Essay On Bioethics Sample Assignment

Bioethics studies moral, social, and legal questions in biomedicine and biomedical research. Before 1970, there was no such thing as “bioethics.” The biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter was the one who initially used it to refer to ethics developed from biomedicine. Surgery is a practice that depends on a surgeon’s technical skills, knowledge, and decision-making ability. In their daily routine, surgeons deal with morally challenging situations and ethical dilemmas. Innovation is growing, and as procedures become trickier and more dangerous, the instruments required to approach an ethically complex surgical case become more crucial. Because of its distinctive traits and objectives, surgical ethics can be distinguished from other medical ethics topics. Professionalism is fundamentally based on ethics; a skilled surgeon is not only thought to be capable of performing the art and science of surgery as it has traditionally been understood but also to be morally and ethically dependable.

There was no moral reasoning as Doctor Pen consulted Mrs. Daffodil’s daughter about her surgery instead of consulting her first because it was not urgent. He was not supposed to decide for her as he lacked impartiality by consulting her daughter only.(Rachels.J &Rachels.S ,2012). The most common unethical practices in operating rooms include: failing to accurately communicate with patients, failing to meet patients’ expectations, breaking the sterility rules, performing the wrong surgery, refusing to admit some patients for surgery, failing to obtain patients’ informed consent, and performing the wrong surgery. Lack of accurate communication with the patient can lead to severe punishment for the doctor.

The doctor-patient relationship and the doctor’s obligation to promote and safeguard the patient’s well-being are at the heart of surgical ethics. It was developed to investigate issues unique to surgeons. (Rachel J&RacherlsS,2012). One might think of surgical decision-making as a two-step procedure. First, there is the “can it be treated” or “how to treat” question, which involves skill and expertise (i.e., surgical science). This translates into a practice that is supported by research. Second, there are the “why treat” and “what should be done” questions, which pertain to surgical ethics and ought to be grounded in moral philosophy17. The kinds of moral problems that surgeons experience have been researched. The ethical issues that ten surgeons at a University hospital in Norway encounter daily are described by Torcula. The key finding was that surgeons faced moral problems when determining the best course of action in many circumstances, including starting or delaying therapy, continuing or discontinuing treatment, overtreating patients, and respecting patients’ wishes.

The key finding was that surgeons faced ethical issues when choosing the best course of action in various circumstances. Among them were problems with initiating or stopping treatment, continuing or stopping treatment, overtreating patients, and honoring their rights and expectations.

The Hippocratic tradition’s tenets had amazingly endured after Percival’s modernization. Untouched for more than 2,000 years, the doctor-patient interaction was distinguished by the dominant doctor and the submissive patient. (Jonathan F 2011) Early assertions of this authority were based on dubious authenticity; physicians were steadfast in upholding a duty to act morally to the best of their ability for the benefit of their health among their patients. When the 19th century ended, The field of medicine had developed sufficiently to allow even American patients who subscribe to liberal principles to recognize their obligation to obey. The majority of medical research was compliance with a prescribed process or upholding the standing of the specific doctor or the medical field in general.

Additionally, to the degree that information was revealed to Patients, it wasn’t done concerning any rehabilitation, Understanding the explicit goal of upholding patient autonomy as a goal unto itself. The information would instead be disclosed if it was believed that the disclosure would be the patient’s overall medical benefit, commensurate with using the benefits model. The benefit cense model covered the height of American medicine’s glory. However, it would not last long. The following essay in this series will resume with the modifications in the area at the beginning of the 20th century and up until biology ethics.

Today’s bioethical discourse frequently raises worries about fragility and populations at risk People in nations where healthcare is limited are readily persuaded to participate in clinical drug studies and, as a result, become open to being exploited. (Ten 2016) Due to modern genetic technology, those with disabilities may become susceptible to prejudice. Children suffering from life-threatening illnesses are at risk because they make their own decisions and rely on their parents and other surrogate decision-makers. When necessary, other people must take special precautions to help and safeguard the vulnerable. For some people, vulnerability is a warning indication that they are unique. Pay close attention. People often have the freedom to make decisions and pinpoint their they safeguard their interests.


There are various ways that bioethics and genetics transcend national boundaries. As multi-center research initiatives become more prevalent, a coordinated system of ethical assessment is needed. Genetic information and tissue samples routinely cross international borders. Health disparities are regarded as a universal injustice. All people should profit from the discovery of the human genome, which has been dubbed the “legacy of humanity.” Such challenges cannot be appropriately addressed at the national level since they are intrinsically global.

Consequently, UNESCO is trying to offer a global framework for its governance. At their most recent meeting in June 2005, Pablo Sader, the government specialist in charge of completing the draft UDBHR, said the following: Almost every week, a bioethics-related story makes international news. It is a challenging subject.

Despite a more extended hospital stay and delay before returning to regular activities, more women reported being satisfied with their outcomes following hysterectomy than after first-generation EA. Hysterectomy is also preferred to second-generation EA in terms of patient satisfaction, according to indirect estimations in the absence of head-to-head trials. Although second-generation procedures were more affordable, quicker, and linked to a speedier recovery and fewer issues, dissatisfaction rates were equivalent for first- and second-generation techniques. Few comparisons exist between Mirena and other invasive surgeries. Since there isn’t much data on Mirena, it’s possible that it could be more affordable and more effective than first-generation ablation procedures while having satisfaction rates between the first and second generations. There is currently no data to support the idea that a hysterectomy is better than Mirena due to a lack of research.


Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2012). The Elements of Moral Philosophy.Lyn Uhl.

Ten Have, H. (2016). Vulnerability: challenging bioethics. Routledge Taylor&Francis group.

Will, J. F. (2011). A brief historical and theoretical perspective on patient autonomy and medical decision-making.Chest.

Biography Of Florence Nightingale Sample College Essay

Modern nurses are immensely admired in the current world. Even though the public trust and appreciation of nurses remains high over time, the types of care offered have changed. It requires one to look at the history of nursing to understand how far the field has evolved. For instance, nursing education has evolved in response to the transformative nature of the profession. Nursing has transformed from caretaking to decidedly clinical practice. The current nursing profession requires nurses to get certification after formal training. One known development in nursing and nursing education is attributed to Florence Nightingale’s efforts. Florence showed the value of female nurses and the need for sanitation in nursing. This paper discusses the biography of Florence Nightingale, her attributes and values, and her contributions to the nursing field.

Biography of Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 in Florence, Italy, to William Shore Nightingale and Frances Nightingale. Nightingale came from a British family from an elite social class. Nightingale’s mother came from a family of merchants and socialized with individuals of higher social class. On the other hand, her father, William Shore Nightingale, was a rich landowner who inherited two estates; Hampshire, Embley Park, and the other in Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. Florence Nightingale grew up at Lea Hurst, where she was given a classical education: German, Italian, and French. She was also referred to as the “The Lady With the Lamp,” a British social reformer, nurse, and statistician (Dumitrascu et al., 2020). Florence has been active in philanthropy since she was very young. During that time, she ministered to the sick and poor individuals in the village neighbouring their homes. Florence Nightingale showed her ambition in nursing when she was 16 years old. Florence believed nursing to be her divine purpose.

Florence’s ambition of becoming a nurse did not please her parents. She was forbidden by her parents from pursuing nursing. This is because, during that era, a lady of Florence’s social class was required to get married and not do a job perceived by the upper social classes as lowly menial labour. Florence rejected a marriage proposal from Richard Monckton Milnes at the age of 17 years. Due to her determination to pursue nursing despite objections from her parents, Florence enrolled as a student in 1844 at the Lutheran Hospital of Pastor Fliedner in Germany to study nursing (Bradshaw, 2020). Florence Nightingale fell ill in August 1910 but showed signs of recovery. A week later, she developed various troubling symptoms on Friday, August 12, 1910. Florence died Saturday, August 13, 1910, in London.

Attributes and Values

The job is demanding, and it needs specific skills and the willingness of a nurse to develop and grow daily. The first attribute of Florence was self-awareness. Self-awareness is the highest form of awareness that involves reflecting on and contemplating an individual existence (Pfettscher, 2021). Florence’s writings are evidence to support the fact of her ability to recognize her emotions, moods, and drives. In addition, she was an adept and confident woman. Florence utilized the environment and her strong belief in god as a foundation to understand herself. According to her, nursing must focus on promoting health and prevention of diseases to fight unsanitary conditions rather than treating the diseases (Padilha, (2020). At the Scutari Barrack Hospital, Florence created the library for patients hoping to give the soldiers under her care something to do other than drink. This shows how Florence was aware of her environment. Even though Florence was ridiculed initially by the top military brass, they were surprised when her act of self-awareness and empathy achieved the desired outcome.

One of the values of Florence Nightingale is commitment. Florence had a mission and not a job. Throughout her work, Florence did not ask about the pay. For example, she did not ask about the salary and benefits before organizing a team of nurses to Crimea during the war. During that time, no female nurses worked at the Crimea hospitals. This was because of the deteriorated name of previous female nurses who made war offices to avoid recruiting female nurses (Loveday, 2020). Florence received a letter in late 1854 asking her to lead nurses treating sick and injured soldiers in Crimea. Due to her ambition for her calling, she quickly gathered 34 young nurses and sailed them to Crimea. Nightingale endured intolerable working conditions that would be unacceptable in the current world. Even though there were many injured soldiers and others dying from diseases such as cholera and typhoid, Florence never experienced burnout. She changed the world of healthcare through devotion and commitment to her calling. Nightingale could have decided to settle a comfortable life at the family’s country mansion; instead, Florence chose to care for others.

Contributions and Achievements

Florence Nightingale achieved many things during her years of work as a nurse. Nightingale established the foundation for elite British women to pursue nursing as a profession. During her period, society was cruel to women pursuing nursing. The considered nursing a low-class job where one required little knowledge and intelligence, and nurses were viewed as being little above prostitutes during the era (McDonald, 2020). She changed the notion of nursing and society’s perspective and offered a new meaning to nursing. To change this notion entirely, she used her finances to achieve her calling. Nightingale founded St. Thomas Hospital in 1860 and the Nightingale Training School for Nurses within the hospital (Matthews et al., 2020). Due to her efforts, nursing was no longer looked down at by people of upper-class stature; in fact, nursing came to be viewed as an honourable vocation.

Florence Nightingale has numerous contributions to the field of nursing. One of her contributions is her efforts to make hospitals cleaner and safer places to be. Arriving at Scutari, the British base hospital in Crimea, Florence found the hospital was in a horrid situation. The hospital was situated on top of a large cesspool that contaminated the hospital building and water. The hospital hallway was full of injured soldiers lying on stretchers on their excrement. Bugs and rodents run past the sick patients. Supplies such as soap and bandages increasingly grew limited as the number of sick and wounded increased every time. Even basic supplies such as water had to be restrained (Gallagher, 2020). More soldiers were succumbing to infectious illnesses such as cholera and typhoid than injuries incurred in the war. To change the environment, she asked soldiers to clean the inside of the healthcare facility. She would walk around in the dark hallway of the hospital, ministering to the sick and injured soldiers. Apart from improving the sanitary condition at the hospital, she established various patient services that improved the quality of their time at the healthcare facility (Glasper, 2020). For example, she created a kitchen where she appealed food for patients with special diet needs was prepared. In addition, she created a laundry to ensure the sick and the injured soldiers would have clean clothes. She also created a library and a classroom for patients’ entertainment and intellectual stimulation.


The research on Florence Nightingale informs us of many things. Florence Nightingale portrayed many nursing qualities needed in the nursing practice as a role model. Some qualities are compassionate care, resilience, commitment to lobby, and courage to bring the needed change in health conditions for marginalized people (Bates and Memel 2021). For instance, Florence wrote letters to families of soldiers who had succumbed to the Crimea war. This informs student nurses about their profession and the circumstance they may be found themselves in as nurses. In addition, from the research, we can learn that nurses are diverse, requiring competence and confidence to advocate for care recipients and speak out about the patient’s needs, communities and families, and safety.

In summary, Nightingale’s history is helpful as it enables nurses to reflect on and compare the present and past nursing activities of Florence and other nurses of her time. Nurses and nursing have transformed since the era of Nightingale. Today, nurses are well educated in the science and art of nursing, independent, accountable, and still primarily women. The legacy of Florence informs nurses to sacrifice their life and care for the patient. Nightingale devoted her life to ensuring safe and compassionate treatment for suffering and poor individuals.


Bates, R., & Memel, J. G. (2021). Florence Nightingale and Responsibility for Healthcare in the Home. European Journal for the History of Medicine and Health1(aop), 1-26.

Bradshaw, N. A. (2020). Florence Nightingale (1820–1910): An unexpected master of data. Patterns1(2), 100036.

Dumitrascu, D. I., David, L., Dumitrascu, D. L., & Rogozea, L. (2020). Florence Nightingale bicentennial: 1820–2020. Her contributions to health care improvement. Medicine and Pharmacy Reports93(4), 428.

Gallagher, A. (2020). Learning from Florence Nightingale: a slow ethics approach to nursing during the pandemic. Nursing Inquiry27(3).

Glasper, E. A. (2020). Celebrating the Contribution of Florence Nightingale to Contemporary Nursing. Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing43(4), 233-239.

Loveday, H. P. (2020). Revisiting Florence Nightingale: International year of the nurse and midwife 2020. Journal of Infection Prevention21(1), 4-6.

Matthews, J. H., Whitehead, P. B., Ward, C., Kyner, M., & Crowder, T. (2020). Florence Nightingale: visionary for the role of clinical nurse specialist. Online J Issues Nurs25(2).

McDonald, L. (2020). Florence Nightingale: The making of a hospital reformer. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal13(2), 25-31.

Padilha, M. I. (2020). From florence nightingale to the covid-19 pandemic: the legacy we want. Texto & Contexto-Enfermagem29.

Pfettscher, S. A. (2021). Florence Nightingale: modern nursing. Nursing Theorists and Their Work E-Book, 52.

Biological Factors And Psychological Forces That Play A Factor In Sexual Aggression Toward An Individual Sample College Essay

Sexual hostility is described as engaging in sexual activity with someone who does not or cannot commit to the activity. Within the outline of each of these four motivational variables, theoretical constructions of sexual behavior, aggressive behavior, and sexually aggressive behavior are reviewed. Philosophies of sexual violence are classified according to their primary prominence like physiological or, where philosophies incorporate more than one of the four inspiring foundations, their distinguishing prominence.

Deviant reasonings, an impersonal sexual alignment, impulsivity, self-admiration, perceived peer sustenance for sexual violence, obedience to outdated masculine customs, and belief in rape folklores are some of the distinct elements of sexual hostility defined in main philosophies. Some philosophies of sexual antagonistic conduct address the idea that whether or not a tendency to engage in sexual hostility is acted upon can be susceptible to environmental disinhibiting causes or releasers, such as drug use, the existence of peers who are alleged to be helpful to sexual aggressors, or a lack of onlookers with the probable intention to intercede.

The underlying notion of sexual motivation constrains sexual criminal behavior theories. Theory addressing sexual motivation has long been dominated by psychoanalytic philosophies based on Freud’s postulation of a continual sexual impulse (libido) seeking an outlet. Kaplan defined erotic craving as an appearance of a initiative, similar to starvation and thirsting, influenced by sensors that detect changes in the body’s inner environment (Smid, 2016). She discovered the sexual instinct in the hypothalamus, a brain structure that signals physiological imbalances and the refurbishment of equilibrium. There is the beginning of sexual desire: the brain shows a sexual shortage and develops sexual want, driving the individual to search for sexual gratification.

This rather linear understanding of sexual drive will likely lead to similarly linear views of sexual offending behavior, with hypothalamic-produced want being divergent. Beginning with an characteristic irregular sexual drive, the person must ‘overcome’ inner and outer hurdles before committing a sexual felony to appease this irrational urge. However, actual research for the urge hypothesis of sexual motivation is sparse. For one thing, sexual attraction appears to be distinct from starvation or thirsting in that there does not appear to be an immediate biotic need that must be met.

This prototypical defines sexual enthusiasm and desire as an expressive reaction to a incentive and contemplates the instrument by which sexual expressive states and feelings of sexual enthusiasm and want appear, in the same way, that other feelings associated with reasonably strong bodily reactions do.

Sexual dysfunction is prejudiced by culture since societies concept and color beliefs about sexuality, masculinity, sexual skill, and sexual behavior. This helps as the hypothetical foundation of the sensate focus method of couples’ sex rehabilitation, which is ethnocentric, reflecting an unspoken conviction in the dominance of erotic standards. Cultural influences can have an impact on mental illness in a variety of ways. Ethos molds norms of behavior to establish thresholds for irregularity and define abnormality and deviance to some extent (Bhavsar & Bhugra, 2013). These standards, criteria, and definitions evolve and respond to sociopolitical and economic forces. Any discussion of the association between ethos and sex must consider the vastly different and dynamic hypothetical contexts for both terms. Though accepting the undeniable intricacies of philosophy, we can only gain a better understanding through simple, logical models of this relationship. Such cultural norms may lead to individuals experiencing the need to prove to themselves and others that they do not lack sexual dysfunctional disorders.

Sexual violence is classified into various offenses such as blasphemy, unlawful compelling individuals to participate in inappropriate actions, rape, and touching another individual inappropriately without consent, among other acts. Current laws govern sexual aggressiveness, one law being that if an individual commits an offense of sexual blasphemy, they are liable to up to ten years of imprisonment. These laws are enacted to prevent every individual from sexual harassment and protect all victims regardless of their gender, age, or occupation (Jones, 1983). The laws are not biased toward one gender and are used to judge cases brought in front of judges to judge sexual aggressiveness cases the right way without favor. The law has progressively moved from a victim’s point of view to handling each case as a criminal offense. This prevents people from accusing individuals of rape falsely because before a sentence is given, thorough investigations are conducted.


Bhavsar, V., & Bhugra, D. (2013). Cultural factors and sexual dysfunction in clinical practice. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment19(2), 144–152.

Jones, V. (1983). Sexual Aggression and the Law | Office of Justice Programs.

Smid, W. (2016, November 5). (PDF) Incentive Theory of Sexual Motivation. ResearchGate.