Enterprise Risk Management: Risk, Governance And Culture Essay Example


A perfect corporate authority enables the board of management of an organization to meet frequently, take control of the business and have well-defined responsibilities. It also ensures that proper risk management is taken into account. Corporate governance is one of the strengths of good companies. Corporate governance ensures appropriate decision-making through policies, processes and practices. It also provides a way of defence against accusations of malpractice in the line of duty.

2.1. Significance of corporate governance to the strategic performance of a banking organization.

Corporate governance consists of many tasks that vary according to an organization. Good corporate governance is important for a banking organization to run it successfully. Given a competitive global economy and pressures, corporate governance is essential in banking to lower the risk of non-compliance with regulatory obligations. It helps the organization to discourage assumptions that are open-minded. Proper corporate governance policies can result in corporate diversity, appropriate supply chains and other results valued by the investors. Corporate governance is therefore considered an essential business differentiator.

Good corporate governance leaves some hallmarks in the organization. The board should frequently meet to maintain proper control over the business. Minutes of the meetings should be thorough and show constructive challenges from a diverse board with a balance of executive and non-executive directors (Rehman and Anwar, 2019). The chairperson should not be a dictator but a facilitator. The directors must go through induction into their responsibilities and understand the nature of the business. Once the installation is complete, the managers should be given ongoing training and assessments that should be monitored so that the board can understand the company’s functions. The board and committee should be regularly evaluated to ensure they are well functioning. Senior leaders should ensure effective communication with the board and maintain their records. Corporate policies must be implemented across the entire banking organization.

The board is fully responsible for developing, implementing and maintaining a good corporate governance system. The chairperson and the secretary must ensure that the board remains true to its governance. They should ensure that the board adopts the banking organization’s governance code with local differences grounded on regulations, cultures and other factors. The human resource, finance, procurement and legal counsel have major responsibilities in ensuring good governance. Good governance promotes accountable decision-making at all business levels. Any new person in the organization should understand their responsibilities and what is expected of them.

2.2. Effectiveness of a corporate banking structure using a board portal.

The board portal is a suitable corporate governance tool used to evaluate the banking organization’s effectiveness. Strong corporate governance helps establish clear accountability and use proper objectives and processes throughout the organization. Lack of strong corporate governance leads to companies having a state of flux, unable to achieve the set goals (Altanashat, Al Dubai and Alhety, 2019). The objective-setting process may be considered invalid. Board portals help make boards effective and the board members accountable. It allows the banking organization to set objectives and measure the outcomes.

Using board portals, instant board backs are provided and can be used by the board wherever they are. Instant board packs help the banking organization to reduce courier costs and protect confidential data. It reduces the cost of board members attending meetings physically. Instead, the sessions are done online. The board packs enable business operations to be more flexible.

Board portals can help achieve huge gains in efficiency. This happens when the team members only access the documents they need to, which helps secure the records. Personal assistants benefit a lot from efficiency gains. The agendas are put together and distributed numerically. Board associates can be invited and informed of the conferences, and their feedback can be received digitally. Board meetings can be reserved and stored online. A move to a paperless method of taking minutes brings a tremendous efficiency gain.

Accountability is achieved when collaboration is made, and the board members and internal teams are made to take responsibility for any action in the banking organization. The documents accessed by the board members are period imprinted and registered so that pure records are made when there are changes. The audit trail gives details on all the activities taking place in the organization. The audit trajectory guarantees that everybody can assess and review the documents they have been authorized to access.

Board portals help in adhering to the regulations. In safeguarding private data, board portals provide the benefit of stronger accountability, good efficiency gains and a better understanding of risks. In terms of risk management, board portals provide a hazard management software program assembled into them. This aids board members in achieving the dangers of data being lost or deleted. It is useful for risk managers to show the risks and get views from the employees at all levels.

3.1. The project success rate

The overall project success rate is rated according to the time taken for completion, budget and agreement to the shareholder’s fulfilment. Productivity, functionality and absenteeism of entitlements and court records are the measures of success. A united workforce, experience in various fields in the banking organization, and timely and valuable information are the contributors to success (Fraser, Quail and Simkins, 2019). The success factors are planning effort, team motivation, goal-oriented workforce, ability to manage technicalities, control systems, work definition and scope.

3.2. Risks associated with the project lifecycle and the suitable risk responses.

In the initiation phase, the risks are associated with things that are not known. The chances are weighed against the potential benefits made for the banking organization’s success. When the project has been approved, it proceeds to the planning phase, where risks are known with the respective group of events. A risk interruption structure can be used to find out the cumulative risk analysis points. As the project advances, additional information is accessible to the project team. Risks on the project decrease and actions are taken without any loss. The risk plan has to be rationalized with the newest information and risks checked related to the activities that have been done. Risk-sharing and transfer arrangements are determined at the closeout phase, and the risk breakdown structure is. This ensures that the risk events have been evaded. The final estimation of loss due to risk can be completed and documented for the project documentation.

Adequacy of the banking organization’s control environment and measures for its improvement.

A controlled environment combines the banking organizational structure, processes, policies, and standards used to uphold managerial control. The banking organization’s board of directors and executive management create the culture and attitude of maintaining rules and setting the prospects of ethical behaviour. A controlled environment helps to achieve the aims that have been placed in a banking organization. It offers an accurate financial report to all the shareholders. It also helps in agreement with the rules and regulations.

There are numerous essentials of the control environment, including Indicating an obligation to truth and ethical principles and upholding the liberation of the board of directors from administration and their management of internal control and creating an organizational structure, reporting outlines, expert witnesses, and tasks to follow corporate aims (Shad et al., 2019). Demonstrating an obligation to entice, grow, and preserve capable persons, maintaining responsibility for accomplishing internal control tasks.

Failure to have internal controls of an association results in many outrages they don’t want to be associated with. A robust internal control setting offers management and shareholders a sensible guarantee that the banking organization is functioning according to corporation guidelines, business ethics, and supervisory necessities.

The components of internal control setting are; Control environment, a set of ethics, structures, and procedures that offer the basis for executing internal control in the organization. Risk Assessment is a method used to classify, evaluate, and accomplish risks to accomplish the organization’s purposes. Control actions are executed under the course of administration, as absorbed by an organization’s guidelines and measures, to alleviate the risks to attaining the organization’s aims. Information and communication is the dispersal of data desired to accomplish control activities and to comprehend internal control tasks to all the people. When executing internal control, the command of actions is taken into account. To progress the banking organization control environment, the following should be well-thought-out; Evaluate the risks intimidating the organization’s capability to attain its business purpose obligations. These may be personalities through a prescribed risk assessment or from monitoring control activities accomplished by the organization. Find new controls or how to adapt prevailing control actions to alleviate the risks. Design and communicate control variations to personnel accountable for applying, accomplishing, or revising the associated events. Implement the control deviations. Monitor control events all over the organization to limit the efficiency of their actions and the results from their accomplishment.

5.1. Risk management tool

Risk management is the understanding and analysis of risks to ensure that the banking organization meets its goals in the corporate world. A risk register is used to evaluate the banking organization’s risk management. A risk register is a tool used in project and risk management. It is used to identify potential risks that an organization may face to fulfil regulatory compliance and to be ahead in terms of encountering potential issues and outcomes.

5.2. Recommendations for improvement of risk management

To improve risk management, there should be a clear remit. Any gaps in terms of responsibilities in a banking organization show a greater opportunity for risks. Everyone in the organization should be aware of their responsibilities and tasks. Identifying risks early at the start of every project. There could be some positive risks, and they should be focused on rather than focusing on only the negative risks. The positive risks provide opportunities to be taken advantage of no matter the situation. The stakes should be appropriately defined by distinguishing between the effects and the causes (Saedi et al., 2019). A risk matrix is used to assess and prioritize the risks. They can be calculated by considering the probability and the impact. When something is wrong, it is better to take responsibility rather than wait for someone else to solve the problem. Risk management is best when everyone takes action and commitment. The past mistakes also help to make sure that they are not repeated. The appropriate strategies are undertaken to manage risks. All the risks are documented in a risk register helps to improve information sharing and accountability. Regular monitoring and reviewing help to act quickly when there are risks in the organization. Risk management training is important for the board and all the employees so that they can contribute to risk management.


The risk governance and culture of a banking organization have to be improved. Proper risk governance structures must be established so the board can oversee the risks they may face. The members of an audit committee should be increased so that a comprehensive decision is made. Threats should be made an agenda at all board meetings to assist the banking organization in preparing to face a crisis.

Reference List

Altanashat, M., Al Dubai, M. and Alhety, S., 2019. The impact of enterprise risk management on institutional performance in Jordanian public shareholding companies. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research13(3).

Fraser, J.R., Quail, R. and Simkins, B. eds., 2021. Enterprise risk management: Today’s leading research and best practices for tomorrow’s executives. John Wiley & Sons.

Rehman, A.U. and Anwar, M., 2019. I was mediating the role of enterprise risk management practices between business strategy and SME performance. Small Enterprise Research26(2), pp.207-227.

Saeidi, P., Saeidi, S.P., Sofian, S., Saeidi, S.P., Nilashi, M. and Mardani, A., 2019. The impact of enterprise risk management on competitive advantage by moderating role of information technology. Computer standards & interfaces63, pp.67-82.

Shad, M.K., Lai, F.W., Fatt, C.L., Klemeš, J.J. and Bokhari, A., 2019. It is integrating sustainability reporting into enterprise risk management and its relationship with business performance: A conceptual framework. Journal of Cleaner Production208, pp.415-425.

Onychomycosis Treatment And Management University Essay Example

Castellani first described Trichophyton rubrum as epidermphyton rubrum in 1910. It remains the most common dermatomycoses agent. It is an anthropophilic fungus that is the most distributed human dermatophyte (University of Adelaide, 2022). T. rubrum belongs to the Trichophyton genus, Onygenales order, athrodermataceae family, eurotimycetes class, ascomycota phylum, and pezizimytoconita subphylum. In the 19th century, it was believed to cause chronic tinea corpis and has spread all over the globe since then as the tinea Perdis and tinea ungium etiological agent. It remains the most prevalent species out of all dermatophyte infections because it is endemic worldwide except for Antarctica. Trichophyton rubrum is a clonal, anthropophilic saprotroph inhibiting the upper layer of the dead skin. The fungus causes dermatophytoses such as tinea corporis, tinea ungium, tinea pedis, tinea manuum or ochymucosis, and tinea capitis (Zhan et al., 2018). The paper will focus on the Trichophyte rubrum in onychomycosis and treatment using terbinafine drug.

How trichophyton rubrum compromises the nails directly

Trichophyton rubrum includes a keratinophilic filamentous fungus that secretes and produces proteolytic enzymes as vital virulence elements during infection. The proteases can digest the keratins found in skin and nail stratum corneum tissues into short amino acids and peptides for T. rubrum to assimilate and assist the invasion into keratine tissues. T. rubrum remains sensitive to the pH conditions of the environment. Therefore, protease secretion depends on the keratins’ content pH, and in acidic conditions, it is optimal. More so, approximately half of the T.rubrum genome sequence consists of proteases, especially keratinases. In addition, the trichophyton rubrum genome gets grouped into five chromosomes where forty-three special nuclear-encoded genes are analyzed, and almost half are proteases. T. rubrum normally leads to glabrous skin infection resulting in onychomycosis or tinea manuum, tinea pedis, and tinea coporis (Zhan et al., 2018)

Gupta & Stec (2019) highlight that onychomycosis portrays a yellow-brown and white discoloration on the nails. It also presents a violaceous, black, and green discoloration on the nail plate. The infection gets associated with nail detachment from the nail bed, subungual hyperkeratosis, and nail plate thickening. Onychomycosis affects toenails more than fingernails, with the big toe getting more affected. Depending on the invasion pattern, the infection falls into various subtypes. A patient can manifest a combination of the subtypes. T. rubrum causes distal subungual onychomycosis and proximal subungual onychomycosis.

According to Lung et al. (2020), distal subungual onychomycosis, or DSO, remains the most popular. More so, trichophyton rubrum causes DSO infection. The fungal invasion starts at the hyponychium and includes the distal bed and nail plate. Later, the fungus moves proximally via the nail plate leading to spikes or linear channels. Trichophyton rubrum organism migrates via the underlying nail matrix leading to mild inflammation. It further results in subungual hyperkeratosis and focal parakeratosis. As a result, the sub-unitary region thickens, or the nail plate detaches.

Moreover, a subungual space develops as a reservoir for molds and bacteria superinfection (Perugini et al., 2021). Clinically, it manifests as a brownish, whitish, and yellowish discoloration of the nail’s distal corner. One expects onycholysis, distal subungual hyperkeratosis, lateral onychauxis, and nail plate distal aspects.

Piraccini & Alessandrini (2015) notes that the proximal subungual onychomycosis subtype is less common and originates from Trichophyton rubrum. It develops after the fungus invades the proximal nail undersurface fold on the cuticle vicinity and progresses distally. Moreover, the infection presents as a leukonychia area in the proximal nail plate and shifts distally with the growth of the nail. Mainly, it occurs in patients with AIDS and immunodeficiency.

How terbinafine is used in modern-day clinical practice

Maxfield et al. (2022) state that terbinafine entails a synthetic allylamine derivative associated with potent activity against most dermatophytes that impact the nails and skin. The demortophytes include Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and epidermophytob floccosum. Terbinafine antifungal activity results from fungal squalene epoxidase increasing the toxic levels of squalene because of expodase selective inhibition in the fungal squalene epoxidase. In 1992, terbinafine was approved in the US in topical form and in 1998 as an oral antifungal. The topical terbinafine has a one percent spray or cream for dermatophyte infection. It treats skin infections, including cruris, tinea pedis, or cop oris. Moreover, oral terbinafine is prescribed and available in 250 mg tablets. It is generically under the Lamisal brand name. The oral prescription is utilized in fungal infection of toe and fingernails or onychomycosis (National Library of Medicine, 2018)

How terbinafine impacts tissue healing in the context of trichophyton rubrum

Oral antifungal treatment remains more successful than topical treatments. However, using the drug, it remains challenging to treat superficial white onychomycosis or some distal onychomycosis infections. Oral therapy is the first line for people who opt for treatment. Itraconazole and terbinafine are considered effective in dermatophyte infection treatment. However, terbinafine is viewed first line (Oakley, n.d). Note that before starting treatment, a laboratory test is recommended. Previously, onychomycosis was treated using griseofulvin, which offered low rates of cure and more extended treatment periods. Current antifungal agents, including itraconazole and terbinafine, remain more effective with a shorter treatment period (Sirgurgersson et al., 2002).

Terbinafine is a topically and orally active antimycotic agent that inhibits the fungi’s ergosterol biosythenisus sterol principal at the squalene epoxidase level. The squalene epoxidase inhibition leads to a fungistatic effect which is the ergosterol-depleted fungal cell membranes, and a fungicidal effect which is the intracellular squalene (Darkes et al., 2003).

Terbinafine has shown effective fungicidal activity on dermatophytes and variable activity on non-dermatophytes and yeasts in vitro. After oral administration, terbinafine gets rapidly absorbed and distributed widely to body tissues, including the nail matrix that is poorly diffused. Nail terbinafine concentrations get detected one week after initiating the therapy and persist for approximately thirty weeks after finishing the treatment. Research indicates that patients using terbinafine treatment attained superior clinical and mycological rates of cure and clinical relapse compared to those treated using intermittent itraconazole (Darkes et al., 2003).

Zaias & Rebell (2004) claim that distal subungual onychomycosis (DSO) nail infection caused by Trichophyton rubrum, terbinafine is an effective antifungal medicine. Terbinafine is given through the mouth to stop the nail from moving in a proximal direction to invade the mycosis in the nail bed in. The nail bed shifts at a similar rate to the overlying nail plate, making the inactive mycotic lesion move distally by the normal development of the nail and, finally, desquamate at the hyponychium. Moreover, the developing new nail and the nail bed near the mycotic nail bed may replace the inactive mycosis that retreats and finally occupy the whole nail bed. At this stage, the DSO is cured completely. However, the cure is confirmed by negative findings under culture analysis and potassium hydroxide. Moreover, the foci of permanent destruction to the nail unit by DSO or any other cause cannot get attributed to the antifungal treatment and do not fail the treatment. Terbinafine remains an effective DSO treatment when pulse-dosed for seven days every three months.

How terbinafine impacts on infection management

Darkes et al. (2003) argue that a randomized, double-blind trial indicated that oral Terbinafine 250 mg daily for twelve to sixteen weeks remains more efficacious compared to griseofulvin, fluconazole, and itraconazole in toenail’s dermatophyte onychomycosis. The mycologic rates of cure and complete rates of cure remained twice as high after treatment using terbinafine. Moreover, terbinafine possess better tolerability than griseoflulvin, fluconazole and intraconazole. In addition, terbinafine possesses a lower potential of the drug to drug interactions compared to azoles, and the greater clinical success of oral terbinafine in treating dermatophyte onychomycosis leads to a cost-effective ratio higher than griseofulvin, fluconazole and itraconazole (Darkes et al., 2003).

Moreover, terbinafine is administered as a progressive therapy at 250 mg daily for twelve weeks in adults for toenail infection and six weeks for fingernail infection. It can get administered as pulse therapy at 500mg daily for four weeks on and 34 weeks off (Maxfield et al., 2022). Progressive terbinafine pulse therapy remains safe and effective in managing dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis in diabetic individuals (Gupta & Stec, 2019).

National Library of Medicine (2018) claims that terbinafine is associated with some side effects. Gastrointestinal impacts, including nausea, skin reactions, dyspepsia, diarrhea, and taste disturbances, remain the most popular serious effects connected to terbinafine. In rare cases, adverse skin reactions and hematological disorders are reported. More so, terbinafine treatment may aggravate psoriasis. Individuals with liver diseases should not undergo terbinafine treatment. More so, terbinafine interacts with some medications. Laboratory confirmation of onychomycosis clinical diagnosis before starting treatment is recommended and is cost-effective.



Darkes, M., Scott, L., & Goa, K. (2003). Terbinafine: A Review of its Use in Onychomycosis in Adults. Am J Clin Dermatol, 4(1): 39-65 . doi: 10.2165/00128071-200304010-00005

Gupta, A., & Stec, N. (2019). Recent Advances in therapies for Onychomycosis and its Management. Version 1. F1000Res 8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6600855/

Lueng, A., Lam, J., Leong, K., Hon, K., Barankin, B., & Lueng, A. (2020). Onychomycosis: An Updated Review. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets, 14(1): 32-45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509699/

Maxfield, L., Preuss, C., & Bermudez, R. (2022). Terbinafine. StatPearl (Internet) . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545218/

National Library of Medicine. (2018). LiverToc: Clinical and Research Information on Drug Induced Liver Injury (Internet). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK548617/

Perugini, P., Bonettti, M., Guerini, M., Mustelli, G., & Grisoli, P. (2021). A New In Vitro Model to Evaluate Anti-Adhesive Effect against Fungal Nail Infections. Appl. Sci. 11(5), 1977. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/11/5/1977

Piraccini, B., & Alessandrini, A. (2015). Onychomycosis: A Review. J Fungi (Basel), 1(1): 30–43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5770011/

The University of Adelaide. (2022). Mycology. https://www.adelaide.edu.au/mycology/fungal-descriptions-and-antifungal-susceptibility/dermatophytes/trichophyton#trichophyton-rubrum

Zhan, P., Dukik, K., Li, D., K, S., & Stielow. (2018). Phylogeny of dermatophytes with a genomic character evaluation of clinically distinct Trichophyton rubrum and T. violaceum. Studies in Mycology. 2018, 89: 153-17. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166061618300071

Ethics In Information Systems Technology; Individual Privacy And Intellectual Property Free Essay

Some of the most crucial concepts in understanding the opportunities and challenges of information systems technology include data security, anonymity, and privacy. While security, anonymity, and privacy are often said with the same breadth, they do not imply the same thing. Furthermore, depending on the needs of an organization and an individual, they can prioritize one over the other. This brief paper explores contemporary information systems technology and the internet and how they pose challenges to protecting individual privacy and intellectual property. It discusses the difference between anonymity, privacy, and the ethical issues of increased anonymity. Similarly, the paper distinguishes between cloud computing, green computing, and quantum computing and further describes the services that comprise I.T infrastructure beyond physical devices and software applications. Beyond that, it explores the issues underlying the failure in the case study: How Reliable Is Big Data?

Contemporary Information Systems Technology and the Internet and the Challenge to Individual Privacy and Intellectual Property

Information communication, technology, and the internet have significantly grown, and recent developments pose significant challenges to individuals’ privacy and intellectual property. According to Laudon and Laudon (2019), the digital appearance conveys much more data on individuals, including the most intricate elements of their lives. When an organization gets access to personal data, it is not just the privacy, but the individuals losing control over their information too. Privacy laws anticipate that personal data are stored and processed accurately and safeguarded against unlawful and unauthorized processing, damage, destruction, theft, or loss. On the other hand, intellectual property laws allow creative owners to exercise their monopoly on intellectual property rights. These comprise a series of exclusive rights that exclude others from making, replicating, or using particular intangible creations for a set timeline.

Modern data storage and analysis allow organizations and individuals different ways to collect personal information from various sources and analyze it to create a comprehensive electronic profile of individuals and their behaviors. It is common to find websites and online systems that require personal data to access information and services. These sites normally store cookies, save this personal information, and later use them for different purposes (Mai, 2016). While cookies and other web monitoring functionalities closely track the activities of website visitors, there have been cases of information mishandling. Data that flows through these the internet can be monitored at different points.

In most cases, this information is not encrypted and can be accessed by anyone. Similarly, it follows that not all websites have strong privacy protection policies, and they barely allow for informed consent concerning the use of personal data. Traditional copyright regulations are limited to protecting against software pryany as digital material can be replicated easily and shared across different locations simultaneously over the web.

Anonymity and Privacy

One of the distinct features of the internet is its ability to make individuals express themselves anonymously through made-up usernames. At the same time, some people argue that anonymity is meant to ensure their privacy. Studies have developed reports to separate the two. Khalilov and Levi (2018) noted that anonymity and privacy do not mean the same thing; while the two are often used concurrently and can be censused, it is important to tell one from the other. Anonymity is described as keeping one’s identity private but not actions. For example, individuals have often used pseudo-accounts to express their opinions on social media platforms. Anonymity is hiding or concealing an individual identity, not one’s actions. Individuals can be anonymous physically by covering their faces and fingerprints. In the digital world, they can maintain anonymity by preventing online entities from collecting or storing the information that can be used in identifying them. Both anonymity and privacy should be individual rights. This is particularly due to the significance of anonymity in the freedom of speech and in the case of whistleblowers. Anonymity is necessary to safeguard individuals in cases where their opinions can jeopardize their privacy or work. Nonetheless, anonymity often overlaps with privacy and allows an individual to browse the internet without fearing anyone tracking their logs.

On the other hand, privacy can be described as keeping things to oneself, including an individual’s actions. For example, an individual can message their friend privately on social media, so they know who is engaging, but only they can decode the message. Based on the case of a computerized device, these can be unencrypted without using a password. Everyone can know their colleague has a personal computer, but they cannot read their messages. If somebody goes through the messages without their permission, it is an invasion of privacy, even if they do not intend to commit a crime. Regarding online privacy, it is a matter of how much individuals can keep their personal information to themselves when going over the internet or using software on their computers.

Ethical Issues Raised by Increased Anonymity

Anonymity is an ethical practice meant to safeguard the privacy of individuals while gathering, analyzing, and reporting their data. Nonetheless, anonymity has often been criticized as its increased use makes individuals lack responsibility, the feelings of other people being valued more in online spaces than in the real world, and often lacking the implications of those that behave unethically. Cross et al. (2015) explored how morals relate to the levels of anonymity during online engagements. While being anonymous is often linked with being online, this anonymity often creates the feeling of deindividuation, which is the case when an individual loses their sense of indemnity. This is the feeling that makes people not take responsibility for their actions. Pointedly, most people do not see the necessity of morality when anonymously engaging online since they are unlikely to take the consequences of their statements if someone gets hurt.

Cloud Computing, Green Computing, and Quantum Computing

Could computing describe the delivery of computing services including intelligence, analytics, software, networking, databases, storage, and servers- over the internet (in this case, the cloud) to offer enhanced and speedy innovation, the flexibility of resources, and economy of scale. Green computing describes the eco-friendly and environmentally responsible use of I.T.I.T. infrastructure (Sofia & Kumar, 2015). This also concerns the study of the design, engineering, manufacture, use, and disposal of computers in ways that have a minimal environmental impact. The difference between green computing and cloud computing is that green computing is the environmental impact attributed to machines and technology. In contrast, cloud computing refers to a device consumer internet service.

On the other hand, quantum computing refers to the area of computer science focused on developing technologies subject to the principles of quantum theory. Pointedly, quantum computing applies the distinct behaviors of quantum physics to solve issues that are too dynamic for classical computing. While cloud computing is a form of distributed computing that applies more services linked over the internet, quantum computing is founded upon the need to manipulate complex objects. Similar to cloud computing, quantum computing offers speed but more power. However, it is still in its earliest stage and not widely available as cloud and green computing.

Services that Comprise I.T.I.T. Infrastructure; Beyond Physical Devices and Software Applications

I.T.I.T. infrastructures consist of software applications and physical devices to operate the entire enterprise. However, I.T.I.T. infrastructure also comprises a series of firmwide sectors for which the management budgets are composed of physical hardware, software, and technical capabilities. The technical capabilities go beyond the usual physical devices and software applications. Laudon and Laudon (2019 ) highlighted these services as the Physical facilities management services that develop and manage the physical installations needed for computing, telecommunications, and data management services.

The services also include the I.T.I.T. management services that plan and develop the infrastructure, coordinate with the business units for I.T.I.T. services, manage to account for the I.T.I.T. expenditure and provide project management services. It includes the I.T.I.T. standards services that provide the firm and its business units with policies that determine which information technology will be used, when, and how. Similarly, it includes the I.T.I.T. education services that provide training in system use to employees and offer managers training in how to plan for and manage I.T.I.T. investments, that it includes the I.T.I.T. research and development services that provide the firm with research on potential future I.T.I.T. projects and investments that could help the firm differentiate itself in the marketplace. These “service platform” perspectives make it easier to understand the enterprise value provided by infrastructure investments.

How Reliable Is Big Data?

According to the case study, How Reliable Is Big Data? Modern enterprises deal with an avalanche of data from social media, search, and sensors, as well as from traditional sources. Analyzing billions of data points collected on patients, healthcare providers, and the effectiveness of prescriptions and treatments has helped the U.K.U.K. National Health Service (NHS) save about 581 million pounds (U.S.U.S. $784 million) (Laudon & Laudon, 2019). Compiling significant amounts of data about drugs and treatments given to cancer patients and correlating that information with patient outcomes has helped NHS identify more effective treatment protocols. Nonetheless, there are limitations to using big data. Laudon and Laudon (2019) further noted that some companies have rushed to start big data projects without establishing a business goal for this new information or key performance metrics to measure success. While these enterprises swim in numbers, they may still need to collect the right information or use the data to make smarter decisions.

The Need for Big Data for all Organizations

Big data analysis infers the processes of uncovering data corrections, patterns, and trends in significant amounts of war data to help make data-informed choices. Such processes employ familiar statistical analysis approaches such as regression and clustering and use them in more extensive datasets with the help of modern advanced tools. The future of businesses is for those that know how to collect big data. However, the opponents of this view have argued that not all companies need to analyze big data. as such, smaller enterprises that barely depend on technology (such as convenience stores) are likely to have to make rather extreme investments in technology so that they can benefit from bug data analysis (Cai & Zhu, 2015). Big data analytics can help organizations in Customer Acquisition and Retention, developing Focused and Targeted Promotions, Potential Risks Identification, Innovate products and services, developing Complex Supplier Networks, Cost optimization, and improving Efficiency. Businesses looking to grow in the competitive landscape, whether small or large, needs valuable data and insights. When it comes to an understanding the target audience and clients` preferences, big data plays a very crucial role. While it helps the business anticipate its needs, the correct data must be effectively presented and properly analyzed.

Management and Organization, and Technology Considerations in Big Data Implementation

Big data analysis is necessary to improve decision-making, notwithstanding the significant investment. Hiver, Big Data can pose a challenge to businesses. These issues cut across Data quality, storage, a shortage of data science experts, validating data, and gathering data from many sources. According to Merino et al. (2016), some issues organizations encounter when managing big data include Storage, Processing, Security, Finding and Fixing Data Quality Issues, Scaling Big Data Systems, Evaluating and Selecting Big Data Technologies, Big Data Environments, and Real-Time Insights.

Nonetheless, not all organizations can guarantee that the integrity of the data is followed to the latter. As such, the managers need to ensure that data governance measures are adhered to by all employees. One of the questions that organizations should ask themselves is if they already have a big data platform. If affirmative, the management should look towards developing a cross-functional, consistent, and combined architecture that would offer further opportunities for cross-business analysis and make the most out of scarce technical resources that exist in the leading-edge technology. Big data technologies can be classified into four types, data visualization, data analytics, data mining, and data storage. The organization must ensure that its existing systems align with this scope. The available platforms should enable faster data processing. For example, enterprises that look to store and process tens of terabytes of data using open-source distributed file systems are preferable due to their predictable scalability over clustered hardware. Similarly, this serves as the base platform for already established big data architectures.


Consequently, information communication and technology, and the internet have significantly grown. I.T. infrastructures consist of a series of software applications and physical devices that are needed to operate the entire enterprise. Recent technological developments in the sector pose significant challenges to individuals’ privacy and intellectual property. Contemporary information systems technology has also marked intellectual property even more challenging to protect as digital material can be replicated and shared across different locations simultaneously over the internet. The paper described anonymity as keeping one’s identity private but not actions. On the other hand, privacy has been presented as keeping things to oneself, which can include an individual’s actions. While being anonymous is often linked with being online, this anonymity often creates the feeling of deinviduation, which is the case when an individual loses their sense of indemnity. Similar to cloud computing, quantum computing offers speed but more power. However, quantum computing is still in its earliest stage and not widely available that cloud and green computing. It is worth noting that while only some companies can handle big data, its analysis is necessary to improve decision-making, notwithstanding the significant investment.


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