Ergonomic And Workplace Stress Among Medical Practitioners In Malaysia Sample College Essay

1.0 Introduction and Literature Review

Stress is a menace that negatively affects an individual’s thinking and mindset, resulting in a poor provision of services in the workplace (Yeow et al., 2021). I conducted this study on the medical practitioners in Malaysia to understand what kind of situations result in stress in the healthcare sector. Stress is a common aspect of human life from birth to death; research has shown that human beings undergo stressful situations. However, stress is a concept caused by anything that results in instability in a human’s life. Scholars have argued that stressors bring about stresses in a professional field. Stressors are any relationship between an individual and the working environment (Salleh et al., 2018).

Additionally, hospitals are an environment that requires one to adapt quickly. Therefore, the report has shown that newly recruited medical practitioners face stressful challenges in transiting from a graduate to a medical practitioner in the workforce. Hospitals must give the issue maximum attention because the loss of newly employed health care providers has financial and patient safety effects (Labao et al., 2018).

The health sector cannot ignore the daily stressors; people respond to stresses automatically due to different life events. Stressful occurrences in the medical practitioners’ lives can grow periodically, resulting in health-related conditions. Furthermore, the most common stressors for medical practitioners in Malaysia are; uncertainty, incompetence, and impotence associated with patients’ emotions, uncontrolled relationships in contact with suffering, and overload.

2.0 Methods

A total number of 150 questionnaires were distributed to the medical officers in 5 public hospitals, 50 questionnaires to pharmacists in 7 private pharmacies, and 200 questionnaires to nurses in 3 private hospitals in different geographical locations in Malaysia to assess the impacts of workplace stress on service delivery by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The number of questionnaires collected back filled was 286. The unfilled and incompletely filled forms were disposed of, giving a response rate to be 95%.

Stress is measured as an independent variable, while service delivery is calculated as the dependent variable. Service delivery can also be referred to as job performance which is the level of an employee’s outcome compared to the version of their colleagues on job-related behaviors and outcomes (Poniran et al., 2020). The three individual performances are summarized as absenteeism, quality, and new learning.

I used the pilot test to evaluate and determine the reliability of the sample collected. I conducted Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test, then later conducted the Pearson Correlation Analysis test to determine whether my hypotheses between independent and dependent variables are negatively related (Hijam et al., 2020).

Reliability test on independent (Causes of Stress)

Cronbach’s Alpha Number of questions
875 14

Reliability test on dependent variables (Service delivery)

Cronbach’s Alpha Number of questions
977 10

3.0 Findings and Data Analysis

From the findings, we find that various causes of stress in the workplace may affect the job performance of medical practitioners in Malaysia. The causes of these stresses include;

  • Procedural Injustice

There is a close relationship between service delivery and procedural injustice. Out of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 120 medical practitioners indicated that many health caregivers do not offer the best services due to the stress resulting from procedural injustices. The result agrees with the findings of other researchers who conducted the study sometimes back in Malaysia (Ibrahim et al., 2019). It is due to the unfair treatment among medical practitioners. For instance, most nurses in Malaysia are not given fair treatment, i.e., they are not appropriately recognized in the healthcare sector and have poor salaries. Consequently, I found that unsatisfactory payment of medical officers is the most significant cause of their absenteeism (Samuel et al., 2021). Experienced injustice leads to adverse outcomes such as decreased service delivery and increased withdrawal behaviors.

  • Workload

From my findings, 280 medical practitioners suggest that workload is the most significant cause of stress in the health care sector resulting in poor performance. Additionally, there is a very close correlation between workload and the implementation of medical practitioners. Most of the nurses’ and pharmacists’ correspondents state that they faced less time to execute the allocated tasks. Commonly, the workload can have defined in terms of the timing of the assigned work, speed of the work, the amount of the work, the variety of the work, and the overwhelming appearance of the work.

  • Work-Family Conflict

From the findings, it is evident that there is a correlation between work performance and work-family conflict. Fifty questionnaires filled by Medical officers and pharmacists expressed a strong relationship between service delivery and work-family conflict among Malaysian medical practitioners. Stress can result from work-family conflict causing mental instability in the medical practitioners and impairing their judgments (Wahab et al., 2018). It may lead to wrong diagnoses and wrong medications for the patients. It significantly contributes to high mortality rates in Malaysian public and private hospitals. The result is consistent with the prior research on the dentist in Penang, Malaysia (Agus et al., 2020). There is a negative relationship between work-family conflict and medical service delivery. Medical officers lack enough time and energy to participate in home activities because of the overwhelming demand for their work. Consequently, work-family conflict is a significant cause of stress because of the incompatibility of the workplace and home needs.

4.0 Recommendations and Conclusion

Ergonomic and workplace stress among medical practitioners has affected the provisions of health care services in Malaysia. Therefore, I would recommend the Malaysian Ministry of Health create a Health commission that will look into the mental welfare of the medical practitioners. The commission can intervene to change the working conditions, increase communication skills, and modify the work schedules. Besides, I advise medical practitioners across hospitals in Malaysia to often take mental relaxation leave. Mental relaxation effectively reduces stress (Adnan et al., 2019). The health care workers should have a hobby that they often do and also participate in sports. Consequently, medical practitioners should have physical relaxation at least once per week. Physical relaxation such as massage is very effective for stress relief. It ensures that they are active, rejuvenated, and ready to perform their tasks (Cheung et al., 2018).

In conclusion, there is a shred of evidence that stress in the hospitals, nursing homes, pharmacies, and any other healthcare environment in Malaysia, harms medical practitioners. Consequently, it has resulted in the poor provision of healthcare services. It has led to increased mortality rates in Malaysian hospitals and the emotional breakdown of medical practitioners. Besides, based on my research, it is clear that nurses and midwives are the ones who suffer the most. Therefore, there must be interventions from the Ministry of Health to avert this problem in the health sector.


Yeow, J. A., Ng, P. K., & Lim, W. Y. (2021). Workplace ergonomics problems and solutions: Working from home. F1000Research10(1025), 1025.

Salleh, N. F. M., & Sukadarin, E. H. (2018). Defining human factor and ergonomic and its related issues in Malaysia Pineapple Plantations. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 150, p. 05047). EDP Sciences.

Poniran, H., Zain, N. N. M., Mohan, N. M. M., Tamsir, F., & Ibrahim, N. A. (2020). Determinants of Computer Ergonomic Hazards among Office Workers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Asian J Educ Soc Stud13(2), 1-11.

Samuel, R., Zaini, N. H., Hassan, W. H. W., Talib, A. N., & Ramly, F. A. (2021, March). Nurses’ perspective of work-related stressors. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 704, No. 1, p. 012026). IOP Publishing.

Labao, H. C., Faller, E. M., & Bacayo, M. F. D. (2018). ‘Aches and Pains’ of Filipino migrant workers in Malaysia: a profile of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Annals of Global Health84(3), 474.

Wahab, S. F. A., Ismail, A. R., & Othman, R. (2018, July). Lighting Assessment at Resuscitation Area of Accident and Emergency Department, Universiti Sains Malaysia. on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (pp. 189-195). Springer, Cham. In International Conference

Hijam, S., Deaver, U., & Sarin, J. (2020). Effectiveness of Ergonomic Training Program on Knowledge, Self-efficacy and Practice on Prevention of Work-Related low Back Pain among Staff Nurses. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology14(4).

Ibrahim, M. I., Zubair, I. U., Yaacob, N. M., Ahmad, M. I., & Shafei, M. N. (2019). Low back pain and its associated factors among nurses in public hospitals of Penang, Malaysia. International journal of environmental research and public health16(21), 4254.

Agus, A., & Selvaraj, R. (2020). The mediating role of employee commitment in the relationship between quality of work life and the intention to stay. Employee Relations: The International Journal42(6), 1231-1248.

Adnan, N. A. M., & Murad, M. S. (2019). Association between prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and work-related ergonomic factors of special education teachers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Healthscope: The Official Research Book of Faculty of Health Sciences, UiTM2.

Cheung, K., Ching, S. S., Ma, K. Y., & Szeto, G. (2018). Psychometric evaluation of the workstyle short form among nursing assistants with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. International journal of environmental research and public health15(4), 823.

Institution Review Board In Nursing Research Essay Example

IRB in Nursing

An Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a constituted group designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects per federal regulations (Smith & Anderson, 2022). The main purpose of the IRB group is to protect the rights and welfare of human research participants by examining in advance the steps set aside to protect the rights of human participants in any research (White, 2020). The IRB decisions are regulated by various ethical principles, including respect for individuals, beneficence, and justice which should be adequately addressed in a researcher’s informed consent, compliance assurances, and IRB provisions (Smith & Anderson, 2022). Unlike typical nursing research that does not engage human participants, the review of an exempt or expedited protocol is more rapid and requires a full board review (White, 2020). The protocols that require a full board review often involve vulnerable groups such as children, pose a greater risk to subjects such as clinical trials, or collect sensitive information. The rationale of this essay is to explore the essence and importance of protecting human subjects and how patient subjects are involved in research.

Protection of Human Subjects

In nursing research, such as clinical trials, participants may be asked to engage in a study that does not have benefits or substantial risks (placebo), while others may be exposed to a study that may have significant benefit ad significant risks (intervention group) (Smith & Anderson, 2022). In this context, protecting human subjects means accessing the proposed protocols to ensure they meet the appropriate ethical standards and promote the utmost well-being of participants. Protection of human subjects also entails giving participants informed consent, which entails knowledge of the purpose of research, potential risks and benefits, and their role in the research. The researchers should also ensure patients are not subjected to any harm, either physical, emotional, or psychological, while participating in any clinical research (White, 2020).

Importance of Human Subject Protection in Research

Human subject protection is critical in research, for research subjects will not volunteer if they fear harm. According to White (2020), protecting human subjects in research guarantees adherence to ethical principles, including respect for persons, beneficence, and justice throughout the research process. Respect for persons requires that research subjects are treated as autonomous agents where their opinions and choices are considered. Persons with diminished autonomy, such as children and mentally ill participants, are entitled to additional protection. Respect for persons is important, for it ensures participants understand the risks and potential benefits of participating in research (Mick, 2019). According to the Belmont principle of respect for persons, participants’ decisions should not be influenced by coercion or excessive compensation, which guarantees that the research findings are authentic and reliable.

Besides respecting participants’ decisions, the beneficence ethical principle guarantees that participants are protected from any harm. Therefore, the researchers strive to maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harm to respondents. Justice, on the other hand, ensures that the procedures and outcomes are fair to research subjects. According to Mick (2019), maintaining justice ensures that participants’ inclusion and exclusion criteria are fair and equal. That is, respondents are not considered based on their availability, vulnerability, or compromised positions but for reasons directly related to the subject being studied. Therefore, protecting human subjects in research enhances the research findings’ relevance and maximizes the respondents’ benefit from the research.

Participation in Research

Admission for care in a healthcare environment does not imply that patients have subjected themselves to research studies in the institution. While patient subjects may fall under the target population suitable for the research, patients have a right to decide whether to participate in the research or not. Strini et al. (2021) argue that patients must receive informed consent to determine whether to participate in research or not. Informed consent entails a detailed discussion of the purpose, risks, and benefits of participating in research and the risks and benefits of the alternative interventions (Strini et al., 2021). Informed consent also ensures that participants are competent to make a voluntary decision on whether to undergo the procedures (Strini et al., 2021). The healthcare provider is obligated to clarify that patients are participating in the decision-making process and avoid making the patients feel forced to agree to participate in the research.


Patients have a right to know their state of health, diagnosis, treatments available, and the risks and benefits associated with choosing any treatment alternative. The accuracy of healthcare providers or researchers in informing the patients on the necessary elements dictates the ability of patients to make the most convenient and beneficial decision for their well-being. The role of the IRB is to guarantee that the rights and welfare of participants are protected and validate the value of the research to patients and healthcare practice. IRB also ensures ethical principles are followed based on the set federal and institutional guidelines.


Mick, J. (2019). Protecting the rights of patients, nurses, and others participating in research. Nursing202149(7), 26–34. https://doi:/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000559916.31202.4e

Smith, E., & Anderson, E. E. (2022). Reimagining IRB review to incorporate a clear and convincing standard of evidence. Accountability in Research29(1), 55–62.

Strini, V., Schiavolin, R., & Prendin, A. (2021). The Role of the Nurse in Informed Consent to Treatments: An Observational-Descriptive Study in the Padua Hospital. Clinics and Practice11(3), 472-483.

White, M. G. (2020). Why human subjects research protection is important. Ochsner journal20(1), 16-33.

Essay On Literary Stories – “Rose For Emily”, “The Lottery”, And “The Yellow Wallpaper” Essay Sample For College

In every story, the author has to develop a setting or a location which can be a real-time or geographical location, physical landscape, climate, weather, and societal or cultural environments. Story setting gives the reader the concept of time, place, and environment the story takes place, which helps them relate to the events and understand the story better. The setting of the story ‘A Rose for Emily’ by William Faulkner is that it takes place in Mississippi, a small southern town in the United States of America in the early 1900s, and involves Miss Emily’s house (Faulkner, 1930). It was a big squarish frame house once painted white, with decorations and scrolled balconies. The setting of William Faulkner’s story is significant for the reader. The physical location makes the reader understand the story’s environment and can relate the events with the surroundings to find a sense in the story. The time settings and the cultural environment reflect Emily’s life, and the events can also be linked with time and the cultural settings of the society. Emily is the protagonist in this story, and Mr. Grierson, her father, is the antagonist since he had controlled Emily for the first thirty years before his death. Emily wanted to be free, live her life, and accomplish her dreams. Mr. Grierson deliberately thwarted Emily’s attempt to find a husband so that he could control her. However, for all that long, Emily had not questioned her father of his controlling character.

The author tries to communicate the themes of death and how people are unwilling to embrace change. The author mentions the death of Emily at the beginning of the story when explaining her life of Emily. Emily is described to die slowly as she is compared to a drowned woman left too long in the water. Despite the physical death of humanity, the story also provides that the death of the old social order will prevail, and people will one time embrace change. This is due to the people holding on to old ways and being unwilling to change for modernity. This is the main point of Faulkner’s story, which is still relevant today. Deaths still occur, and people are still resisting change. As much as civilization has overwhelmed every part of the world, some still believe and stay true to their old ways and are unwilling to accept the changes.

William Faulkner uses some literacy tools in this story to convey a deeper meaning of the main point to the reader. Symbolism is used to help the reader to associate one thing with another and get a more meaningful sense. One of the symbols is the house which represents a monument, just like Emily, showing the dying world of Southern aristocracy. In how it looks, it bares the stubborn and coquettish decay, just as Emily died slowly. The house symbolizes alienation and is a shrine to the living past. The author describes it, “It was a big, squarish frame house that had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been our most select street” (Faulkner, 1930). Also, the strand of hair symbolizes the love lost and things people be happy about. Similes are also used in this story for the reader to compare and get insight into what is being discussed. For example, the author says, “she looked bloated, like a body long submerged in motionless water.” The reader can actually visualize the bloating of the women left to drown. Imagery is also used. The dust throughout the house represents the faded lives within Emily’s family.

Focusing on the other story, ‘The Lottery’ by Shirley Jackson, the story is set in a small village. The village is said to have a population of 300 (Jackson, 2021). The Lottery is the town square where people are gathered. As we read through the story, we realize that the village was a farm community since people always chatted about crops and farming machinery. The setting of this story is significant in that the reader creates peaceful and tranquil moods as they read the story. Also, the author chose the setting so the reader can connect it with the story’s ironic ending. In this story, Tessie Hutchinson is the protagonist, and the ‘Lottery’ itself is the antagonist. This is because Tessie and other village members are fighting against the ‘Lottery’ since it brings about immoral actions and behaviors in the community. The protagonist and antagonism in this story are different from the first story, ‘A Rose for Emily,’ in that this story involves a group from the ‘Lottery’ and the main character. In contrast, the first involves the main character and another character, Emily, and her father.

Throughout the story, Shirley wishes to emphasize the dangers of following particular meaningless traditions blindly. The Lottery involved picking papers from a black box placed between the square by the heads of every family. The family that would pick the paper with a black spot had a family member stoned to death. Tessie Hutchinson was the victim. These dangerous kinds of traditions are what the author addresses in her story. There are still people today who blindly follow some dangerous traditions instead of letting go and embracing change.

The authors use some literary tools like symbolism and numbers to convey her message. Symbolically, the black box represents the Lottery tradition and how the villagers are loyal to it. The black spot on the paper symbolizes death since the family that picks it is stoned to death. Also, the ‘Lottery’ is an action or behavior taken as a cultural activity passed from one generation to another. The rules had to be followed despite how tough and dangerous they were. Numbers in this story represent power. When Tessie and Mrs. Hutchinson tried to disagree with the results claiming, “It isn’t fair, it isn’t right” (Jackson, 2021), no one supported her, but everyone held their stones and was on her.

The other story is ‘The Yellow Wall-Paper’ by Charlotte Perkins Stetson. The setting is a summer home in America, which can be described as an asylum, with one bedroom where yellow Wallpaper is fixed on the wall. A woman is stuck in the room, and the yellow Wallpaper bothers her (Stetson, 2019). This setting is significant since it brings out the themes of isolation, where the environment shows the state one finds themselves in when they are isolated. The reader can experience all the intangible feelings and attitudes expressed in the story. The protagonist in the story is the woman stuck in the room since, through her, the goal of the plot setting is achieved. The antagonist is her husband since they are in conflict because he limits the woman’s activities as she seems mentally disturbed. The antagonism in this story is similar to Faulkner’s since it involves two characters but is different from Shirley Jackson’s story.

In her story, Perkins’s message to the readers illustrates how one can be plagued with anxiety, how they can behave abnormally as the mind starts preying on itself and how activities are limited and kept from healthy work. The woman was mentally disturbed, so doctor John, her husband, had to limit what she did by keeping her in the room to help her calm down, though she was still disturbed by the Wallpaper. Similarly, today, when people experience different types of mental illnesses, they are isolated and tamed as they receive the necessary treatments so they can recover.

The author has used different literary devices in the story to convey her message. Similar to other stories, symbolism is used in various cases to helping pass the intended message. The Wallpaper is used symbolically as something that affects the narrator directly. Initially, the Wallpaper looks unpleasant as it is torn, ripped, and in yellow dirt. Perkins says, “The color is repellant, almost revolting; a smouldering unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight” (Stetson, 2019). However, after looking at it for some time, she is fascinated by how it is organized. It symbolizes the family structure and the tradition the narrator finds herself trapped in. the author also uses first-person narration, which makes the reader understand the character’s perspective. Through first-person narration, we can see the story through the narrator’s view and knowledge. The reader gets insight into the domesticity and inferiority of women in society. Generally, the three authors have applied the proper story writing techniques to convey their messages to readers.


Faulkner, W. (1930, April 30). A Rose for Emily. Retrieved from

Jackson, S. (2021). “The Lottery.” In the Mind’s Eye, 43–54.

Stetson, C. (2019). THE YELLOW WALL PAPER. Retrieved from