Environmental Monitoring Of Cadmium (Cd) In River Systems Free Sample

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is an unnecessary poisonous metal for most life forms. It poses several environmental dangers, some of which can lead to plant problems and human illness. Due to its tenacious nature, it can accumulate in several human bodily organs. Mining, smelting, and refining are just some of the human-caused activities contributing to Cd’s introduction into the environment. Plastics, pigments, enamels, ceramics, and steel plating are only a few industrial uses. Cd toxicity can be caused by exposure to Cd in three common forms: water, air, and soil. Cd is a byproduct of some manufacturing operations. The kidney, lungs, bones, and liver are just a few of the organs affected due to exposure to cadmium. To eliminate these public health concerns, it is essential to ensure that water systems are well treated to eliminate cadmium contamination of drinking water. Treatment systems that can remove cadmium from wastewater samples are chemical procedures, membrane methods, ion exchange methods, and adsorption techniques. Some several analytical techniques/methods can be used for the analysis of cadmium from wastewater samples; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF).

Introduction

Cadmium (Cd) is a soft, malleable, silver-white metal that is part of group IIb in the periodic table, along with zinc and mercury. It has a high vapor pressure despite its low melting point (320.9 °C) and boiling point (765 °C). Cadmium quickly oxidizes into cadmium oxide when exposed to air. Cd is a very toxic environmental pollutant that has devastating impacts on ecosystems and human health. To protect the environment, it is crucial to limit cadmium production and discharge to near-zero levels. Over the years, scientists have investigated a number of approaches that can be used to keep tabs on and regulate candium levels. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive discussion of cadmium, including its origins, impacts on human health and the environment, potential removal methods, and analysis procedures in wastewater. The sample for the analysis of cadmium in this report will be river water from a location close to a mining operation in China.

Sources

As its purity is not present in nature, cadmium is a relatively uncommon element (0.2 mg/kg in the earth’s crust). Usually, it’s found near sulfide ores of metals like zinc, lead, and copper. Commercial production of cadmium did not begin until the 20th century. As a byproduct of zinc manufacturing, its availability is heavily dependent on the metal’s overall output. Before World War One, cadmium was rarely extracted from zinc and other nonferrous metals facilities, leading to decades of unchecked environmental poisoning. From only 20 tonnes in the 1920s, annual global production of cadmium climbed to around 12,000 tonnes between 1960 and 1969, 17,000 tonnes between 1970 and 1984, and around 20,000 tonnes on average per year since 1987 (Genchi et al., 2020).

Cadmium’s usage has shifted in recent decades. Historically, cadmium’s primary use has been in metal electroplating and the production of pigments and plastic stabilizers. Almost 50% of global cadmium consumption in 1960 came from the engineering coatings and plating sector; by 1990, this had dropped to 8%. (Hayat et al., 2019). Currently, nickel-cadmium battery production accounts for 55% of cadmium use; with the rise of rechargeable batteries and the promise of electric vehicles, this percentage is only projected to rise (Sall et al., 2020). In nickel-cadmium batteries, for instance, cadmium consumption increased from 3,000 tonnes in 1980 to 9,000 tonnes in 1990. (Kubier et al., 2019). This explosive expansion has more than made up for a 20% decline in pigment use, an 8% drop in plating, and a 10% drop in the use of stabilizers. Cadmium has found a wide variety of uses in the electronics, communications, power generation, and aerospace industries, among many others.

Impacts on the environment and human health.

Cadmium is a contaminant that has been linked to negative health effects in humans. Its mining and smelting, along with other human-made pathways like the use of phosphate fertilizers and the presence of NiCd batteries, plating, pigments, and plastics, have all contributed to its widespread atmospheric dispersal (Hayat et al., 2019). Air, tainted food, and water all contribute to people’s Cd exposure. Cd exposure, even at low levels, has been linked to health problems such as kidney damage, liver damage, skeletal system damage, cardiovascular system damage, and loss of vision and hearing (Kubier et al., 2029). Cadmium has also been related to adverse effects during pregnancy or the outcome of a pregnancy. (Genchi et al., 2020). This happens because changes in embryonic gene expression lead to aberrant mutagenesis of genetic makeup in both the mother and the infant (Sall et al., 2020).

Metal fume fever-like symptoms have been reported in people exposed to modest amounts of newly generated cadmium fume for less than an hour. One of the good things about this effect is that complete recovery often happens within a few days. In 10-15% of instances, after a latency period of several hours, mortality occurs due to chemical pneumonitis caused by prolonged or very high levels of exposure (Sall et al., 2020). Long-term cadmium exposure in the workplace has been linked to respiratory problems such as bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and emphysema among workers.

Figure 1 Key Cd exposure pathways and Cd's harmful effects on many human organs. Source: (Wang et al., 2021)
Figure 1 Key Cd exposure pathways and Cd’s harmful effects on many human organs. Source: (Wang et al., 2021)

Treatment systems

Cd-containing effluents from mines and factories can be treated using a number of different physical and chemical processes. Chemical procedures, membrane methods, ion exchange methods, and adsorption techniques are some examples of these approaches.

1. Chemical methods

a) Precipitation

Around 75% of electroplating facilities use precipitation of metals as insoluble hydroxides, carbonates, or sulfides to remove metals from effluent. Due to its cheap cost and simple execution, heavy metal hydroxide precipitation has become the standard treatment procedure (Pyrzynska, 2019). Increasing the effluent pH with lime (CaO) or caustic soda (NaOH) causes the heavy metals to precipitate as their respective hydroxides, rendering them immobile. The addition of barium acetate to plating effluents is one method for removing cadmium, as described by Hou et al. (2022). Hasan (2021) identified the diisobutyldithiophosphinate compound of cadmium as a selective precipitant for its removal.

b) Cementration

According to Pyrzynska. (2019), cementation with zinc powder can be used to remove cadmium from solutions. The optimal pH was determined to be between 4.5 and 5.5. The pace of the reaction was nearly first order with regard to the concentration of cadmium ions and the amount of zinc present. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate, an anionic surfactant, was the only one of those tested that increased the cementation rate of cadmium by zinc powder significantly. Because Cd-EDTA chelates have a larger redox potential than free cadmium ions, their synthesis in aqueous solutions of ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) impeded cadmium removal by zinc.

2. Ion exchange technique

Chemical reactions take place between a dissolved electrolyte and an insoluble electrolyte during an ion exchange operation. Lewatit TP260, a cationic (di-Na+) ion exchange resin, was studied for its ability to adsorb cadmium(II) from an aqueous sulphate media. The absorption of cadmium(II) was reported to be controlled by particle diffusion, while adsorption onto the resin followed the Langmuir equation (Hasan et al., 2021). The initial metal adsorption on the resin might be explained by the moving border particle diffusion concept. Adsorption studies on cadmium in HBr and NaBr-H2SO4 medium using N5O3 (N, N-di(sec-octyl) acetamide) levextrel resin have been conducted. Adsorption of cadmium by N5O3 levextrel resin was found to occur in a pseudo-first-order fashion and conform to the Freundlich isothermal adsorption equation (Pyrzynska, 2019). Due to the need for chemicals in the resin regeneration process, ion exchange systems often have a high operational cost in addition to a high initial cost. As a result, it is not commonly used to remove Cd from water supplies.

3. Membrane separation technique

In the liquid membrane method, an organic membrane and an aqueous internal phase are dispersed in a continuous external phase. When a carrier is added to the membrane phase, the solute in the external phase is made soluble in what would otherwise be an inert medium. At the interface between the membrane and interior phases, a stripping agent reacts with the transferred solute, trapping it in the latter (Hou et al., 2022). Demulsifiers are used to separate the emulsion phases so that the oil can be reused in the emulsification process. Membrane methods including liquid membrane, hollow fiber supported liquid membrane, supported liquid membrane, and emulsion liquid membrane are used to purge cadmium from water.

4. Adsorption technique

Adsorption is a successful approach for cleaning up heavy and harmful ions. Throughout the past few decades, there has been a surge in efforts to create new adsorbents and improve the efficiency of current ones. Due to its large specific surface area, high adsorption capacity, and particular surface chemical characteristics, activated carbon is widely employed in wastewater treatment for the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants (Pyrzynska, 2019). Many sub standard materials and hazardous wastewater have been evaluated for their cation/anion absorption behavior in an effort to produce cost-effective adsorbents.

Adsorption is one of the most often used technologies because of its low entry barrier, high efficiency, straightforward recovery, and low cost. For this application, an ideal adsorbent would have a large surface area, a large adsorption capacity, strong mechanical stability, and be easily regenerable (Pyrzynska, 2019). The efficiency of the adsorption process is also strongly affected by process parameters like the pH of the solution, the temperature of the adsorbent, the contact time, and the adsorbent dosage.

Monitoring strategy

When it comes to protecting public health and stopping pollution, knowing how much cadmium is in wastewater is crucial. Changes in cadmium levels over time can be detected, and probable sources of contamination can be identified with the help of a well-designed monitoring approach. Sampling is the first of several phases in a comprehensive plan for cadmium monitoring in wastewater. Choosing how often and where to take samples is the first and most crucial step. The danger of the wastewater source and any applicable legislation or guidelines will determine how often samples should be taken. Any potential sources of contamination, including industrial discharges or urban runoff, should be considered when selecting sample locations. A Chinese mining firm serves as our hypothetical case study’s sampling location. Cadmium contamination of the river near the company’s headquarters is a major concern.

Step two is gathering samples for analysis. This process requires taking samples of wastewater in accordance with predetermined guidelines. The methodology for collecting samples should outline how and where the samples will be stored. It’s important to collect samples in sufficient numbers to allow for repetitions and analysis, and at times and locations that are typical of the whole. Keeping the samples in good condition is essential to avoiding cadmium loss during shipping and storage. The samples may need to be refrigerated or a preservative added, like nitric acid.

Analyzing the data is the third phase. Using an established technique, like inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or atomic absorption spectrophotometry, to analyze the samples for cadmium level is recommended . An accredited lab with strict quality control procedures should conduct the analysis. This is followed by the installation of quality control mechanisms to guarantee the analysis’ precision and correctness. One method is to use certified reference materials; another is to analyze duplicate samples; a third is to spike samples with known quantities of cadmium.

The data is interpreted after it has been analyzed. Trends and patterns in cadmium concentrations throughout time are uncovered by analyzing the collected data. We then look into any discrepancies between the results and the applicable regulations or recommendations. The cadmium DL in our hypothetical situation is 0.005 g/L. Out of a total of 24 observations, 16 were below the detection limit (BDL) before the mining operation was established. After the data mining operation, however, there is a dramatic shift in the numbers, suggesting that 40 of the original 64 observations are now below the detection limit.

Lastly, the results of the monitoring program must be documented and reported to the public, regulatory authorities, and wastewater treatment operators by the environment manager. The report should be easy to read and understand, as well as suggest next steps if needed. An environmental manager can get trustworthy information while analyzing wastewater samples containing cadmium if they use this method of monitoring.

Analytical techniques/methods used for the analysis of water samples containing cadmium

There are several analytical techniques/methods that can be used for the analysis of water samples containing cadmium. These methods include;

1. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS):

The analysis of water samples for cadmium is commonly done using AAS. To determine how much cadmium is in the water, this technique makes use of the time-tested scientific principle of light absorption by the sample (Cadorim et al., 2019). With AAS, cadmium concentrations as low as a few parts per billion can be detected with great precision (ppb). There are a number of stages to this procedure. Preparing a sample is the first stage. Filtration or acidification of the water sample is performed prior to analysis, depending on the sample type and technique (Halko et al., 2022). The sample is next diluted with an appropriate solvent so that the concentration of cadmium is within the linear range of the AAS.

The prepared sample is then atomized by being placed in a graphite or metal furnace at high temperature. For thorough atomization, the furnace is kept at a specific temperature. The third step, absorption, involves irradiating the sample with light from a hollow cathode lamp that generates a narrow spectrum of radiation at the wavelength peculiar to cadmium. Radiation is absorbed by the cadmium atoms present in the sample, and the rate at which it is absorbed is proportional to the cadmium concentration (Cadorim et al., 2019). The detection phase follows the absorption phase. At this point, the radiation intensity after passing through the sample is measured using a photodetector. The amount of radiation absorbed by the cadmium atoms in the sample is proportional to the strength of the signal produced by the detector.

In order to accurately determine the quantity of cadmium in a sample, a series of standard solutions with known concentrations are created and evaluated in the same way. Each standard solution’s signal strength is measured, and a calibration curve is generated by plotting the signal strength against the known cadmium content (Cadorim et al., 2019). Quantification is the final stage. By comparing the signal generated by the sample to the calibration curve, the cadmium concentration in the water sample may be calculated. The formula used to determine the concentration involves the dilution factor and the sample volume.

2. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS):

ICP-MS is an extremely sensitive and specific technique for analyzing water samples for cadmium. The sample is first ionized in an inductively coupled plasma, and then the cadmium ions are detected using mass spectrometry. ICP-MS is sensitive enough to identify cadmium at levels as small as a few ppt (ppt). Sample introduction system, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), interface, ion optics, mass analyzer, and detector are the six main parts that make up a single quadrupole ICP-MS (Wilschefski & Baxter, 2019). A basic diagram of the tool is shown in Figure 2. The sample introduction mechanism nebulizes the liquid sample to produce a fine aerosol, which is then introduced to the argon plasma (Lan et al., 2022). The material is atomized and ionized in a high-temperature plasma, and the resulting ions are collected in a set of electrostatic lenses known as the ion optics (Wilschefski & Baxter, 2019). The quadrupole mass analyzer receives the focused ion beam thanks to the ion optics. Ions are sorted by their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) in the mass analyzer before being sent to the detector for analysis.

Figure 2 simple diagram of the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Source: (Wilschefski & Baxter, 2019)
Figure 2 simple diagram of the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Source: (Wilschefski & Baxter, 2019)

3. Atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS)

The detection of cadmium in water samples by use of AFS is a highly accurate and selective technique. The amount of cadmium in the water is determined by measuring the fluorescence produced when the sample is excited by a light source (Zhou et al., 2019). There are two phases of atomic fluorescence. In the first phase, photons from an intense monochromatic light source are used to excite atoms in a sample. Excited electrons gain even more energy in Stage 2. Once the electrons return to their stable state, they release energy in the form of photons. A spectroscope is used to measure the electromagnetic energy emitted during this process, providing a means of determining the relative abundance of individual substances (Halko et al., 2022). AFS’s key benefit is its great specificity; it can notice certain elements even in very low quantities, which makes it perfect for detecting small amounts of contaminated metals (Zhou et al., 2019). As a result of its sensitivity, AFS may be used to test for a wide range of metals. It’s also a straightforward technique, so it’s possible to test a lot of samples in a short amount of time and get useful results.

4. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF):

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a non-destructive technique for analyzing water samples for cadmium. X-rays are used to excite the sample, which then emits its own X-rays with a specific signature (Margui et al., 2022). The amount of cadmium in the water directly correlates to the strength of the emitted X-rays. Total-reflec- tion analysis requires samples to be presented as thin films. The sample volume, from 5 to 50 milliliters, is deposited on a reflective carrier and dried. X-ray photons are almost totally absorbed into thin objects at very low glancing angles of the primary X-ray beam, which is exploited by the TXRF system (Margui et al., 2022). As a result, detection limits at the mgL level are enhanced due to the lack of a high background typically seen as a result of dispersion from the sample support.

The overall sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision needed for a given application, as well as the availability of tools and materials, will determine which analytical approach is chosen. Choosing a validated method that satisfies regulatory needs for cadmium assessment in water samples is crucial.

Conclusion

Cadmium is extremely harmful to humans and should be eliminated r maintained at the minimal levels in the environment. Cd is efficiently maintained in the body after absorption and builds up over time. Proximal tubular cells in the kidney are particularly vulnerable to Cd’s toxicity. Bone demineralization may come from Cd’s direct effects on bones or its indirect effects on the kidneys. Exposure to high levels of airborne Cd in the workplace has been linked to diminished lung function and an increased risk of lung cancer. All of these outcomes have been shown in populations exposed to moderately high levels of Cd in either industrial or substantially polluted settings. Therefore, it is essential to be vigilant in analysis, and monitoring of codmium concentration at all times.

References

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Genchi, G., Sinicropi, M. S., Lauria, G., Carocci, A., & Catalano, A. (2020). The effects of cadmium toxicity. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(11), 3782. https://www.mdpi.com/726598

Halko, R., Tuček, J., Chovancová, K., & Andruch, V. (2022). Some green approaches in atomic absorption spectrometry. The last 10 years. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 1-48. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/05704928.2022.2148685

Hayat, M. T., Nauman, M., Nazir, N., Ali, S., & Bangash, N. (2019). Environmental hazards of cadmium: past, present, and future. In Cadmium toxicity and tolerance in plants (pp. 163-183). Academic Press. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148648000073

Hasan, M. N., Salman, M. S., Islam, A., Znad, H., & Hasan, M. M. (2021). Sustainable composite sensor material for optical cadmium (II) monitoring and capturing from wastewater. Microchemical Journal, 161, 105800. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0026265X20337401

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Ethical Dilemma In Healthcare Sample Paper

Introduction

An ethical dilemma is a situation whereby an individual faces two opposing options, each with potential benefits and drawbacks. Precisely it is the quest to choose between two or many options. When one option is selected, the selection of the other is impossible. For instance, a manager in a company may be faced with two opposing options: lay off employees to reduce costs or raise the prices of commodities to increase revenue. Both choices affect the firm’s finances, customers, and employees (Setiati & Azwar, 2020). Similarly, the healthcare sector faces such a dilemma that puts the professionals in a contradiction, not knowing what to do at what time. The dilemma of interest in my essay is ‘if it is appropriate to discuss a patient medical information with a parent or guardian.’

There are opposing viewpoints whereby those in favor of discussing medical information with a guardian or parent may have a view that one should share their medical information with parents so that they get the best decisions from them. Moreover, they may also argue that it is in the patient’s interest for the parent to be informed about their medical status so that they can provide necessary support and help (Setiati & Azwar, 2020). On the other hand, those opposing the sharing of information with parents may believe that the patient should have privacy or autonomy regarding their medical state. They may also argue that it could be unimportant to the patient if the parent uses the information to control the patient differently from their interests.

During practice, this dilemma presents many challenges. For instance, healthcare providers must consider the patient’s age, the type of medical information, and how the patient relates to the guardian. These considerations are important before making any decision. Moreover, healthcare professionals must also consider their legal and ethical responsibilities to ensure that the patient’s rights and autonomy are accorded due respect (Setiati & Azwar, 2020). In addition, healthcare providers must also communicate effectively with the patient and their parent or guardian to ensure that everyone understands the medical information in question.

Literature Review

According to Baumbusc et al. (2019), in some cases, a healthcare provider may feel that it is in the patient’s best interest to keep certain medical information confidential. However, in other cases, the provider may believe it is important to share medical information with the parent or guardian to ensure the best care for the patient. Regardless of the situation, healthcare providers must consider the ethical implications of discussing a patient’s right to privacy and the parent or guardian’s right to know about their child’s medical condition. Ultimately, the shared ethical dilemma facing the parents and the healthcare team must be resolved, or the alternative is to seek the court’s intervention.

According to Bieber (2020), parents are typically the primary decision-makers for their children and are responsible for making decisions regarding their children’s health care, including treatments and medications. It is of great essence if parents are guaranteed the capacity to make informed decisions regarding their children’s healthcare information. Such includes understanding the threats and benefits of diverse treatments and the legal implications of offering or withholding consent.

Parents need to have the capacity to understand the medical information they receive from their child’s doctor and to make decisions that are in the best interest of their child. This includes asking questions and discussing the options with the doctor, researching the available treatments, and weighing the benefits and risks. Parents also have to be aware of their legal rights, the right to consent or refuse treatment and be able to make decisions based on their understanding of the law. Parents should also consider their child’s wishes, values, and beliefs when offering medical decisions. Many children can provide input into their medical decisions, and parents should be open to their children’s opinions and consider them when making decisions (Chia & Oyeniran, 2020). For example, if a child prefers a particular type of treatment, the parents should consider that preference in their decision-making. In such a manner, this comes to healthcare professionals as a dilemma.

Proposed interventions

The first proposed intervention is to have a clear policy outlining the circumstances under which medical information can be shared with a parent or guardian. This policy should be carefully considered and developed in consultation with legal counsel, medical and healthcare professionals, and patient advocacy groups (Chia & Oyeniran, 2020). This policy should identify the conditions that must be met for medical information to be shared with a parent or guardian.

Secondly, an intervention to provide healthcare providers with training and support on approaching the situation. This training should focus on building communication skills, understanding the law, developing empathy, and understanding the patient’s perspective. The policy should also guide how to approach the situation in a respectful and non-judgmental manner.

References

Baumbusch, J., Mayer, S., & Sloan‐Yip, I. (2019). Alone in a crowd? Parents of children with rare diseases’ experiences of navigating the healthcare system. Journal of Genetic Counseling28(1), 80-90.

Bieber, E. D., Edelsohn, G. A., McGee, M. E., Shekunov, J., Romanowicz, M., Vande Voort, J. L., & McKean, A. J. (2020). The role of parental capacity for medical decision-making in medical ethics and the care of psychiatrically ill youth: a case report. Frontiers in Psychiatry11, 559263.

Chia, T., & Oyeniran, O. I. (2020). Human health versus human rights: an emerging ethical dilemma arising from coronavirus disease pandemic. Ethics, Medicine, and Public Health14, 100511.

Setiati, S., & Azwar, M. K. (2020). The dilemma of prioritizing health and the economy during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Acta Medica Indonesiana52(3), 196.

Ethics Essay On Justification Of Morality Essay Example

Ethics is an essential aspect of society because it helps ensure that harmony prevails. Often, we are called upon to ensure that our actions improve the livelihood of our colleagues. However, sometimes people are required to make hard decisions that might involve sacrifice and subjecting some individuals to suffering. Philosophers and scholars have written about what individuals should do when confronted with hard situations. Kantian ethics and utilitarianism are some of the most popular philosophical arguments which we must analyze and seek to establish how the issues before us can be morally resolved. I have chosen the case concerning a sheriff who has been working for racial harmony in his community and has had to frame an innocent bachelor disliked by every town member. The framing is meant to prevent the escalation of the matter and ensure that the community’s peace is not threatened by racially motivated murder. I will analyze the case using utilitarianism and Kantianism to see how ethical the sheriff’s actions are. Thereafter, I will present my evaluation and state why I believe that the sheriff’s action isn’t morally justified because it violates the values of a fair society.

Kantian ethics holds that priority should always be given to people’s rights. In essence, Kant submits that morality and values must always be upheld without looking at the consequences of sticking to the truth and doing what is right. Kant does not give room for individuals to lie or deceive their colleagues regardless of the “good” that might be sought by the use of lies and deception. This is the reason that Kantian ethics assert that people should never be used as a means to an end (Shafer-Landau, 2019, p.119). Instead, people should be used as ends in themselves. This is a vital deontological theory that calls upon people to uphold morality and ethical conduct at all costs. Sometimes, people might use deception and imagine that they are helping solve the problem at hand but ultimately end up causing harm to the people they thought they were helping using lies. An example is if a thief goes through a street where one is standing, and people chasing the thief ask the standing individual the direction taken by the thief. While one can be tempted to lie in the direction of the thief, such acts can result in harming the thief because they might have changed their direction later and taken another route which might see them meet the individuals pursuing him despite being lied about the direction.

In the scenario presented to us, the sheriff’s decision goes against Kantian ethics. Framing an innocent man is immoral and a significant violation of their human rights. Regardless of the town members’ hate for the innocent bachelor, this does not justify the framing because he is likely to suffer from other people’s actions. Kantianism requires people to act in a manner that could be universally accepted and allowed to be part of society. The sheriff seeks to prevent the escalation of the situation and ensure that ethnic clashes or riots do not erupt in the community. This way, the sheriff treats the innocent bachelor as a means to an end instead of the end itself. The sheriff might succeed in his decision and achieve his objective of ensuring that harmony prevails in society. However, this can be considered as a case of covering fire with a blanket which ultimately becomes uncontrollable. The sheriff will easily lack an option if another racially-motivated murder occurs and there is no person to frame. Therefore, based on Kantianism, the sheriff’s actions are morally wrong, and he must ensure that the truth and morality are always upheld regardless of the consequences of such decisions.

On the other hand, we can use utilitarian lenses to analyze the scenario before us. Utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of actions to inform individuals’ decisions. This is the reason why it is often referred to as consequentialism theory. Utilitarianism holds that one should be guided by the decision which brings the most happiness and pleasure to most people involved. Therefore, individuals should not put weight on the morality of social values in place. Utilitarianism allows for lies and deceit to be used to help save many people from getting harmed. In essence, one can sacrifice other society members if that will ensure that the other individuals are not adversely affected once one of their colleagues is subjected to suffering. Using utilitarianism in our case, we realize that the sheriff’s actions can be justified. The sheriff is concerned with the community’s harmony and by framing the innocent bachelor, he is likely to achieve his goal because the community will not riot as a response to the racially-motivated murder. Riots are likely going to cause damages and suffering of more people, which can be avoided once all community members are convinced that the innocent bachelor is the perpetrator of the murder.

However, we note that there are two types of utilitarianism. There is the rule and act utilitarianism (Shafer-Landau, 2019, pp.92-102). Act utilitarianism is concerned with the consequences of one’s actions. According to act utilitarianism, the specific consequences of a decision are used to inform judgment. Rule utilitarianism is concerned with the general rules which would lead to the contentment of most people it applied. Therefore, act utilitarianism may judge the sheriff’s decision as morally right because the specific action of framing the innocent bachelor is likely to make the society members to continue living harmoniously. On the other hand, rule utilitarianism is likely to judge the sheriff’s actions to be morally wrong because they are against the general rule of striving to protect people’s rights. Rule utilitarianism has significant similarity with the Kantian ethics because they are concerned with the victim’s ethics. Therefore the sheriff’s actions are morally justified using the consequentialism theory which looks at the overall effect of an individual’s decision to the society.

My analysis of the sheriff’s decision finds that he is morally wrong and should not have framed the innocent bachelor regardless of the intended effect to the community. It is wrong to use deception and false allegations against an individual and subject them to suffering. Justice requires that individuals bank on the truth always in their decision-making because otherwise, they will be doing a disservice to other people and make them suffer innocently like it is the case for the bachelor. I understand the sheriff’s background and especially his determination to ensure that the community lives harmoniously. We understand that making the community members realize that the murder case was racially motivated is likely to trigger riots and violence in the community. However, this does not call for the use of deceit and lies to calm the community members down. I am confident that the sheriff could use other strategies like creating awareness on the importance of peaceful coexistence. This will most likely lead to the resolution of the murder case in a more amicable manner which will ensure that the community members embrace forgiveness. Again, the sheriff will not have to use deception and lies to solve the problem.

Again, the sheriff is betraying his moral principles by framing the innocent bachelor. The sheriff is a respected community leader and most people adhere to whatever he says and believe that it is the truth. There is a likelihood that the community members will ultimately know the truth and this will make the community members lose confidence and trust with the sheriff. Lies are likely to ultimately surface and it is wrong to have the sheriff exposed because of failing to follow the principles of justice and fairness. It is difficult to come to a conclusive decision which factors in Kantianism and utilitarianism. Kantian ethics seem to provide elaborate guidelines on how individuals’ decisions should be made. Based on Kantian ethics, we can call out the sheriff and inform that their decisions are morally wrong. However, it is difficult to make a judgement using utilitarianism which is complex because it has the act and rule sides. Therefore, it is essential for people to be guided by their moral and ethical principles in decision making.

In conclusion, I reiterate that I believe that the sheriff’s action is not morally justified because it violates the values of a fair society. Fairness requires people to uphold the rule of law and endeavour to ensure that all people receive justice. The innocent bachelor might have numerous flaws and misdoings which make him an easy target by individuals who want to avoid the consequences of other people’s actions. However, he is entitled to human dignity and must be fairly treated which shows the reason why I emphasize my support to him. I am disappointed with the sheriff’s actions, especially because he is expected to lead the way in ensuring that the community and all its members follow the set regulations and laws. I am relying on Kantian ethics to back my case and defense for the innocent bachelor. We should always stand for the truth and ensure that justice and fairness prevail in our communities regardless of the consequences of such positions. Deception and lies are likely to lead to temporary and unsustainable peace which once it runs out might lead to more devastating effects.

References

Consequentialism: The Philosophy of John Stuart Mill https://express.adobe.com/page/MBnG4JijldsXz/

Kantian Ethics https://express.adobe.com/page/Oyzsq10lHytKr/

Shafer-Landau, R. (2019). A concise introduction to ethics.