Bilingualism points out to an individual’s or a group’s predisposition to communicate efficaciously in two languages. It is a useful talent, according to many current language scholars. Not only can knowing different languages aid communication, but it may also provide unique benefits to the growing brain. A bilingual child’s executive control, or capacity to successfully regulate higher cognitive functions like problem-solving, memory, and reasoning, improves as they move between languages. They also grow more adapted to inhibiting certain reactions while promoting others, resulting in a more dynamic and versatile mind. The elements that impact the emergence or decrease of bilingualism in both individuals and groups have been explored. Family factors and socioeconomic influences have been postulated as plausible reasons for the disparities in multilingual abilities. Other issues, however, are hard to answer because of the huge diversity in families, societies, and cultures. Nevertheless, bilingualism remains a social aspect among societies governed and facilitated from the social norms and more in place, both at the family and the community level.
There subsist several factors within a family setting that act as definitive ends within which the bilingual capabilities of a child are enshrined. One of the elements to consider is the aspect of immigration. Regarding families living in a foreign land, there is the penchant for children, especially in the third generation post the immigration, to be solely speakers of the newfound language. As Pearson (2007) outlined, the first generation to migrate would often try to adapt to the new norms, which includes learning a second language in their new jurisdiction. In this respect, first-generation speakers are often aggressive about their language and continue to speak the minority language, teaching it to their progeny. Moreover, the next generation of the immigrant population is now blended with their new land and are fluent speakers of both the minority language and the new language. However, the subsequent generation often finds themselves as monolinguistic speakers.
As highlighted by Nakamura (2016), a factor that inhibits becoming bilingual is an element referred to as “language delay anxiety.” In this regard, parents would overtly diminish the learning opportunities for their children of the minority language with the fear that learning the language would interfere with learning the societal languages. This mindset acts as a buffer by the families by creating barriers and blockades to learning new languages while also endorsing moves to learn and acquire skills in the societal language.
What is more, concerning family factors, another tenable explanation for the rise or decline of bilingualism is the socioeconomic status (SES) of a family. In this respect, Pearson (2002) postulates that higher socioeconomic statuses have a higher prevalence and regard for minority languages. The general supposition is that families, especially parents of children in higher SES households, promote and endorse the speaking of their native languages and make it a preferential household communication language. On the other hand, parents of children in lower SES families endorse speaking the majority language, which is often used for almost every other transaction in a region, including public education (Pearson, 2007). Such parents approve the speaking of the majority language without much demur over its ramifications on their native language. As such, there is a higher prevalence for most of the members in higher socioeconomic statuses to be bilingual.
Furthermore, community factors are pivotal considerations for whether individuals are inclined to learn the minority language. Generally, cohesion within a community predicates the vigor with which individuals, more so the new members of society, including children, embrace the language. In the case of immigrants, there may be instances where local parishes or assemblages house these new populations, maintaining their culture in their ancestral homes (Pearson, 2007). Such a conclave is an example of a community factor in maintaining that the native language is not lost within a population. In instances where such cohesion in communities is elusive, there is the predilection of the minority language being lost amid the efforts to blend in the new society.
Additionally, the communal aspect of accepting or dismissing a given language boils down to a political issue. In one of the case scenarios granted by Nakamura (2016), a migrant and her daughter were granted limited access to recreational facilities simply because she could not speak fluently in Japanese (Nakamura, 2016). Moreover, she was told to join the foreign mother’s playgroup. This depiction of communal acceptance or dismissal of a given language further inhibits or affords better chances to learn a given minority language and thus become bilingual or multilingual speakers.
Bilingualism is a linguistic capability to be fluent in two languages and is governed by some social factors in the community of one’s setting. Primarily, and perhaps the most integral determinant of bilingualism, is the family. The family develops the social rules of engagement, enforcing them on the children who readily accept them as unquestionable truth. Furthermore, the community also acts as a factor to galvanize bilingualism or dispel its presence by focusing on one established societal language. Although these factors may seem disparate, there is a relationship between communal and family factors. When family attitudes are endemic, they lead to the concomitant societal view on minority languages.
Nakamura, J. (2016). Hidden bilingualism: Ideological influences on the language practices of multilingual migrant mothers in Japan. International Multilingual Research Journal, 10(4), 308-323.
Pearson, B. Z. (2007). Social factors in childhood bilingualism in the United States. Applied psycholinguistics, 28(3), 399-410.
BIM For The Built Environment University Essay Example
The construction industry is a multifaceted field associated with uncertainty, operational inefficiency, and dependency. Although the industry has often been criticized for its failure, it is still thriving. An increase in population, increased demand, and increase in shareholders have always ensured that the business stays afloat. With the emergence of technology, the construction business has made one of its finest advancements (BIM). Building information modeling is an integrated strategy that uses a virtual structure to represent a structure. This technology is being used to address the inefficiencies that have long existed in the construction business (Daniotti et al., 2020). Initially, the industry suffered losses because of a lack of information reuse and management and inadequate cross-disciplinary communication, but the issues have been resolved by building an information model. Building information modeling can be defined as a digital representation and process for creating and managing construction information. Locally, the technique shares knowledge to represent a project’s physical and functional characteristics, further offering a reliable basis for decisions. According to the British standards institute, business information modeling generates and manages information throughout construction. The process often relies on 2D and 3D technology to control a model of a building project. Globally the technique stimulates collaboration and knowledge sharing while increasing human capital across borders (Santos et al., 2019). The model is beneficial to architects, engineers, and constructors (AEC) to visualize a building project in a simulation environment. As a new technique, planning and managing the tasks can be done online. This study will discuss how building information modeling has impacted the small and medium-sized firms in the construction sector.
The construction sector, especially the SMEs, has been looking for techniques to lower project costs, improve productivity, quality, and speed completion. Since BIM is a three-dimension model, able can mimic the construction project (Heaton et al., 2019). This offers a viable potential to attain the goals. BIM incorporates significant modifications to the workflow and delivery procedures that are intelligent. BIM, a groundbreaking method that integrates people, systems, and business structures and practices in a collaborative process to eliminate waste and maximize efficiency across the project life cycle, is a new paradigm in the industry. BIM operates as software and a strategy to foster the integration of stakeholders’ responsibilities on a project. Geometry, geographical links, geographic information, building element quantities and qualities, cost estimates, material inventories, and project schedule information may be easily retrieved. It becomes an easy way to show the project life cycle and work scopes.
Small and medium-sized firms are the backbone of the economy, but they have been on the losing end in the digital world for the longest. While building information modeling is gaining prominence among large companies, SMEs are hesitant to adopt the technique. For a company to adopt the method in the UK, there are protocols to be followed. The UK national building information model standard project committee is responsible for these protocols and standards. The body defines BIM as a digital representation that serves as a dependable foundation for decision-making throughout the project’s life cycle. Building information modeling allows the( AEC) to envisage what will be created in a virtual environment, allowing them to spot design and construction concerns (Ibrahim & Al-Kazzaz,2021). The standards used in BIM include; BS EN 19650-1, which interprets the concepts and principles necessary for buildings and civil engineering works ., BS EN 19650-2 is required for the delivery of assets, BS EN 19650-3:2020 is used in the operational phase of the project, BS EN 19650- 5:2020 essential for information management and security. The building information model covers all the crucial elements of a project life cycle, from design to guarantee. These standards provide essential information for the construction industry’s success globally and locally. They also support the organizations and individuals to understand the principles around building information modeling and ensuring continuity of the project. Since the modeling provides a detailed virtual presentation of the structure, the AEC finds implementation sustainable and productive. These construction standards around design and engineering have been linked to low carbon emissions, especially in these times when every industry is cautious about climate change and environmental requirements. The united kingdom prides itself on achieving a competitive advantage in the construction industry. The national and global infrastructure thrives when the technology used is environmentally cautious. Its direct and indirect levers impact growing economies, and the standards and protocols are easy to interpret for provider companies.
The project life cycle
The project life cycle outlines the steps necessary to complete a project. The life cycle is vital in the construction industry because it helps the project manager ensure milestones are met in time to reduce delays and turnover.
The initiation stage is the first step of a project’s life cycle. In this stage, the AEC visualizes what should be accomplished by the project. The project sponsor is identified, and the strategic objectives are aligned.
The planning stage is the center of the project’s activity building information is presented so that the shareholders can get guidance on how the project will be undertaken. All the project deliverables and requirements are defined, and a schedule is created. The team is allowed to analyze any defaults or mistakes that can sabotage the quality of the building.
The implementation stage, also called the execution stage, is where the plan design is implemented. It is considered the most extended phase because the project plan is put into an actual project(Wuni & Shen,2020). Every schedule and template designed in the planning phase are pût into action with the help of building information modeling. Project managers are responsible for resolving any hurdles that may arise.
The performance and monitoring stage is used to check that all the quality measures are met. The project managers need to approve that the metrics used are within the scope. The correlative action ensures that the planned performance tallies with the desired outcome.
The closing stage is the last activity in the project cycle. It involves many formalities like the overall success level report to the project sponsor, handing over information, and the sign-off. After all these reports are signed, the staff and equipment are released, and stakeholders are informed of the closure of the project.
Drivers/Enablers and Challenges/Barriers of Using BIM For SMEs
Although the BIM technology came with many solutions to the construction industry, SMEs are still presented with hurdles. SMEs are often underrepresented in BIM studies. Most nations are gradually adopting BIM technology, although at a slow pace. Developed countries have developed a concentrated effort to boost SMEs. In most developing nations, the technique is infancy (Oteng et al., 2018). The AEC sector is also gradually d-adopting the method, although most developing countries face the challenges of corruption, Time and expense overruns, project delays, project abandonment, and disagreements. With inadequate to no AEC organizations to unite and help them overcome the challenges, adoption becomes an individual business rather than a group compared to developed countries. Lack of knowledge and government assistance has also contributed to the slow adoption in these countries.
The digital divide between large corporations and SMEs explains the underrepresentation seen in most research studies on the perspective of SMEs. The integration of SMEs into the large companies has also fragmented the AEC fragmented industry. Most sites don’t take the innovation leap because they consider it hazardous to their comfort zones. Defined with greater flexibility, limited resources, and a small number of employees, SMEs prefer small to modest, highly flexible projects(Saka & Chan, 2020). BIM adoption among SMEs will help them be more accessible, and their tasks will be manageable since BIM is attributed to operational efficiency.
Most SMEs that haven’t adopted the BIM technique has lost competitiveness because of inadequate knowledge of implementation resources and market share. There have been notable BIM awareness, acceptance, implementation, and government assistance in the UK. The influence has been beneficial to the same architectural business (Vidalakis et al., 2019). The willingness to share information, financial incentives, competition pressures, and collaboration have been key priorities in adopting BIM. The united kingdom maintains a socio-technical process influenced by relative advantage and compatibility. Several characteristics boost adoption among SMEs, including organizational size, readiness and top management support, technical confidence, and normative force.
The innovation diffusion theory delineates innovation in stages that include awareness, interest, adoption, implementation, and confirmation for BIM adoption. Reza Hosseini et al . (2018)argues that factors influencing its invention include compatibility and relative advantage. Technological backgrounds determine the chances of an SME adopting BIM, and the organization’s failure should be embraced since the normative forces are isomorphic pressure on the organization. Normative force and compatibility are significant antecedents mediated through perceived ease of use and perhaps perceived utility.
On the flip side, BIM technology, environmental framework, and level of organization are suitable for some implementation because they will boost their businesses from the inefficient, traditional strategies and help them bank to competitiveness and market share (Burgess et al. 2018). The SMEs’ organizational characteristics and contextual aspects allow them to fully participate in BIM training and adoption to boost the business and ease their work of keeping extended documentation and easy ways of establishing any miscommunication during the planning stage.
External drivers heavily depend on the internal factors against several existing innovation studies that disregard their effect. In innovation, both internal and external factors significantly benefit from the foundations of creativity, communication, and sociology. The irrational neglect of innovation theories has led to overlooking the key elements contributing to the invention, such as the construction industry (Al-Saeed et al., 2020). There is a significant connection between the company size and adaptation of innovation like the building information modeling. Large corporations are bound to invest more than small and medium-sized enterprises. This fact may vary depending on the competitiveness in the market and the market niche. Government influences on BIM adoption by reducing interest rates or giving financial incentives to SMEs can encourage them to adopt the technique quickly. Sometimes if the legislation passed wants pure adaptation for a business to run, there are no other alternatives. Any developed country has embraced BIM technology because it iscanolve many redundancies.
The role ôf a BIM manager ensures that the construction team implements all the planned deliverables to the desired outcome by ensuring that all standards and protocols are followed. By applying the BIM and digital protocols during the construction(implementation stage) and design(planning stage), the manager coordinates with the AEC personnel to ensure good results during the handover(closing stage). The BIM manager should always oversee the use of the BIM techniques and ensure that all the guidelines and protocols are clear to the team. Sometimes problems may arise during construction (Hosseini et al., 2018). The bim manager is responsible for executing different alternatives by authorizing the next step or solution for the problem. A manager has to run a range of tasks from information technology that the BIM relies on to support the performance and monitoring phase to achieve quality.
Every critical step in the project needs a manager’s guidance. With the change of skills from the BIM model to an actual plan, a manager should strategize communication, ensure all the requirements are on the site, and provide seamless collaboration with the human resource. There are many daily activities to carry out, including conflict resolution. Sometimes a project sponsor might come up with potential improvements for the project, and in this case, the BIM manager will need to code the changes and communicate them to the AEC team. In every phase, a decision needs to be made, and the BIM manager needs to pick a decision that will make the project progress in time and achieve the required outcome that promotes efficiency (Baldwin, 2019). In these times of civilization, architecture is the center of all digital innovation, and every BIM manager meeds architectural and digital skills to compete. BIM generates representation away from 2D and toward 3D modeling, which may now be improved in various ways beyond CAD (Computer Aided Drafting). Multiple developments, such as 3D photorealistic representations and immersive VR experiences, progressively aid the sector.
The construction industry has a massive gap in skilled workers with productivity rates of 1 percent. Through the help of artificial intelligence and robotics, BIM has ensured reliable real-time centralized data. The national building specification of the UK argued that the technique had provided an increase in productivity and delivery through early detection of clashes.
In recent years technological advancements in the construction sector have attracted innovation and collaboration among the AEC and various stakeholders. BIM has played a massive role in achieving efficiency, but there is a need for further advancements like artificial intelligence, data analytics, and cloud computing. , In the UK, various bodies like the NBS and digitally built Britain need to advance BIM in technology and security. The future is automation, and since there is a gap in the skilled workers, BIM should be improved to robotics. Robots can assist in calculations and estimations and replicate the virtual model to the actual model (Makabate et al., 2021). As a result, the construction industry will achieve better facilities.
The replication idea that is advanced BIM should be a baseline for data management, protocols, and procedures. Currently, BIM can store and retrieve data, but it can not link the planning stage with the closing stage. This work has often been left in the hands of a BIM manager. Since human is an errors, there is a need for accuracy. The ability of technology to solve complex architectural defects like wrong estimations has been remarkable (Merschbrock et al., 2018). Initially, any wrong calculation could drag the process because the construction plan had to be redone. Still, with technology, the AEC team can detect an inconsistency and replan without starting the plan afresh.BIM has opened a technology field that needs further investigation to increase collaboration, effectiveness, and cooperation.
Most governments haven’t cooperated with SMEs to train and encourage them to adopt BIM. The adoption process has been slower than anticipated in developed and developing countries (Awwad et al., 2020). Governments need to invest in SMEs in the construction sector to improve the facilities and encourage global competition. For instance, the UK 2011 ensured that all built structures need to have a BIM standard. With limited to no faults, buildings are bound to last longer than when they are built without the BIM technique.
SMEs need to benefit from the BIM solutions like shorter time in the implementation stage, avoidance of faults, and project delays. With all stakeholders able to access information, any updates can be reviewed quickly (Awwad et al., 2020). When everyone has access to the same data, significant cross-checks are no longer essential. Traditional cost estimations and price adjustments can be time-consuming and, as a result, delays during the project. Using the BIM solutions lile optimization that is accurate allows instant updates to the project budget. Property developers can collaborate in evaluating the design environment and create an environmentally cautious building development. With a virtual model, it is easy to determine the exact amount of supplies or equipment required allowing stakeholders to save more money that could be used on miscellaneous expenses. Eco-friendly projects reduce the amount of garbage at a building site, decreasing harmful hazards that could affect the human capital at the site.
The several roadblocks to BIM adoption and implementation are obstructed by lack of training, huge implementation expenses, and lack of in-house knowledge. The demand for contractors with BIM knowledge is on the rise, with many governments opting to sign contracts with BIM-equipped companies. BIM is becoming a standard in many developed countries like the UK, the USA, and Europe. Companies that have not implemented are being left behind (Young et al., 2021). There is a fair assumption that tremendous progress has been made with expanded capabilities in the project lifecycle implementation stage.
In conclusion, BIM has proved to be a revolutionary technology in construction. It has bridged most inefficiencies suffered by the industry and stakeholders in the past. The construction industry is making progress by reducing delays and faults that could lead to losses and poor quality outcomes. SMEs are the new infants in the room, but they will be able to participate in global competition with their baby steps. The willingness to share information, financial incentives, competition pressures, and collaboration have been key priorities in adopting BIM. Building information modeling has impacted the small and medium-sized firms in the construction sector. The construction sector has been looking for techniques to lower project costs, improve productivity and quality, and speed completion. Construction stakeholders will have to adapt to remain competitive. The construction industry has been slow to adapt. Increased use of BIM and new technology could aid in the resolution of some of the industry’s issues.
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Nature, Nurture And Bio-Cognition Theories Essay Sample For College
Biological evolution is described as any genetic change in the populations of organisms over successive generations. It is achieved using genetic variation and natural selection. Biological evolution is based on the idea that All living creatures are related and slowly change over time (Restrepo 2008). On the other hand, environmental learning examines how the natural environment shapes our behavior in our built environment. Environmental learning greatly influences our personality depending on the environmental factors around us. Human thinking and behavior revolve around their physical environment. The cognitive structure is a mental structure that explains a form of human knowledge. Cognitive structures organize information for learning; therefore, they play an integral role in understanding and memorizing information.
Chomsky, Pinker, and Brown show that the process of language acquisition in children is biologically determined. They believe in the natural approach to learning. Chomsky proposed that children are born with the knowledge of how language is innate to human beings, which comes naturally. Children worldwide acquire language effortlessly since all languages contain a similar universal. They argued that linguistics had an important contribution and should be contributed to cognitive psychology. Skinner argues that all children have adopted a similar pattern of linguistic development. Chomsky believed that language is innate and is biologically inherited, whereas skinners theory states children learn how to talk by using positive reinforcements from adults. Criticisms of these theories of nurture and nature are that they offered hypothetical information and ignored the importance of social interaction (Pinker 2009). The models cannot explain why children with down syndrome have delayed language.
Psychological characteristics in childhood and behavioral differences that emerge have resulted from learning (Harman 1967) Behaviors in the human being are based on both genetics and an individual’s environment. Both nature and nurture create a cognitive structure because both refer to underlying beliefs about the world. In Bio cognitive theory, individuals are inseparable from mind, body, and culture and always search for contextual meaning (Plomin et al 1993) The bio cognition theory, in this case, would be; Gaining knowledge and comprehending involving mental processes. The cognitive process requires higher-level brain functioning, like thinking and remembering, and its relationship to establish the biological cause.
Cognitive learning is about how human learning occurs through the internal processing of information by the brain. Abstract thought involves complex thinking that enables one to conclude beyond what is obvious. Comedians are a great example of abstract thinkers as they connect to the world and make sense of the information absorbed around the world. Abstract thought is hard to understand through cognitive learning because one has to give real concretes even though they lack the experience to base them. Cognitive learning is connected closely to objects and experiences that can be directly seen, while abstract thinking skills develop as we grow.
The evidence-based practice integrates the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of a patient’s culture and characteristics. It relates to any evidence relating to the accused’s mental state, including reports. The purpose is to enhance health and promote the effective psychological practice. Evidence-based is hard to learn because of its inconsistency cognitively, and it’s generally based on science which is hard to process in the brain. Scientific reasons for including clinical expertise and characteristics of the patient are neglected. For cognitive learning, a distinction needs to be made between efficient psychotherapy and the scientific findings in medicine. Patients’ characteristics influence and culture show that the patient needs to have a say on matters regarding their life.
Cognitive learning engages our senses in a constructive and long-lasting way. Forgetting stuff is not part of cognitive learning (Kolbe et al 2014). It is the loss of information previously stored in the short or long-term memory. Cognitive learning deepens the memory and retention capacity of the brain. It maximizes the brain’s potential and makes connecting new information with previous experiences easy. It requires a deep understanding of the subject, thereby discouraging cramming. Interference with memory can be caused by distraction when one learns new information meaning you did not retain the previous information (Piaget 2003). Getting rid of distraction is almost impossible, but one can develop tactics to fight it. Even though we control intentional forgetting, unintentional forgetting is difficult to eliminate. Forgetting is considered adaptive as it tends to reduce future interference.
People keep changing their opinions because of the way their minds are built. Our brains are faster at processing opinions we agree with. People hate changes that go against their beliefs. Despite the common beliefs, people judge each other based on preexisting beliefs. Cognitive learning makes us feel bad for predicting how future events make us feel emotional. Opinions are not stubborn and fixed, as cognitive learning puts it. Changing our minds enables us to see the two sides of something we previously didn’t know. Changing our beliefs about ourselves enables us to have self-confidence.
Human beings are always competing in one way or the other. Psychologically, it is necessary to compete in small rather than large groups; it is considered a personality trait and not something learned. The act of not being social is associated with a functional deficit like poor cognitive control. Most people measure their self-worth through comparison with others. Being antisocial cannot be considered cognitive learning because it doesn’t focus on more effective use of the brain. The idea is that people’s thinking leads to arousal, which leads to disturbed or adaptive behavior. A competitive person’s personality is a result of both nature and environmental learning. The human tendency to compete can be a natural outgrowth externally.
Multitasking is the ability to do two or more things simultaneously. Performance and efficiency are reduced during multitasking because the brain can only focus on one thing. Multitasking lowers the short-term memory that is concerned with linguistic processing. The process affects cognitive learning since it makes one not be attentive. Switching between tasks comes with repercussions such as mentally adjusting to the new task and mentally competing with carrying over to the new task. High cognitive load also affects our ability to process information. Most people underestimate the ability to multitask, and it’s so clear that the brain cannot process many tasks at once. Multitasking can cause harm to our brains and also lead to memory problems.
Creativity is a non-cognitive skill that is very important as it helps in problem-solving by generating ideas. Creativity is not a product of cognitive learning because it’s not measurable. It’s a cultural and social construct and psychological and cognitive process. Creativity creates a pathway to memories by improving the strength of neural pathways. Creativity is a crucial element of human progress. Creative learning tends to explore the cognitive processes associated with cognitive learning. Cognitive functions such as flexibility, influencing, and working memory constitute creativity in cognition learning. Creativity is based on convergent and divergent thinking.
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