Environmental Impacts Of Water Pollution From Industrial Effluents Free Sample

Abstract

Water pollution generally can loosely be defined as the contamination of water by foreign bodies which can either be soluble or insoluble e.g. dissolved chemicals and solid particles. Water pollution is caused by many factors but this study will focus on the pollution brought about by the spilling of industrial effluents i.e. chemicals coming out of industries and manufacturing firms. Other forms of water pollution include; anthropogenic pollutants emanating from the careless dumping of garbage by people, pesticides from farms and soil erosion e.t.c.

The most dangerous form of water pollution emanates from industries which come in the form of chemicals and very hot water that are either carelessly dumped or later on washed down by surface run-off thus ending up in rivers and lakes inhabited by flora and fauna. Other form of water pollution includes the belching of smoke containing acidic and poisonous gases like carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. These gases accumulate in the atmosphere and later on mix with rain water forming acid rain which when it collects in ponds, lakes and other water reservoirs in substantial quantities end up forming acid rain thus interfering with the water P.H by increasing its acidity levels.

The study also proposes solution to this environmental problem and mitigation measures. It also identifies the various stakeholders who play a very central role in addressing this issue of water pollution.

Environmental Impacts of Water Pollution from Industrial Effluents

Water pollution from industrial effluents is one of the very grave causes of water pollution due to its major effects and the time and cost it take to clean such environments or watered areas that have been polluted. This study will examine the impacts of water pollution from industrial effluents to both human and non-living things, mitigations measures and the stakeholders involved plus their roles in ensuring that there is clean water in all the areas.

The origin of water pollution from industrial effluents can be traced way back to the beginning of industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Many nations of the world especially in the north developed quite a number of industries in an attempt to attain economic development. Many had just emerged from the impacts of the Second World War and were therefore in a hurry to catch up with the rest of the world in terms of development. This development was done without taking into account the impacts that these industries would have on the environment and so development went ahead while the environmental paid the heavy price for it.

Industries generally have a two-fold impact to the environmental and especially on water pollutions.  Water pollutions by industries and factories therefore take two forms; one is through the effluents that are constantly being washed away into water courses including hot water that is released into rivers. Secondly, industries through their operations emit poisonous gases; to the atmosphere. These gases which include carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide accumulate in the atmosphere and later on mix with rain to from acid rain which when combines with the waters in ponds and other water bodies, affect the chemical properties of the water thereby affecting the aquatic lifestyle.

a)      Effects Of Water Pollution

All living things depend on water on their survival and therefore whenever one of them gets affected, the others in the food chain follows suit. Excel Water Technologies argues that the presence of high levels of toxic metals in drinking water – Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Silver. Pose the greatest threat to human health. Whenever these chemicals get infused in the food chain, they are passed on to the preceding member and when they reach the human being, man also consumes food like fish containing traces of heavy metals in them thus when accumulated in considerable amounts they results in fatal disease like cancer. Water pollution also causes water borne diseases. According to research by Grinning the Planet;

“Waterborne diseases occur when parasites or other disease-causing microorganisms are transmitted via contaminated water, particularly water contaminated by pathogens originating from excreta. These include typhoid, intestinal parasites, and most of the enteric and diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses.”

Animals like birds are also affected. When water containing oil and other chemical compounds finds its way into lakes ad ponds, birds and other marine life forms die as a result of poisoning and lack of oxygen. Plants are also affected as the leaves are not able to breathe effectively and carry out the process of transpiration.

b)      Proposed Mitigative Strategies Against Water Pollution

Since water pollution is a man’s problem, it can therefore only be solved by man himself. If several basic environmental ethics are adhered to, the issue of a polluted environment will be a thing of the past. Some of the proposed mitigative strategies include; responsible waste disposal. Industries should set a side an area away from wetlands and water bodies where they could dump their waste responsibly. The economic theory of polluter pay principle should be adopted by the government to ensure that whenever there’s an oil spillage thereby causing danger to the general environment, the company bearing the responsibility should foot the bills for cleaning up its mess.

There should also be awareness campaigns both in the media and environmental forums where people are taught on the importance of conserving our environment and also equipped with the necessary know-how on how to go about cleaning the environment.

The governments could also enact an environmental law that would guard against the unscrupulous business men and individuals who would want to dump waste without following the proper procedures.

c)      Current Sustainability Strategies And Solutions

In order to attain sustainability for the strategies and solutions mentioned above a few things need to be done.  First and foremost, governments need to establish an environmental body which would act as a watch dog against companies and individuals steeped on breaking the law. Such body will have the mandate of not just monitoring and evaluations but also advising the governments on the way forward.

There should also be established an environmental kitty in addition to the budgetary allocations to the environment ministry. Such a kitty will ensure that there are always funds available for running g various environmental programs i.e. capacity building sessions and acquisitions of the latest technology like Geographical information Systems that could be used for monitoring purposes.

d)     Challenges of the strategies

The main challenge is sustainability and commitment. The program requires a lot of funds and a dedicated team of professionals who could work tirelessly with a passion for the environment. Another issue involves a situation where a problem straddles across the international boundaries where environmental laws are either none-existent are in conflict with the other country.

e)      Stakeholder involvement

These initiative mentioned here would definitely require the support and goodwill of various stakeholders in order to work effectively. According to UNEP, in order to tackle the issue of water pollution effectively, a mechanism should be set up with the government taking the leadership, relevant departments taking the responsibilities, environmental departments carrying out supervision and management, enterprises conducting treatment, and the public supervising and participating so that the pollution treatment effects will last for long term. This therefore calls for coordination among the various stakeholders in order to achieve synergy in environmental conservation. Funding to facilitate various activities is also expected to come from the government. Development partners like NGOs focusing on environment would also be key in achieving this mammoth task. They would provide technical know-how and supplement the government’s finances for running environmental programs. Last but not the least are the industrialists themselves. If they would be engaged in a conversation about the dangers of industrial effluents importance of responsible dumping, a great deal would have been achieved.

Conclusions

In conclusion, its better to appreciate the fact when one area of the environment suffers, other areas suffer as well because we re all in a connected chain. Chemical effluents have been known for centuries to be a very big challenge for many governments not only because they are costly to clean up, but most importantly, many discharges contains non-biodegradable chemicals compounds and heavy metals that pose a great risk to both flora and fauna both aquatic and non-aquatic and therefore its incumbent upon each and every one of us to be conscious about our environment and strive to ensure that its protect and clean by living responsible lifestyles.

References

Excelwater.com. (n.d). Retrieved June 03, 2010, from http://www.excelwater.com

Grinningplanet.com. (n.d). Retrieved June 04, 2010 from www.grinningplanet.com

unep.org. (n.d). Retrieved June 04, 2010 from www.unep.org

 

Problems And Pitfalls Inherent In Personal Relationships On The Job

Personal relationships have a large influence in performance at work. There is a general shift towards a collaborative approach to work and therefore it is imperative for one to have strong relationships at work if they are going to be effective as members of a work team. There are however negative influences towards the development and maintenance of these relationships. These problems include unhealthy competition, personality differences, and privacy.

In a cutthroat work environment characterized by pressure to perform and to deliver on targets, working can degenerate into inter and intra departmental pseudo wars as everyone tries to get ahead. Competition for resources, positions, and privileges mar interpersonal relationships. While members need the input of the common pool of resources available in the work environment, competition puts a strain on them as everyone tries to take advantage of them towards their own ends, which eventually adversely affects organizational productivity.

In any setting with many people, personality differences are a force to reckon with. People tend to approach issues based on their personality type. A particular problem may attract too many options, which may degenerate into paralysis if an effective method for sorting through the options lacks. Some may feel as though their contributions are not valued and others still may feel their options are the best based on subjective thinking due to their personality type.

The third issue constraining personal relationships on the job is privacy. As Wall (2008) puts it, “Failure to make the distinction between what is personal and what is professional is one of the most common sources of mismanaged conflict in the workplace.” (p.39) It is a delicate balancing act between how much a person’s private life and work life is relevant for group cohesion. It is a challenge to trusting people with personal information since it is usable negatively for malicious purposes such as fuelling the gossip mills.

Reference

  1. Wall B. (2008). Working Relationships: Using Motional Intelligence to Enhance Your Effectiveness with Others. California: Davies-black publishing.

Code Of The Street Short Summary

“Code of the Street” by Elijah Anderson is an extensive research on the people of the streets whose behavior and social life is construed by the code defined by their own instincts for self-respect and dignity. Elijah Anderson conducted in depth field study to focus our attention to the extent youth has to resort to violent ways in reaction to the dishonor and disrespect shown to their masculine image. They involve and associate themselves with what is known as ‘street culture’ or ‘code’. Their following of the street code is not merely a reflection to the corruption and un-socialized behaviors that have to be faced consequently by the youths of the lower middle class on the streets and in its corners but also have to face insecurity and threat of violence in their dwellings in the darker corners of their so called urban communities.

In such communities, their adoption of the code of a street is a prerequisite and most necessary aspect for their survival whether they are themselves directly involved in it or not. Anderson adopted ethnographic approach to find out social and cultural factors that go behind this interpersonal violence, how the people adhere to these situations and how they adopt to these conditions? What assumptions do they make while taking decisions? What behavioral styles do they adopt as a result of these assumptions and what are their social consequences? The answers to all these questions he obtained through interviews, observations, direct observations and participant observations. He has also drawn his observations from various impressionist materials and social settings across the various sections of the people of Philadelphia from the public places like laundries, taverns, public schools and playgrounds etc. (Anderson (b), 1546)

In the whole book that follows, he took up to explore the interpersonal violence affecting inner-city youths. While youth violence has become a problem of various classes or races, here he is more concerned with the violent tendency that has taken youths in its grip and how this tendency has made the man commit the acts of aggression and violence against one another. This question coaxed him to find out the character and traits people follow on the streets and especially in the public social organization.

            In the low-lying areas where economically distressed sections of the people prevail in the majority, the code of street has taken the place of all the rules of state laws and regulations. At the most fundamental point of this code, there are certain set of rules of behavior, which are adopted to ascertain their respectful position in their society. For maintaining self respect in the society and surroundings, there are certain set of informal rules or behavior that every one should follow while interrelations with others and which reflects how desperately youths are struggling to retain their respect. Maintaining the self respect in the society and in their surroundings induces youths to turn violent if they ever see their self respect is getting hurt.

            In the constant poverty and deprivation what they have to feel proud of is their self-respect, honor and dignity and if someone challenges their dignity, they had to act in retribution. Respect is their shield with which they cover themselves from any violence in the street. The code of street begins from the point where the hands of the laws end and the people begin to feel the responsibility of their safety in their own hands. People especially hardboiled youth initiates to frame the law on their own basis. It is also a kind of social interaction, eye for an eye and enforces upon them the credibility to show the retribution. In outlining these intricate issues, the book gives the detail account of the sociological perspective of the interpersonal public behavior and also the changing roles they play in the inner city. The incident of 15-year-old boy leaves the incredible image of how the simplest daily errand can turn into a minefield. One Saturday, his grandmother sent his grandson, Tyree to buy bread and milk from the store and on the way back he happened to enter into the neighborhood area where he had to encounter a group of teenagers, who had taken upon themselves the responsibility to run the neighborhood. The kid jumped over the intruder and bumped him onto the ground. Tyree felt in his impulse to respond back but first he headed back home, cleaned himself and then returned back with full preparation and punched one of them down. This action of this Anderson calls as “campaigning for respect” (Anderson (a), 66) and later he had to enter into a full-scale fight. This is exactly what Anderson calls as the “Code of the Street”.

This code of the street phenomenon is not a latest trend but goes beyond the historical dates of the beginning of civilizations and societies. The street fight was a trend among the ancient Romans and among the world of the Shogun warriors or among the Americans at Old South. But now what is different is the easy access to guns, and their disintegration from the values. All the values so cherished by the societies inside the walls of home or at social circles are discarded when one enters on the street and the culture quite opposite of what is prevalent makes its presence felt. But there is a thread that ties between the cultures that is adopted on the streets and the culture prevalent inside the household. Anderson tries to find out this thread through the long passages that he has devoted on the various standards prevalent in the community. He talks about the black grandmother who is a dominant member of the family since the time of slavery and now her role has faded away since the industrial economy shook the earliest fabric of the society. He further writes that “she is now apt to feel tired and demoralized” (Anderson (a), 236) in this changing scenario where on one hand blacks have been accorded middle class status while on the other hand they are finding themselves plunged in unemployment, and poverty confining themselves into the inner cities where the male bread winners are decreasing in number and many middle class families have departed. This grand mother is herself completely dispirited.

            Anderson’s research is confined only to two neighborhood areas of Philadelphia but his theme is universal and therefore we can also call it macro sociological approach. Highlighting in-depth detail of the subculture of streets that prevails in the areas, he has made it a universal theme. In our area too, outer side is dominated by the rich and civilized population while the inner lanes of the city are prevailing countless creatures of human souls who are dwindling in the poverty and drug abuse and their children have adorned themselves with the street cult what according to Anderson is known as the code of the street. There is all over prevalent varying subcultures of violence, abuse and degradation that sometimes mar or de-mar the very fundamental aspect of civilization. The “Code of the Street” is of a great interest for criminologists as they observed:

“Anderson’s account is perhaps the best description of a subculture of violence now available, and it is important because it makes us aware of the complexity of this subculture” (Brezina, Agnew, Cullen, & Wright, 304).

This book is a chronicle of the ugly phase of the Industrial revolution and a civilized world.

Works Cited

Anderson, Elijah. (a). “Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City”. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

Anderson, Elijah. (b). The Ideologically Driven Critique. American Journal of Sociology 107.6 (May 2002): 1533–50.

Brezina, Timothy, Agnew, Robert, Cullen, Francis T. & Wright, John Paul.

“The Code Of The Street: A Quantitative Assessment of Elijah Anderson’s

Subculture of Violence Thesis and Its Contribution to Youth Violence Research.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 2.4 (October 2004): 303-328.

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