of Zika in Florida. Focus refers to a geographical local which is most impacted by an epidemic.

On the other hand, determinants as an epidemiology concept include “the causes (including agents), risk factors (including exposure to sources), and modes of transmission” (CDC, 2012). Risk factors for becoming diseased with Zika were pregnancy with illness resulting from mosquito bites. Outcomes quantification is concerned with the prevalence and incidence of health-related events. Until later summer 2017, there were 256 cases of Zika infection in Florida (Stobbe, 2017). Lastly, the “Control of health problems” concept of epidemiology involves preventing disease as well as improving the public’s general wellness using information from determinants and distribution. Zika can be controlled by avoiding mosquito bites. For instance, one can use insect repellants.

Description of Historical Events

Bubonic Plaque Epidemics

The bubonic plague epidemics were infectious illnesses caused by Yersinia pestis, a gram-negative bacterium. The human flea and the Indian rat flea are the transmission agents in a plaque. The fleas’ primary hosts are brown sewer rats or black urban rats. The first bubonic plague pandemic was the Justinian plaque that occurred between 541 and 544 (Frith, 2012). The epidemic’s ground zero was Ethiopia in Africa. The primary symptoms of the Justinian plaque were fever and bubonic swelling. The focus of the epidemic was Constantinople, where the mortality rate reached 10000 people per day in 542 (Frith, 2012). Another bubonic plague was the “Black Death” that attacked Europe between 1347 and 1352 (Frith, 2012). Infected persons developed chills, headache, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The outbreak killed over twenty-five million individuals in Europe and a similar number in Africa.

John Snow’s Cholera Study

John Snow, an English physician, investigated cholera outbreaks in England in 1854. Through his studies, Snow demonstrated for the first time that the cholera epidemics resulted from consuming contaminated water (Merrill, 2017). Snow’s findings reinforced the need for sanitation in public health.

Development of smallpox vaccine and eradication of smallpox

Edward Jenner introduced the first smallpox vaccine in 1976 (Merrill, 2017). The scientist observed that dairymaids who had previously suffered from cowpox had natural immunity against smallpox. Besides, Jenner established that variola virus could be prevented by inoculated vaccinia (Merrill, 2017). Smallpox eradication efforts later employed mass vaccination strategies before shifting to case-finding and ring vaccination.

1918 Influenza Epidemic

The influenza epidemic of 1918 represents one of the severe pandemics that have faced the world in history. An estimated 500 million individuals worldwide were infected with the influenza virus. Deaths occurring from the virus were approximately 50 million globally, with around 675000 occurring in the US (Shanks & Brundage, 2012). The mortality rate was high in the pediatric population, people aged between 20 and 50, and senior citizens. (Shanks & Brundage, 2012). At the start and progression of the pandemic, the world lacked antibiotics or vaccines to treat or protect individuals from influenza.

Identification Of Smoking as A Cause of Cancer

Currently, the link between smoking and cancer is no secret. Scientists and health professionals have known that cigarette smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer since the early 1940s, when epidemiological investigations established a relationship between smoking and the prevalence of lung cancer (Merrill, 2017). In the ‘50s, experiments authenticated that the chemicals present in cigarette smoke caused cancer in rats.

How Learning About Past Historical Epidemiologic Events Help Solve Current and Future Disease Outbreaks

Certainly, learning about past epidemiologic events is critical in solving current as well as future disease outbreaks. Past epidemics represent social laboratories that enable public health professionals to establish a society’s resiliency, the functioning of administrative structures in a pandemic, resources required, and shortcomings. Furthermore, reflecting on historical epidemiological events reveals the responsibilities and roles of healthcare professionals in pandemics. Besides, past pandemics inform healthcare workers about ethical issues likely to be faced when responding to current and future pandemics.


Frith, J. (2012). The history of plague-part 1: The three great pandemics. Journal Of Military and Veterans health, 20(2), 11-16.

Merrill, R. (2017). Introduction to Epidemiology (7th Edition). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Shanks, G. D., & Brundage, J. F. (2012). Pathogenic Responses Among Young Adults During The 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Emerging infectious diseases, 18(2), 201.

Stobbe, M. (2017). Zika arrived in Florida 3 months before detection, study says. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.orlandosentinel.com/health/os-zika-study-florida-20170524-story.html

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Lesson 1: Introduction to epidemiology. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/quizanswers.html#:~:text=Inthedefinitionofepidemiologydeterminantsgenerallyincludesthe,theresultingpublichealthaction.

Equal Pay – Equality Act Essay Example


The American labor market grew stronger and more established around the 19th century. The country’s economy was booming, which attracted foreigners. As a result of the workers’ unions, many laws were enacted. The union’s goal was to protect workers’ rights and provide a stable, safe, and enjoyable workplace. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, for example, paved the way for the Equal Pay Act of 1963.

This paper will discuss how the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Equal Pay Act improved equal pay in the American workplace. That the Acts were crucial in ensuring that women could receive a fair salary exactly like their male counterparts will also be highlighted.

American Job Market

The United States had grown rapidly by early 1900. The rise was reflected in Americans’ incomes and living conditions rather than Europeans. Historian Peter Shergold established this by comparing the living levels of Americans in Pittsburgh with the British in Birmingham. He verified that the cost of living in both countries had risen significantly. As a result, more Europeans sought to relocate and make more money(Chromec et al.,2019). However, the labor market was not fair to persons of color, especially women. In the early twentieth century, women comprised about a third of the American workforce. Despite tremendous development and career prospects, women were still paid less than males for doing the same work.

During the post-war period, progress was made in reducing the pay disparity. A letter to the New York Times questioned why female federal employees were not compensated equally with male counterparts. Women’s protests led to the formation of the Women’s Trade Union League from 1903 until 1950. The group included both working-class and wealthy ladies. The Women’s League campaigned for better working conditions for women and fair pay.

Women’s welfare played an important role in the early 1900s industrial activities. This was highlighted by the industrial actions of the 1909 New York Shirtwaist strike. During the walkout, female textile workers faced terrible working conditions, long hours, and low pay compared to their male counterparts(Chromec et al.,2019). Women telegraph workers made similar allegations. Despite the failure of the later strike to achieve wage equality, it emphasized the necessity to address the issue.


The Fair Labor Standards Act was one of the country’s major measures to ensure fair labor standards. The bill was intended to address minimum wage and overtime compensation. President Roosevelt and Frances Perkins, the first female US Secretary of Labor, drafted the law(Shwartz,2019). The Fair Labour Act also limited an employee’s workweek to 40 hours. The Act was vital because young and old employees were subjected to long hours and little pay, especially during the Great Depression.

Equal Pay Act Effects

In 1963, the Equal Pay Act was enacted. The Act was crucial in creating a statute against gender prejudice. The Act also prohibits discrimination against advancement in favor of men and not women who work in positions that demand equivalent efforts, responsibilities, and abilities. As highlighted, the passing of this legislation has had a significant impact on the labor layout of the country. More women have been able to compete equally for opportunities just as their male colleagues in recent times. Gender is no longer an inhibiting factor(Romero,2019). The legislation has also been crucial n protecting women against harassment in the workplace. It will also be crucial in developing more gender-sensitive legislation to further enhance inclusivity in the workplace especially for members of the LGBTQ community.


The USA has traditionally prided itself on being a country of opportunity. This was proved when the country began to see an increase in immigration. But women have long faced prejudice in getting access to opportunities. Feminists said that women couldn’t work longer due to family obligations and that integrating women into the workplace would be expensive. Inequalities between men and women were addressed in many ways. The Equality Pay Act enabled women to take concrete measures toward gender equality. The statute prohibited discrimination based on gender, ethnicity, or religion. It paved the way for the Pregnancy Discrimination Act and the Educational Amendment Act. These actions will ultimately lead to gender equality at work.


Chromec, Petr, and PhDr Michal Peprník. “Comparison of Social Roles of Men and Women in pre and post World War two American Suburban Literature.”

Retrievedfrom: https://theses.cz/id/kyiz8a/Bachelor_thesis_-Comparison_of_social_roles_of_Men_and_Wo.pdf

Schwartz, Tabitha. “Comparing the Results of 50 years of the Equal Pay Act.” (2019).

Retrieved from: https://ctlsites.uga.edu/schwartztabithampa/wp-content/uploads/sites/1113/2020/04/Schwartz_EqualPay_IssuePaper-2.pdf

Romero, Adam P. “Does the Equal Pay Act Prohibit Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity.” Ala. CR & CLL Rev. 10 (2019): 35.

Retrievedfrom: https://www.law.ua.edu/acrcl/files/2019/06/2.-Romero_Published.pdf