Thomas Jefferson was the third elected president of the United State and he has played a significant role in economic growth of the America in the 19th century. He ruled between 1801 to 1809. During his time, he dealt with two significant problems affecting America back then (Jefferson et al., 2019). These challenges involved US authority, piracy along the Barbary Coast of North Africa, and British impressment that led to the Embargo Act of 1807. He was born and raised in Virginia of English ancestry and his political career began by being one of the founders of the Declaration of Independence whose main role was to make America and independent nation not subject to the Great Britain. From 1797 to 1801, he was the Vice President under John Adams. In 1800, he declared his presidential vying and won the election, and was inaugurated into office in 1801.
Thomas Jefferson focused on Democratic-Republicans, which led to the establishment of the agrarian ideal, which focused on the independent virtues of small farmers. The election of 1800 led to the development of bitter partisanship and the rise of the two-party system (Blackford et al., 2019). Upon entering into office, his principal was to reduce the national debts acquired by his predecessors. His administration focused on lowering the excise duty taxes and slashing government spending simultaneously. He also reduced the number of navies, which led to the reduction of national debt from $83 to $57 million. Foreign development like the Barbary Coast intensified following the Navy’s reduction, which led to its establishment permanently as part of the US government.
The First Barbary War
When America was under British rule, the British Navy protected it from merchants’ ships that the privates owned. After it obtained its independence, it had to protect itself from such. Pirates from the Barbary Coast raided on American ships, looting goods, holding the crew in captivity, and later demanding ransom for their release and enslaving some. This marked the beginning of the first Barbary war that lasted from 1801 to 1805 on the coast of North Africa, and this was followed by the second Barbary War in 1815. Upon the inauguration of Jefferson, who was a ruler of Tripoli, demanded tribute payment or else he was going to declare with the United States. Jefferson then ordered a series of naval bombardments on Tripoli, which made their ruler to surrender and then sign a peace treaty. The peace treaty seemed to be a temporary thing, but Jefferson was determined to protect the US, and he was ready to use force that could be reckoned on.
The Barbary Pirates were not the only problem for US ships during Jefferson’s ruling time in the high seas. England and France took part in the Napoleonic wars, which lasted from 1803 to 1815. These countries were seizing the American ships and even kidnapping the crew and forcing them to work in the British Navy. In 1807, this issue became more intense when HMS Leopard captured and fired an American ship, the Chesapeake, on the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, and they captured four sailors and boarded the ship (Looney et al., 2018). This scenario led to Jefferson signi9ing the Embargo Act in 1807, which forbade Americans from leaving their ports. This was aimed at destroying the economy of Britain and France by cutting off trade, but this led to severely hurting the economy of America. The farmers could not sell beyond their ports, which led to increased unemployment rates in the country. The American business activity then declined by 75% in less than a year. Failing the Embargo Act led to Jefferson signing the Non-Intercourse Act of 1808, which allowed Americans to trade with other countries but not Britain or France. This was aimed at salvaging the falling economy though it did not work.
The noblest act of Jefferson’s presidency was the purchase of Louisiana. The US was able to purchase 800000 square miles of North America from France. This purchase enabled America to reshape its environment and the economy. He was determined ion purchasing the territory, and therefore, he confronted the questions of presidential authority because the constitution did not give him the right and power to purchase a territory. He assigned William Clark and Meriwether Lewis the responsibility of exploring the territory and enhanced congressional security of funds that were supposed to purchase the land. Purchasing Louisiana seemed unconstitutional and Jefferson faced much a lot of opposition from the Federalists because they believed that the new slave state would form a union with the southern parts of the territory. Despite these oppositions, he decided to contest constitutionally and he worn and this led to the purchase of the territory. The territory doubled the US territory and improved the economy of the country.
In conclusion, Thomas Jefferson was the 19th century president who contributed to the development of America through the end of the Barbary Coast attack and the purchase of the Louisiana territory. All these efforts led to the booming of the economy of the US. His focus on growing the US economy and he played a major role in reducing the country’s national debts.
Bickford, John H., Megan Lindsay, and Ryan C. Hendrickson. “Trade books’ evolving depictions of Thomas Jefferson, America’s third president.” Social Studies Research and Practice (2
Jefferson, Thomas. The declaration of independence. Verso Books, 2019.
Looney, J. Jefferson, and Thomas Jefferson. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series, Volume 6: 11 March to 27 November 1813. Princeton University Press, 2018.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Essay Essay Example
The transatlantic trade refers to a portion of the global slave trade conducted across the Atlantic Ocean to America transporting captured, kidnapped, and enslaved Africans. It was conducted between the 16th and the 19th century before being abolished by many nations worldwide. Million and 12 million Africans were transported from their places to America to work in different areas (Helg, 19). The transatlantic slave trade was the second of the three stages of the worldwide triangular trade where wine, textile, and arms were moved from Europe to Africa for colonization and support for the slave trade. The second stage was shipping enslaved people to America from Africa to work in the industries and the farmlands created in America (Helg, 17). The slave trade can be traced back to the 1480s, with the Portuguese ships transporting Africans to Madeira Islands and Cape Verde for use as enslaved laborers (Helg, 22). Spanish conquistadors took enslaved Africans to the Caribbean after 1502; however, the merchants from Portugal continued to dominate the slave trade until the 1650s operating from the Congo-Angola area along the African West Coast (Helg, 22). The business was all around, and for more than 300 years, 10.5 million Africans were torn from their families to America (Helg, 17,19). Therefore, this essay aims at articulating the impact of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on Africa, Europe, and America; the paper will examine how the trade led to the impoverishment of Africa while enriching the European nations and America.
The impact of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on Africa
Various researchers in Africa have documented several adverse effects of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on Africa’s economy, social structures, and institutions in West Africa and the African continent. The demand for enslaved people rose sharply in the 17th century as the Chesapeake tobacco plantations and the sugar plantations in the Caribbean expanded (Helg, 26). Thus, it robbed Africa of its energetic population, as strong men and women in their prime age were captured and shipped to Europe and America to provide free labor in plantations and industries. Furthermore, the trade led to political instability and social fragmentation. It increased lawlessness, and violence, as it provided incentives to warlords, who would capture and sell their fellow Africans to Europe and America (BBC, 2019).
The rapid depopulation of the African population due to the trade made agricultural development difficult. The continent lacked an energetic population to work in the agriculture sector because most people left behind were primarily dependent people, disabled, and elderly who could no longer contribute to the economic group (BBC). Moreover, the constant fear of being captured as enslaved made most men and women keep hiding, thus slowing economic development, especially in west African countries. The trade also changed the cultural landscape of African societies, as women had to assume roles played by men as most of them got captured and sold to slavery in Europe and America (BBC). With many family members being taken to slavery, communities lost their leaders and role models, thus leading to many hardships and instabilities, which is still evident in most West African countries, the most affected nations in Africa during the slave trade. The trade also left most African families in poverty and hunger as those left behind could not cater for themselves.
Furthermore, the trans-Atlantic trade led to many African deaths during their capturing and transit due to disease, hunger, and while trying to escape (Helg, 18). However, it’s also evident that the trade also benefited Africans; for instance, the Europeans brought valuable products such as clothes for Africans to wear and iron bars which revolutionized agriculture. However, guns brought by the Europeans only benefited specific communities’ trade as opposed to the African continent in general. For example, the increased demand for enslaved people and the availability of weapons as guns led to the emergence of powerful African kingdoms. They raided and camptured other communities through their powerful militaries, whom they sold to the Europeans and American merchants as enslaved people (Lecture Notes, 20). Therefore, it is arguable that Africa’s current underdevelopment results from trans-Atlantic trade.
The impact of trans-Atlantic trade on Europe and America
The trans-Atlantic trade is the most devastating human-forced migration in human history. Many Africans were forcefully shipped to Europe and America to work as butlers, domestic workers, cleaners, plantations, and many other positions (Whatley et al., 98). During this period slave trade became a lucrative business. Most of the goods the Europeans were exporting to Europe from Africa previously as many European merchants could earn more income from transporting and selling Africans as enslaved people in different parts of Europe and America (Manning, 46). Nonetheless, although the trade adversely affected Africa, it’s evident that Europe and America benefited positively from it because, as Africa’s economic, political, and social structures were deteriorating, the Europeans and Americans were becoming much more robust and more complex (Manning, 46).
Europe’s and America’s rapid economic growth can be attributed to the increased agricultural plantation, which usually benefited from the Africans, free labor. For example, it is believed that America’s economic strength was built by the enslaved people, who provided the country with free forced labor for centuries (Helg, 17). Moreover, countries such as Portugal developed their economy, social, and political structures, with gold and the free labor acquired from the enslaved Africans. Furthermore, owning many enslaved people became a form of wealth to the Europeans, considering that the value of their property depended on the number of enslaved people an individual was holding.
Furthermore, Europeans could acquire valuable goods such as coffee, tobacco, and sugar from Africa, which would then be shipped to Europe and America for consumption and trade. Ironically, the money accumulated from those products was then used to acquired more African slaves (Helg, 21). The enslaved people were the core drivers of the trade operations as coffee and sugar were needed for consumption and trade. Furthermore, most people captured during the trade were of prime-age, who worked in plantations and industries, eventually leading to more economic growth in European countries and America ((BBC). The trade led to enormous wealth generation among most individuals and companies dealing in the slave trade or benefiting from the free labor provided by the enslaved people in Europe and America. Europeans continued making weapons to conquer the world and enhance their boundaries.
Furthermore, the economic growth that Europe and America experienced due to free labor provided to the enslaved Africans led to the country’s technological advancement, especially in warfare, agriculture, and other sectors of the economy. Thus, making them powerful nations globally, as Africa lost its dominance in the world (BBC). While on the negative side slave trade created a notion that African-Americans, being of enslaved Africans’ ancestry, are not equal to white men, a notion that has caused the African American community much pain and misery in the United States due to racial discrimination and prejudice. Many African Americans are still losing their lives at the hands of racist Americans who believe inferior.
In conclusion, the trans-Atlantic slave trade was one of the most dehumanizing experiences that enslaved Africans had to go through. Furthermore, the trade had positive and negative impacts on Africa, Europe, and America. Africa was negatively impacted by trade, both economically, politically, and socially. The trade led to slow development in Africa on the economic side, as most of her resources and labor were shipped to Europe and America. While on the political ground, the trade led to insecurity and political instabilities that most African countries still experience today, leading to the emergence of warlords in the continent (Lecture Notes, 12).
Furthermore, the trade led to the collapse of social aspects of African communities as families were torn apart and increased poverty rates in most African countries whose resources got exploited by the Europeans. However, it’s evident that the trade greatly benefited Europeans and Americans who could acquire cheap labor and raw materials for their plantations and industries. The trade also weakened Africa and opened her to colonization. Therefore, its evident that the trans-Atlantic trade is responsible for the economic underdevelopment experienced by Africa today.
BBC. “Implications of the Slave Trade for African Societies – Revision 1 – Higher History – BBC Bitesize.” BBC Bitesize, 2019, www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zxt3gk7/revision/1.
Helg, Aline. Slave no more: self-liberation before abolitionism in the Americas. UNC Press Books, 2019.
Lecture Notes. Absolute Power: Way Before 1619, Europe, Africa and the Making of the Atlantic World.
Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life. Cambridge: Cambridge Up, 2000.
Whatley, Warren C., and Rob Gillezeau. “The Fundamental Impact of the Slave Trade on African Economies.” Economic Evolution and Revolution in Historical Time, 2011, pp. 86–110, www-personal.umich.edu/~baileymj/Whatley_Gillezeau.pdf.
Treatment Of Borderline Personality Disorder Treatment And Opioid Use Among Women Sample Essay
Client Background, Problem, and Context
The client showed symptoms of self-instability that were reflected by unstable emotion and loss of identity recognition. Besides, clients with the same characteristics were reported to be extremely sensitive, confirming that they had a borderline personality disorder. Some clients describe the situation as having a disclosed nerve ending since small issues can cause excessive reactions. Thus, it is easy to understand how borderline personality disorder causes instability in relationships and reckless behavior. Such people find it difficult to think straight when confronted with overwhelming emotions.
In most cases, borderline personality disorder causes patients to act inappropriately, leaving them ashamed of their actions. It seems to be a distressing cycle that the client felt unlikely to cure. However, that is not the case. Effective medicine-assisted treatment and coping techniques are suitable for patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder to help them gain control of their thoughts and actions. However, medical reports show that BPD has high comorbidity with substance use disorder (Kulacaoglu and Kose, 2018). Thus, the key area of our concerns is how medicine-assisted treatment reduces the use of opioids among women aged 25-50 diagnosed with BPD.
Evidence-based Practice Question
A borderline personality disorder is treatable. However, clients have to ensure that they seek a specialized approach. It is thus clear that most patients diagnosed with BPD get better but only after seeking the right treatments and support. Treatment is mainly linked to psychotherapy, while in some instances, medication may be prescribed. Psychotherapy helps regain the client’s ability to function, manage emotions, and lower impulsiveness in patients. Even though there are no drugs approved to treat borderline personality disorder, there are various medications that can help in co-occurring issues like anxiety and depression. This medication may entail antidepressants and mood-stabilizing drugs.
With that regard, the paper seeks to answer the following question. “Does Dialectical Behavior Therapy reduce opioid use in women aged 25-50 diagnosed with borderline personality disorder compared to cognitive behavioral therapy?”
Significance of the Problem
The medically assisted treatment uses a combination of counseling and behavioral therapies to provide a treatment approach to substance use disorders. These are clinically approved programs and are tailored towards addressing patients’ demands. A report by Wingenfeld et al. showed that in 2018 almost 2 million individuals had an opioid use disorder which entails prescription pain medication containing opiates (2018). Besides, most women have borderline personality disorders with has high comorbidity with other disorders like SUDs. The only way to opioids among women is through medical treatment compared to men. And women are at risk for pain and are highly sensitive to aspects of medication, resulting in an addiction to substances that target mu-opioid receptors. Hence most women diagnosed with BPD are at the risk of abusing opioids when prescribed to them. In most circumstances, behaviors like self-injury, hostile behavior, and food restriction are perceived as suicidal attempts to set the body to endurance mode to prepare the last reserves of the endogenous opioid system. Thus, assessing how psychotherapy lowers opioid use among women with BPD is vital for future clinical research and medical intervention for such patients.
Even though psychotherapy is regarded as the treatment of choice for patients diagnosed with personality, there are still no consent about the optimal level of care for such patients. Antonsen et al., (2014) conducted a study to assess the difference between step-down and outpatients therapy treatment for patients with BPD. The research applied a six years follow-u of the Ulleval personality project (UPP) which is a randomized clinical test differentiating between step-down and outpatient therapy treatment for patient with borderline BPD. It combined both group and individual therapy for long and short-term treatment. The research incorporated 115 women patients with borderline personality disorder. Evaluation of study took a duration of 9 months, 20 months, 5 years and 8 years in regard to a wide range of clinical standard like psychosocial performance, axis I and II diagnoses, interpersonal issues, and symptom extremity.
The study outcome showed that there were significant difference between the medication groups. Women in the outpatient group recorded a decline in psychosocial performance during the six years period of follow-ups, while patients in step-down treatment therapy marked a continuous enhancement in psychosocial performance. These results demonstrates that both healthcare-based long-term outpatient and step-down therapy for individual is significant in enhancing psychosocial performance in women with BPD (Antonsen et al., 2014). However, step-down proved to be more effective in post-medication stage showing that the approach stimulates long-term changes during the medication period.
Harned et al. (2018) assessed whether incorporating post-traumatic stress disorder medication into evidence-based practice would enhance psychosocial performance of women with BPD. The research evaluated 30 women with BPD, post-traumatic stress disorder, and self-injurious acts. These women randomized to get a one year dialectical behavior therapy with DBT protocol for PTSD. The study evaluated five performance domain for an interval of six months medication and at four months post medication. The outcome of the study showed that DBT along with DBT protocol was more significant compared to DBT in enhancing social adjustment, accomplishing quality global performance, and health-linked quality of life. The study applied time-lagged mixed effect framework showed that in each treatment there was a reduction in PSTD extremity and predicted enhanced social adjustment, health-liked quality of life. On the other hand, reduction in post-traumatic cognitions anticipated improvement in all performance with social adjustment excluded. The outcome offers an evidence that supports the role of change in traumatic-liked cognition as an active approach in enhancing performance result among women with BPD.
Kulacaoglu, and Kose (2018) analyzed borderline personality disorder in regard to vulnerability, and Awe. According to Kulacaoglu, and Kose (2018) borderline personality disorder is characterized by impulsivity, unstable interpersonal relationship, and self-image. The research analyzed several articles to determine a wide range of situation. The report indicated that patients with BPD record high rate of mortality especially women with substance abuse problem compared with other disorders. Even though there are studies on borderline personality disorder, the illness still have insufficient details. Kulacaoglu, and Kose (2018) reviewed recent articles in regard to etiology and treatment methods to BPD. This study concludes that BPD is linked with more clinical measures than other personality disorders and reports higher rate of suicidality. The etiology of the disorder is still not confirmed and the disorder is caused by genetic elements and childhood trauma. According to this research future articles should consider on determining factors that leads to development of BPD. Determining these factors will assist clinicians to reach a perfect treatment for BPD and substance use like opioid. The study concluded that psychotropic treatment are effective for the disorder particularly impulsive aggression. However, polypharmacy practice is not evidence-based and not considered in management of patients with BPD.
DeCou, Comtois, and Landes (2019) conducted a study to determine if Dialectical behavior therapy is signaificant for mediation of BPD and Opioid. The research synthesizes outcomes from clinical trials that evaluated self-directed violence and suicidality like suicide attempts and ideation. DeCou, Comtois, and Landes (2019) selected 20 participants for DBT trial. A random effects meta-analyses showed that DBT minimizes self-directed violence, and reduced frequency of suicidality. However, the study failed to show a significant pooled effect of DBT concerning suicidal ideation. The research concluded that DBT is effective treatment for lowering self-directed violence and accessing psychiatric crisis services. It thus, support DBT as first-line medication for prevention suicidal behavior and psychiatric emergency care in diverse clinical population.
Haktanir and Callender, (2020) studied meta-analysis of DBT for treatment for treating substance use. The research aggregated the outcome of the article at the post-treatment and follow-up examination. The outcome of the research showed that DBT group was more significant in substance use abstinence. In conclusion DBT is an effective treatment of substance-related issues.
Analysis and Applicability of the Evidence
Although the presumption that patients with a severe borderline personality disorder might experience significant long-term medication, there has been little research of psychotherapies taking more than two years for women with BPD. Some researchers have demonstrated that BPD medication has a significant improvement after two years, few researchers have examined the long-term course of the symptom after treatment. The above articles demonstrates that DBT is significant in treating substance use among patients diagnosed. The findings from these articles are credible since the sample size used is enough to make conclusion that DBT is effective for treating opioid use among BPD patients. The present research has a randomized design and intensive follow-up therapies for BPD patients. Presently, DBT and CBT are applicable in clinical settings; hence there is a need for a comprehensive comparison between treatments at various levels of care. Besides, these articles presents credible evidence since assessments were carried out in an ordinary healthcare facility. Women with BPD and comorbidity of opioid use were involved in these studies.
Clinicians might assume that for patients with BPD, systematic therapy would significantly contribute to personality functioning and improve resistance to substance use in the future. But some research has shown a considerable difference in the clinical course of women with BPD (Antonsen et al., 2014). Thus, more clinical studies are needed to evaluate how medication at a different level of care might affect the long-term course of opioid use among women.
Opioid use among women with BPD is a common problem. Thus, clinicians need to conduct comprehensive research on how medication reduces comorbidity between opioid use and borderline personality disorder. Although the paper failed to include symptoms associated with opioid use, DBT showed a continued improvement in substance use treatment among women with BPD. There is a considerable difference in the evidence used to answer the evidence-based questions. Future studies should improve understanding of how DBT treatment influences the long-term course of patients and assess if these treatment modes only work best for women compared to other patients.
Antonsen, B. T., Klungsøyr, O., Kamps, A., Hummelen, B., Johansen, M. S., Pedersen, G., … & Wilberg, T. (2014). Step-down versus outpatient psychotherapeutic treatment for personality disorders: 6-year follow-up of the Ullevål personality project. BMC psychiatry, 14(1), 1-12.
DeCou, C. R., Comtois, K. A., & Landes, S. J. (2019). Dialectical behavior therapy is effective for the treatment of suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis. Behavior therapy, 50(1), 60-72.
Haktanir, A., & Callender, K. A. (2020). Meta-analysis of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for treating substance use. Research on Education and Psychology, 4(Special Issue), 74-87.
Harned, M. S., Wilks, C. R., Schmidt, S. C., & Coyle, T. N. (2018). Improving functional outcomes in women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD by changing PTSD severity and post-traumatic cognitions. Behavior research and therapy, 103, 53-61.
Kulacaoglu, F., & Kose, S. (2018). Borderline personality disorder (BPD): In the midst of vulnerability, chaos, and awe. Brain Sciences, 8(11), 201.
Wingenfeld, K., Duesenberg, M., Fleischer, J., Roepke, S., Dziobek, I., Otte, C., & Wolf, O. T. (2018). Psychosocial stress differentially affects emotional empathy in women with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 137(3), 206-215.