Environmental Ethics Article Review

Increased Carbon Dioxide Emission Resulting from Global Warming

There have been reported cases of atmospheric carbon dioxide, an ethical issue that causes increased global warming and climate change. As the Washington Post, dated 5th June 2023, has outlined, Human activities increase carbon dioxide in the atmosphere compared to natural processes that can eliminate it. As a result, it increases carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere, resulting in a global issue. Various studies, experiments, and research outlined that the worldwide average of carbon dioxide recorded in 2022 was 417.06 parts per million. In May this year, it was at 424.0 parts per million, the highest figure noted for the last 65 years. Climate change over the period poses a risk because of the temperature and precipitation patterns that affect the primary ecosystems and species in several ways. Although some species can adapt to new changes, the author depicts the effects of excess carbon on biodiversity as a threat to sustainability. On the same note increase in carbon causes an increase in temperature and precipitation, affecting the timing of seasonal events such as flowering, migration of animals, and, at large, the entire ecosystems.

The lack of ethical guidelines and strict regulations are significant reasons that have increased Human activities and their uncontrolled actions. Scientists are surprised by the progressive tracking realized over time since it affects the nature of life and that which surrounds it. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is now at 50 percent despite the pressure from global leaders to manage the issue. Unfortunately, the ethical issue continues to increase alongside the milestones of the Industrial Revolution (Amudalat, 2023). Data and statistics to map the annual rate depict the rise of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, it has gradually increased for the last 60 years and has been under monitoring. Therefore, this resulted in a rise of more than 100 times faster than previous natural issues, such as the last ice age between 11,000-17,000 years ago.

In addition, the ocean absorbs adequate carbon dioxide, which lowers the pH by 0.1 units; on the other end, it causes a 30% increase in acidity. The article proves that ethical issues threaten sustainability, global diversity, and food security. Climate change deteriorates because of the poor environmental laws, statutes, and complexity of policy implementation. In this case, climate change poses a serious ethical issue to the global community, intergovernmental, and ecological dimensions affecting global stability. The risk magnitude poses a disproportionate issue to vulnerable populations because of injuries, health issues, and outbreaks of diseases that come along.

 Managing Ethical Issues Resulting in the Rise of Global Warming

Despite the risk and challenges posed by the increase in carbon emissions, a measure can still be in place to manage the issue. First, all the involved stakeholders should adopt Carbon pricing. It is an approach where Carbon pricing is initiated on carbon gases released per unit of time to limit companies to reduce their carbon footprint. The best approach to use this policy is developing a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system for control purposes (Amudalat, 2023). The international community should encourage companies and people to use Renewable energy. Renewable energy sources include and are not limited to solar, wind, and hydropower, which can replace fossil fuels with high carbon emissions.

Energy efficiency and electric systems like electric cars will help manage the overall risk. Companies with high tech store the released carbon, treat and manufacture it to make other useful products through high mechanism scientific approaches. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes involve trapping the carbon dioxide from the byproduct plants and, after that, subjected to vigorous treatment and recycling. United Nations should encourage global afforestation and reforestation in areas without trees. Planting new forests and restoring ruined forests can go a long way in recovering the damaged atmosphere and ecosystem. International cooperation and response approaches should be adopted. Addressing climate change will take international cooperation and coordination to decrease global warming and emissions of poisonous gases. Enhancing technology, highly mechanism software, and strict adherence to policy developed will help solve global warming caused by carbon.

References

Amudalat, A. (2023, June 5). Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere mark a near-record surge. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2023/06/05/carbon-dioxide-growing-climate-change/

Evaluating Long-Term Efficacy Of Novel ADHD Medication In Children

The goal of this study is to determine how a novel medicine affects children who have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It uses an experimental, longitudinal design that enables a thorough comprehension of the medication’s efficacy over a protracted time. The study aims to discern genetic and environmental influences by embracing rigorous methods such as a randomized controlled trial and incorporating a twin study component. Adherence to APA ethical standards for research involving children will be paramount throughout the process, ensuring the study’s integrity and the participants’ welfare.

Research Designs

To determine effects of new medication to treat ADHD in children, I would choose to conduct experimental study. An experimental study allows for the manipulation of variables and establishment of cause-and-effect relationships, which is crucial in assessing effectiveness of a new medication (Bussalb et al., 2019). Longitudinal design will allow for assessing the medication’s effects over extended time. I would randomly assign participants into two groups: the experimental group receiving the new medication and the control group receiving a placebo or existing standard treatment for ADHD. The participants’ baseline ADHD symptoms would be assessed before medication intervention began. The experimental group would receive new medication according to predetermined dosage and administration schedule, while control group would receive a placebo or the standard treatment. The participants’ ADHD symptoms would be regularly assessed at specific intervals (e.g., weekly, monthly) using validated measurement tools, such as the ADHD Rating Scale.

The longitudinal design involves collecting data to examine the effects of medication over extended period (Norman et al., 2021). The assessments would be conducted at regular intervals, depending on the duration of the study allowing for measurement of changes in ADHD symptoms, cognitive functioning, behaviour, and overall well-being over time.

Pros and Cons of the Research Designs

Experimental Study

Pros

An experimental study allows for the establishment of cause-and-effect relationships (Thomas, 2021). we can determine if the new medication directly affects ADHD symptoms by randomly assigning participants to treatment conditions and manipulating the independent variable.

Experimental studies provide control over confounding variables that can influence the results. Random assignment helps ensure that the groups are comparable at the start of the study, reducing impact of individual differences.

Experimental studies can be replicated by other researchers enhancing the validity and reliability of the findings.

We can assess dose-response relationship and identify the optimal treatment protocol for children with ADHD by manipulating the medication dosage and administration schedule.

Cons

Experimental studies have limited external validity or generalizability to real-world settings due to controlled nature of the study environment. Findings possibly will not directly translate to everyday clinical practice.

Conducting an experimental study involves use of a placebo or withholding beneficial treatment from the control group. This raises ethical considerations when dealing with vulnerable populations like children.

Longitudinal Design

Pros

A longitudinal design allows for assessing the medication’s effects over an extended period, capturing potential changes in ADHD symptoms, cognitive functioning, and behaviour over time.

ADHD symptoms and associated impairments can vary across different developmental stages. A longitudinal design enables examination of how the medication’s effects differ as children age.

Longitudinal design can provide insights into individual differences in treatment response, identifying subgroups that benefit more or less from the medication by following the same participants over time.

Cons

Longitudinal studies require substantial time and resources to collect data over an extended period. Participant attrition and logistical challenge can also arise.

Changes in clinical practice or the introduction of new treatments could confound the results over the course of longitudinal study. Controlling for potential confounding factors can be challenging.

Conclusions drawn from research study

The chosen experimental and longitudinal designs enable robust conclusions regarding the effects of the new medication for ADHD treatment in children. The experimental design establishes cause-and-effect relationships, enhancing internal validity (Leventhal & Dupéré, 2019). The longitudinal design captures long-term effects and individual trajectories, providing valuable insights into sustained impact and developmental changes. However, external validity and ethical considerations may arise in experimental studies, while time, resource requirements, and confounding factors pose challenges in longitudinal designs. Nevertheless, these designs offer comprehensive understanding of medication efficacy, safety, and long-term impact, guiding personalized treatment approaches for children with ADHD.

How to examine the effects of genetics and environment by incorporating a twin study design

Incorporating a twin study design would be a valuable approach in examining effects of genetics and environment on the treatment outcomes of the new medication for ADHD in children. Twin study design enables exploration influence of genetics by comparing treatment responses between monozygotic twins, who share 100% of their genetic material and dizygotic twins, who share approximately 50% of their genetic material (Liechty et al., 2020). We gain insights into contribution of genetic factors in response to the medication by comparing treatment outcomes between the two types of twins.

Twin pairs would be randomly assigned to the treatment group receiving the new medication or control group receiving a placebo. We control for genetic factors that twins share by comparing treatment responses within each twin pair. Any differences in treatment outcomes between the monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs would suggest genetic influence on the medication’s effectiveness.

Steps to ensure compliance with APA ethical standards

Informed Consent: Prior to including child participants in the study, their parent’s or legal guardians’ informed agreement would be sought. The consent form will explicitly lay out the nature of the study, its goals, methods, potential drawbacks, and voluntary nature of participation.

Assent from Children: Depending on the age and developmental level of the children, assent would also be sought directly from them to ensure their understanding and willingness to participate. The assent process would be conducted in a developmentally appropriate manner, using language and explanations that are understandable to the child.

Confidentiality and Privacy: Measures would be implemented to ensure confidentiality and privacy of the participants. Identifying information would be kept separate from research data. All data would be stored securely. Published results would be presented securely, ensuring anonymity of the participants.

Minimization of Harm and Risk: Steps would be taken to minimize potential harm or risk to the participants. The medication dosage and treatment protocols would be carefully determined based on existing safety guidelines and expert recommendations (Rapport et al., 2022). Regular monitoring and follow-up would be conducted to ensure well-being of the participants during the study.

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval: An ethics committee or the Institutional Review Board (IRB) would examine the study’s design and procedures. The IRB would evaluate the study’s ethical components and ensure it adhered to the requirements for protecting human subjects, especially youngsters.

Conclusion

Chosen experimental and longitudinal designs provide robust insights into efficacy of the novel ADHD medication in children. The experimental design establishes cause-and-effect relationships, while longitudinal design captures long-term effects and individual trajectories. Incorporating a twin study design allows for examining genetic and environmental influences on treatment outcomes. Adherence to APA ethical standards ensures participant welfare and study integrity. The designs offer valuable information for personalized treatment approaches while challenges like limited external validity and time/resource requirements exist.

References

Bussalb, A., Congedo, M., Barthélemy, Q., Ojeda, D., Acquaviva, E., Delorme, R., & Mayaud, L. (2019). Clinical and Experimental Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Neurofeedback in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00035

Leventhal, T., & Dupéré, V. (2019). Neighbourhood Effects on Children’s Development in Experimental and Nonexperimental Research. Annual Review of Developmental Psychology1(1), 149–176. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221

Liechty, A., Tsang, S., Turkheimer, E., & Duncan, G. E. (2020). Association between low back pain and body mass index in adult twins: an analysis of monozygotic and dizygotic twins of the Washington State Twin Registry. The Spine Journal20(11), 1805–1815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2020.06.017

Norman, L. J., Sudre, G., Bouyssi-Kobar, M., Sharp, W., & Shaw, P. (2021). A longitudinal study of resting-state connectivity and response to psychostimulant treatment in adhd. American Journal of Psychiatry178(8), 744–751. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2021.20091342

Rapport, M. D., Friedman, L. M., Pothoven, C., & Calub, C. (2022). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (adhd) and forgetfulness: does time-related decay reflect deficient rehearsal? Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-022-09979-3

Thomas, C. G. (2021). Experimental Research. Research Methodology and Scientific Writing, 93–133. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64865-7_5

Impact Statement: Educational Technology Changes In A Healthcare Organization

Introduction

Change in the healthcare industry is inevitable, affecting everyday activities and how patients get favourable or unfavourable treatment. Understanding how technology innovations may support student performance and complement the institution’s strategic plan, goal, and long-term viability is vital for nurse educators. This essay outlines the suggested modifications to instructional technologies and their incorporation into existing or upcoming nursing training systems. It also looks at how these changes can affect routine nursing tasks, instructional activities, staff productivity, and, eventually, the treatment of patients.

Educational technology significantly impacts how nursing education is shaped and improves patient care as the healthcare landscape changes. Incorporating cutting-edge technology into educational programs can fundamentally alter how nursing students learn information and skills, improving patient results. For planned technology changes to align with the organization’s purpose, vision, principles, and objectives, teachers of nurses must be aware of their effects. They may achieve this by ensuring these adjustments benefit learners and the healthcare sector’s overall strategy and long-term sustainability.

Description of Proposed Educational Technology Changes

Implementing new instructional technologies, improving present technology, and altering how the organization already uses technology are all included in the suggested modifications. These modifications intend to improve medical students’ educational opportunities and advance the provision of top-notch patient care.

Incorporating virtual reality (VR) simulations into the training of nurses’ curricula is one notable shift. With the help of VR simulations, students can train their clinical abilities and critical thinking in an appropriate, realistic, and engaging setting (Plotzky et al., 2021). The company also intends to use a learning management system (LMS) to organize learning events, make it easier for teachers and learners to communicate, and give users a variety of interactive components as well as digital resources.

The proposed innovations to instructional technology also incorporate mobile programs designed especially for medical students. With access to interactive tests, instructive videos, and e-textbooks, these programs will operate as thorough study aids. Students who use portable computers may easily access course materials while on the road, enabling flexible and individualized learning environments.

The organization also wants to develop augmented reality (AR) using VR to improve anatomical instruction. Learners will view and engage in three dimensions and with biological structures using AR technology, which can project digital information onto actual items (Sahu et al., 2021). The above approach helps students comprehend complex anatomical ideas and encourages active participation and practical knowledge.

Impact on Nursing Operations and Educational Activities

The suggested modifications will substantially influence nursing practice and learning processes daily. Learners will get practical training through VR simulations, boosting their clinical trust and skills (Dhar et al., 2023). Additionally, it will lessen the need for conventional clinical internships, easing difficulties brought on by the lack of clinical possibilities and guaranteeing a stable learning environment for all students.

By encouraging learners to learn independently, offering easily available resources, and facilitating successful monitoring and evaluation of the advancement of learners, the LMS installation will improve learning experiences. Administrative responsibilities will be streamlined, permitting instructors to concentrate more on instructing and guiding pupils. A multidisciplinary strategy for the treatment of patients will be promoted by the use of technological advances, which will also encourage interaction and cooperation among learners, instructors, and medical professionals.

The VR simulations will help the learners practice what they have learned. The simulations will bridge the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge and promote the nurses’ readiness for their role (Dhar et al., 2023). Through the simulations, nurses can apply what they have learned in different patient care scenarios, promoting vital clinical competence in improving patient care.

Expected Impact on Patient Care

The planned adjustments to instructional technologies would improve patient care and positively impact the patient’s health. Nursing graduates will receive vital hands-on training and strengthen their critical thinking abilities using VR simulations, enhancing patients’ health and safety (Chen et al., 2020). With VR simulations, trainees may repeatedly try difficult techniques to ensure proficiency before dealing with actual patients.

Introducing the LMS will improve students’ access to materials and instructions for implementing evidence-based practices. Additionally, it will support continuous professional growth by giving nurses numerous opportunities for further learning, enabling them to keep current with the most recent developments and current medical standards. Modern technology has also transformed patient education and empowerment (Chen et al., 2020). With abundant online resources, mobile applications, and interactive tools, patients can access valuable healthcare information, self-management resources, and educational materials. By utilizing technology in their learning processes, healthcare professionals can effectively educate patients about their conditions, treatment options, and preventive measures.

Technology has reshaped patient care, empowering healthcare professionals and patients alike. From improved diagnosis and treatment options to enhanced patient engagement and education, the impact of technology on healthcare delivery is profound (Chen et al., 2020). Embracing technological advancements while addressing ethical considerations will be crucial in harnessing the full potential of technology to improve patient outcomes and transform the future of healthcare.

Impact and Preparing for Unexpected Outcomes

The organization will use a particular assessment technique to gauge the effects of the suggested adjustments. The plan calls for monitoring patient outcomes, evaluating learners’ performance, and surveying educators and healthcare professionals for their opinions. The gathered information will be examined to pinpoint the application of learning technology’s capabilities and potential development areas (Saab et al., 2023). The company must create backup plans in case unanticipated events occur. It entails providing instructors and students with enough technical assistance and training and keeping communication channels available to handle potential issues. The team will be able to recognize and fix any problems quickly with periodic monitoring and assessment, reducing the impact on nursing procedures and preserving the standard of treatment for patients.

Technology has emerged as a powerful catalyst for revolutionizing patient care. With the advent of innovative tools, devices, and digital platforms, healthcare professionals are now equipped with unprecedented opportunities to enhance patient outcomes, improve efficiency, and deliver personalized care.

Nurse Educator’s Role in Implementing the Changes

Nurse educators are essential to putting the suggested improvements into practice. Their primary duties are creating and adapting curricula to accommodate new technologies for learning, leading educational workshops for teachers and students, and offering continuing guidance and assistance during the deployment process. The nurse educator will work with design professionals and experts in the field to create VR simulations and virtual educational resources (Roney et al., 2017). They will also work with IT teams to enable an effortless blend of the LMS into current courses of study. The nurse trainer will also give teachers and students one-on-one assistance, seminars, and tutoring sessions that will assist them in using the new technology successfully (Simamora & Fathi, 2019). Nurse educators collaborate with various stakeholders, including healthcare organizations, industry partners, technology vendors, and regulatory bodies. They work to ensure technology implementation aligns with healthcare practice and education needs. Nurse educators provide input and expertise in selecting, implementing, and evaluating technology solutions, considering usability, interoperability, and patient safety factors.

Interprofessional teamwork with physicians, pharmacists, and therapists will be critical in implementing VR simulations in nursing. The nurse educators will work with the stakeholders to create simulations depicting real-life situations in the healthcare setting. Groups that help in patient advocacy will also be involved (Roney et al., 2017). The groups will be educated on the importance of VR simulations and how they will help improve patient outcomes. The advocacy groups will be actively involved in the process and will address the patients’ concerns regarding preferences and safety of the implementation of the simulations.

In the ever-evolving landscape of healthcare technology, nurse educators play a crucial role in facilitating the successful implementation of changes in patient care (Roney et al., 2017). By providing training and education, bridging the gap between healthcare providers and technology developers, facilitating change management, promoting evidence-based practice, and advocating for technology integration, nurse educators can empower healthcare professionals to embrace and effectively utilize technology in delivering high-quality patient care. Their role is vital in ensuring that healthcare remains at the forefront of technological advancements while upholding the core principles of nursing practice.

Incorporation of Proposed Changes

A gradual process will be applicable for implementing the suggested improvements into the layout of current and potential future nursing school curricula. The nurse instructor will collaborate with syllabus boards and interested parties to include internet-based components and VR simulations in relevant courses (Kustandi et al., 2020). In addition, they will work with academic staff to develop instructional materials that support the application of technological resources for learning and guarantee conformity to program goals and standards set by accreditation. To best integrate these innovations into the nursing school, advancements and adjustments will be driven by ongoing assessment and feedback loops.

Incorporating suggested modifications to instructional technologies in nursing training systems holds immense potential for enhancing nursing professionals’ education and skill development (Tondeur et al., 2017). Educational technology research and development, 65, 555-575.). By conducting a needs assessment, selecting appropriate technologies, providing training, integrating technologies into curricula, developing interactive content, ensuring accessibility, and conducting regular assessments, nursing training systems can effectively embrace these modifications. The continuous improvement of instructional technologies will help nursing professionals stay abreast of advancements in healthcare and provide high-quality patient care.

Conclusion

The suggested enhancements to instructional technology will transform the training of nurses and have a favourable effect on patient care. Nursing learners get thorough instruction, developing practical skills and innovative thinking by incorporating VR simulations and an LMS. These adjustments will improve worker efficiency, daily nursing tasks, instructional activities, and, eventually, patient results. A seamless execution procedure and ongoing success are guaranteed by the organization’s dedication to evaluating the effectiveness and planning for unforeseen consequences. Nurse educators must actively embrace these developments to achieve the institution’s purpose, vision, principles, and objectives while enabling upcoming healthcare providers to provide excellent care.

References

Chang, C. Y., Sung, H. Y., Guo, J. L., Chang, B. Y., & Kuo, F. R. (2022). Effects of spherical video-based virtual reality on nursing students’ learning performance in childbirth education training. Interactive Learning Environments30(3), 400-416.

Chen, F. Q., Leng, Y. F., Ge, J. F., Wang, D. W., Li, C., Chen, B., & Sun, Z. L. (2020). Effectiveness of virtual reality in nursing education: Meta-analysis. Journal of medical Internet research22(9), e18290.

Dhar, E., Upadhyay, U., Huang, Y., Uddin, M., Manias, G., Kyriazis, D., … & Syed Abdul, S. (2023). A scoping review to assess the effects of virtual reality in medical education and clinical care. Digital health9, 20552076231158022.

Kustandi, C., Fadhillah, D., Situmorang, R., Prawiladilaga, D., & Hartati, S. (2020). VR use in online learning for higher education in Indonesia.

Plotzky, C., Lindwedel, U., Sorber, M., Loessl, B., König, P., Kunze, C., … & Meng, M. (2021). Virtual reality simulations in nurse education: A systematic mapping review. Nurse education today101, 104868.

Saab, M. M., McCarthy, M., O’Mahony, B., Cooke, E., Hegarty, J., Murphy, D., … & Noonan, B. (2023). Virtual Reality Simulation in Nursing and Midwifery Education: A Usability Study. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 10–1097.

Sahu, C. K., Young, C., & Rai, R. (2021). Artificial intelligence (AI) in augmented reality (AR)-assisted manufacturing applications: a review. International Journal of Production Research59(16), 4903-4959.

Simamora, R. H., & Fathi, A. (2019). The Influence of Training Handover based SBAR Communication for Improving Patients Safety. Indian Journal of public health research & Development10(9).

Tondeur, J., Van Braak, J., Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2017). Understanding the relationship between teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education: a systematic review of qualitative evidence. Educational technology research and development65, 555-575.

Roney, L. N., Westrick, S. J., Acri, M. C., Aronson, B. S., & Rebeschi, L. M. (2017). Technology use and technological self-efficacy among undergraduate nursing faculty. Nursing Education Perspectives38(3), 113-118.