Essay On Corporate Governance Free Sample

Achieving long-term company success requires effective and prudent management achieved through corporate governance. The United Kingdom’s code of corporate governance outlines aspects of operative board practice based on good governance principles such as leadership, transparency, accountability, integrity, and entity sustainability in the long term (Financial Reporting Council, 2016 pg. 1). As part of best practice merit and a legislative framework, the code aims to attain high standards of corporate governance with internal flexibility mechanisms that allow adaptation to specific circumstances. Financial Reporting Council (2016 pg.5) states that the company’s board and its committees ought to have an adequate balance of competence and company information to implement duties appropriately. Although the United Kingdom code of corporate governance provides a basis for achieving an appropriate standard of governance, the role of committees such as the appointments committee and succession planning and steward committee, and committees of investors underscores its ultimate success.

Appointments committee and succession planning

The United Kingdom Corporate Governance Code calls for establishment of a nomination committee by the board to develop adequate plans for orderly succession during senior managerial and board positions handover. According to Financial Reporting Council (2018, pg.8), the committee should have majorly sovereign non-executive directors appointed through external search consultancy and open advertising. By not being a member of the executive team management, non-executive directors give an unbiased opinion devoid of conflict of interest in managing daily company operations (Kishore, 2017 pg.28). They, therefore, provide a fresh outlook to organizations through offering guidance and connections. Kishore (2017, pg. 28) however argues that authors have stated a shift to independent directors erodes the influence of minority shareholders and results in the distinction between control and ownership. A model where directors are significant shareholders in a company hence their interests and that of the company are interconnected.

The successions committee also ensures board chairs are in a managerial post for a period not exceeding nine years from the initial appointment date to the board, with directors subject to yearly re-elections. An effective succession plan entails developing diversity in the board and developing accompanying papers outlining directors’ specific contributions. This protects firms from staggered boards where elections of directors cover multiple years. Adams, Hermalin, and Weisbach (2010 pg.83) argue that staggering boards serve to shield management making takeovers problematic and therefore undermining principles of corporate governance. Annual elections are an effective tool for appropriate standards of governance.

Steward Committee and Committees of Investors

In the United Kingdom corporate governance code, the steward committee and committee of investors are intent on meeting medium to long term assets return of clients and company shareholders. Through constructive dialogue and supportive engagements derived from an understanding of their business environment, the corporate value of a firm is enhanced and aligns with management strategies. Investors’ stewardship actions and the principle of collective management have been instrumental in achieving high governance standards and promoting long-term investment (Financial Reporting Council, 2018 pg. 1). Investors should therefore strive for constructive engagements and build discussions with firms regarding departure from stipulated practice.

The evolution of behavior codes emanated from institutional Shareholders’ Agencies and has led to the development of the United Kingdom Stewardship Code. This addresses the concerns regarding the lack of interest from shareholders in the corporate world (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2011 pg.37). However, OECD (2011, pg.37) states that the stewardship code faced backlash as aspects of conflict of interest have been weakly addressed yet they are common in nature, hence addressing it would be appropriate. Furthermore, the code does not clearly state the role and jurisdiction of the committees of investors with aspects such as the committee aim and its relation to organization expenditure needs lacking an elaboration. According to Mintz (2009, pg.2), such roles should be defined in a committee charter specifying risk parameters, management recruitment, and termination and should be agreed by the board of directors.

In summary, the United Kingdom code of corporate governance is an important framework for obtaining an appropriate standard of governance. Through the role of the appointments committee and succession planning, adequate plans for orderly succession during senior managerial and board positions handover are developed. The appointment of sovereign non-executive directors allows for giving an unbiased opinion devoid of conflict of interest in managing daily company operations. Availability of successions committees facilitates annual elections for board directors, protecting firms from staggering boards that serve to shield management, making takeovers problematic and therefore undermining principles of corporate governance. Steward committee and a committee of investors are intent on meeting medium to long term assets return of clients and company shareholders through value addition of corporate firms. However, the stewardship code faced backlash as aspects of conflict of interest have been weakly addressed yet they are common in nature. Furthermore, the code does not clearly state the role and jurisdiction of the committees of investors with aspects such as the committee aim and its relation to organization expenditure needs lacking an elaboration.

Bibliography

Adams, R.B., Hermalin, B.E. and Weisbach, M.S. (2010). The Role of Boards of Directors in Corporate Governance: A Conceptual Framework and Survey. Journal of Economic Literature, [online] 48(1), pp.58–107. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40651578?seq=1.

Financial Reporting Council (2016). Code Corporate Governance Financial Reporting Council The UK Corporate Governance Code. [online] Available at: https://www.frc.org.uk/getattachment/ca7e94c4-b9a9-49e2-a824-ad76a322873c/UK-Corporate-Governance-Code-April-2016.pdf.

FRC (2018). THE UK CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODE. [online] Available at: https://www.frc.org.uk/getattachment/88bd8c45-50ea-4841-95b0-d2f4f48069a2/2018-UK Corporate-Governance-Code-FINAL.PDF.

Kishore, K., 2017. Independent Directors and Corporate Governance: A Comparative Study of Indian and UK Provisions. IUP Journal of Corporate Governance16(1).

Mintz, J. (2009). The Roles and Responsibilities of Investment Committees of Not-For-Profit Organizations. [online] Available at: https://www.macfound.org/media/article_pdfs/articleoninvestmentcommitteesrev4.pdf.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2011). The Role of Institutional Investors in Promoting Good Corporate Governance. [online] Available at: https://www.oecd.org/daf/ca/49081553.pdf.

Correction Activities To Reduce Recidivism Sample Essay

In the criminal justice system, recidivism is one of the significant concepts. It refers to an individual relapse into criminal behaviors after receiving sanctions or while undergoing intervention from a previous crime. It is measured through criminal acts that result in reconviction, rearrest, or returning to jails with a new sentence. Notably, recidivism is crucial while considering primary criminal justice topics, including rehabilitation, specific deterrence, and incapacitation. In the past, recidivism has been used to study the differences between the effectiveness of public and private managed prisons. Positive and close family relationships reduce recidivism. Recidivism risks can also be reduced using evidence-based programs by targeting criminogenic needs by introducing courses like cognitive-behavioural therapies in prisons.

Evidence-based supervision should be promoted through correctional agencies for better supervision outcomes like reducing the rates of recidivism and delivering a fair probation process. Notably, evidence-based supervision involves using techniques to achieve behavioral change for persons under probation supervision. Additionally, the supervision transforms customary face-to-face contact between people on supervision and officers by accentuating the significance of communication and developing quality working relationships. The behaviors of officers affect how people on parole perceive their experiences as just or fair. Probation supervision involves using compliance monitoring to help people achieve short-term goals like getting employment and address risk factors that reduce recidivism rates( Blasko et al.,3). Evidence-based supervision is likely to reduce recidivism if it is well established through need assessment tools.

Officers should use supervision approaches to address need factors that emphasize the importance of achieving long term goals. Components of every supervision should be incorporated to help manage released prisoners and hold them responsible during treatment agencies, parole agencies, and judiciary probation. Additionally, probation officers should use motivational interviews to address ambivalence to changes and implement problem-solving, active listening, and cognitive-behavioural approaches to achieve effective outcomes in reducing recidivism rates(Blasko et al.,3)” When officers incorporate evidence-based practices in their supervision other than concentrating on compliance they are likely to improve success in reducing the rates of recidivism “( Blasko et al.,3). The probation agencies should manage compliance with releasing conditions on court-ordered conditions regardless of supervision.

Justice reinvestment can be used to reduce recidivism and the massive growth of incarceration in US prisons. The concept aims at promoting legislating reforms and managing costs to improve the criminal justice system’s effectiveness as one way of reducing recidivism and improving public safety. Justice reinvestment accentuates the need to assess offenders to address their individual treatment as they manage their public safety ” ( Sabol & Baumann 2020 pg. 319)Justice reinvestment aims at reducing mass incarceration and develop capacity to the affected communities”. Through justice reinvestment policies, the funds for imprisonment can easily flow from state to local communities to manage offenders locally. In the United Kingdom, justice reinvestment focuses on reducing reoffending rates and not necessarily on community reinvestment. Justice reinvestment initiatives aim at reserving prison space for individuals who commit severe and violent crimes or those posing high public risks. A community-oriented approach that was the original appeal on justice reinvestment should aim to rearrange the relationship between corrections systems and communities. This approach should address implementation and funding challenges to reduce large populations in prison and recidivism rates.

Community-based programs are very effective in reducing the rates of recidivism. Regardless of fundamental programs and services, the correctional facilities lack the knowledge and resources to deal with recidivism. However, through the guidance of social workers and other professionals, community-based programs can provide services that should increase effective community reentry for ex-offenders. Notably, community-based agencies should provide continuous care in prisons, and thus social workers should collaborate with probation officers to address barriers related to high rates of recidivism. Community-based programs targeting to minimize recidivism and increasing ex-offender success can help if offenders are directly involved in the services. Community programs aim at strengthening and restoring positive social ties (Weisburd et al.,2017 422). These programs target certain risk factors directly engaged with offenders and prevent them from committing future crimes. Proactive engagement with law enforcement officers and civic partners promotes legitimacy and develops social cohesion and are some of the most effective approaches to mobilizing communities against committing crimes.

Summing up, recidivism is a crucial feature while considering primary criminal justice topics, including rehabilitation, specific deterrence, and incapacitation. Evidence-based supervision is likely to reduce recidivism if it is well established through need assessment tools. Through justice reinvestment policies, the funds for imprisonment can easily flow from state to local communities to manage offenders locally. The community-oriented approach, which was the original appeal on justice reinvestment, should aim to rearrange the relationship between corrections systems and communities. Community-based agencies should provide continuous care in prisons, and thus social workers should collaborate with probation officers to address barriers related to high rates of recidivism.

 Understanding Gun Violence

In the criminal justice system, gun violence is a crime committed using firearms, including shotguns, pistols, machine guns and assault rifles. Notably, gun violence threatens the basic human right to life. It is a tragedy affecting people’s lives all over the world. Everyone can be a victim of gun violence, but it disproportionately affects people of color, women, and marginalized communities under certain conditions. Gun violence is a complex, urgent, and multifaceted problem that requires evidence-based solutions. Additionally, prevention efforts supported by developmental risk research can reduce the rates at which firearms are introduced into the community. Minimizing gun violence incidents that arise from criminal misconduct is one of the significant goals of the broad intervention strategies. Urban gun violence happens mostly around small networks of individuals who generate a share of both fatal and non-fatal shootings. To understand gun violence, it is important to be familiar with gun markets, social costs, gun availability, and the concept of instrumentality.

Gun Markets

Legal firearms business comprises new and second guns. The sale is made through Federal Firearms Licenses. The majority of states in the US do not keep gun transfer records, and criminal background checks are not required. This means prohibited people exploit loopholes to acquire firearms, thus increasing rates of gun violence. Gun markets help to understand how cartels acquire firearms and the illegal procedures they use. State data from intermediate transfers indicates that most guns are illegally diverted using unregulated market sources. ” Iron Pipeline” is of the significant gun-running routes where most guns are recovered in large numbers, particularly in New England and Middle Atlantic states(Braga et al .,2021,598). The underground gun market, which serves prohibited persons in disadvantaged neighborhoods, is characterized with considerable frictions because of inadequate information about stable gun sources. Guns recovered in Brooklyn, and Newyork are medium handguns and semiautomatic pistols. The local “brokers” is one of the common markets where offenders obtain gains ( Braga et al .,2021 605). The brokers usually have direct connections with established gun traffickers who operate in other states and place large orders of firearms. The illegal transfer of guns is associated with high transaction costs. This is because the criminals acquire recent guns less than six months before arrests for their current crimes. Law enforcement should make low–level transactions within the underground markets to make it hard for criminals to acquire guns.

Social Costs

In the United States, when criminals are charged with gun violence, it is difficult to defend or even avoid the injustice system. There are threats of gun violence that puts the country under social burdens. Gun violence affects communities which engenders and promotes costly avoidance activities. For example, kids exposed to gun violence experience psychological problems and perform poorly in school. Parents suffer from blood pressure while keeping their children safe from bullets. Notably, gun violence is not only a public problem but also an urban disamenity. The costs of gun assaults and homicide are relative to suicide and sometimes are associated with devastating emotional impacts. The concept of social costs cannot ignore in understanding the impacts of gun violence in the community. “Victim count is poor guide toward social costs of mass shootings in schools”( Cook 2020 p. 1377). These tragic and vivid events usually create some kind of stress for parents and lead to huge investment in protecting school children

Guns Availability

For cases of gun violence to be reported, guns should be available. Therefore, gun availability helps in understanding the root causes of gun violence in society. In the US, federal law prohibits most adults from possessing and owning guns. It means that efforts to keep guns away from criminals through regulating transactions are difficult to implement. The availability of guns in society has a major influence on weapon choices while preventing violent crimes. The rates of gun violence are different, and this is affected by gun availability. The availability of guns means “Immediate access”( Cook 2020, p.1378). There is a lack of strong consensus that police controls directed against illegal firearms could reduce crimes, particularly in hot spots.

Instrumentality

The concept of instrumentality is related to gun violence. It justifies concerns about gun homicide which is a major problem. Instrumentality also justifies policies that intend to separate guns from violent acts, like legal restrictions for carrying guns in public. The concept of instrumentality helps to understand the causal impacts of firearms. If gun shootings are associated with small-calibre acts, homicide acts are likely to reduce. This is an example of a measure of instrumentality in any interpersonal violence. Any type of weapon usually matters in criminal violence, including whether the victims die or remain alive. Notably, guns are considered the most lethal weapons meaning the most powerful guns are likely to lead to massive destruction. “Guns don’t kill people, people kill people” is one of the misleading quotes about the power of weapons ( Cook 2020,p.1376). Guns used during a violent crime are more prevalent in the US compared to other developed nations.

 Crime Prevention Strategies

Policies and programs to prevent crime should include police making early arrests to deal with dangerous gangs, implementing court sanctions for securing the correctional facility and advocating for death penalties. It is important to develop effective crime prevention strategies to develop a safe society. Notably, crime prevention is one way of reducing crime in society. Crime prevention consists of measures and strategies to reduce levels of crime and potential impacts like fear of crime using interventions. There are four significant crime prevention approaches: developmental, situational, community, and criminal justice strategies.

Developmental Strategies

Developmental crime strategies prevent anti-social behaviors among children and adolescents. Programs based on developmental strategies are different from physical and situational prevention since they emphasize incapacitation, rehabilitation, and deterrence ( Weisburd et al.,2017 419). Notably, developmental strategies are concerned with risk factors before the occurrence of crime. Developmental prevention strategies use the scientific method to guide the provision of resources for people and communities to address some of the conditions likely to give rise to crime and anti-social behaviors before these problems become entrenched. Developmental prevention programs reduce rates of crime and aggression. From a developmental perspective, criminal acts in children and adolescents are influenced by attitudinal and behavioral patterns learned as people develop. Parental training programs help children change their behaviors and participate less in criminal activities. Developmental programs aim at training children and adolescents in social skills by targeting risk factors like egocentrism, impulsivity, and low empathy.

Situational Crime Strategies

Situational crime strategies focus on the setting where criminal acts happen. These strategies do not necessarily aim to improve institutions or communities but reduce criminal activities. Notably, reducing crime opportunities can be achieved using manipulation and modification of the physical environment that affects offender perspectives about increased risks to crime. Situational interventions are usually based on several approaches, including reducing excuses, decreasing the rewards, and minimizing provocations to criminal activities. Some of the activities and programs implemented through situational intervention include street lighting, circuit television cameras and counter-terrorism measures. All these activities aim to reduce crime rates, particularly in marginalized communities ( Weisburd et al.,2020 422). Situational prevention measures have been effectively used to prevent and reduce cybercrime by increasing risks for apprehension and detection of offenders. Moreover, situational strategies concentrate on the possibility of the occurrence of cybercrime. The crime measures are implemented since it is assumed that threats are likely to materialize the actions to be taken accordingly. Situational prevention measures aim at detecting, responding to, and recovering cyber security incidents.

Community Intervention Strategies

Community programs are usually designed to restore and strengthen positive social ties linked to criminal activities. Notably, some effective programs usually target certain risk factors for teenagers within the community. Proactive engagement and general deterrence programs are considered the most ineffective approaches to reducing crime. The primary mechanisms for effective community programs are efforts that promote supportively and informal social controls for maintaining social bonds. The strategies accentuate the significance of neighborhood composition to determine rates of crimes by specifying communities and regions with high levels of transience. The community programs are very costly, but they have been effective in reducing crime rates, particularly in marginalized communities. Community crime prevention uses several strategies, starting with civic engagement and empowering people in response to crime issues in the surrounding neighborhood ( Weisburd et al.,2017 420). Community prevention programs should be inclusive and include key shareholders in the society who understands the root causes of crime activities.

Criminal Justice Strategies

Criminal justice prevention strategies focus on programs for the general offenders within the correctional settings. Some of the programs reviewed within criminal systems include cognitive and psychosocial behaviors. The strategies should concentrate on developing strategic enforcement that requires limited resources. It begins with collaborating with state, federal and local enforcement partners to understand the primary causes of crime activities. Through this strategy, parole authorities, prosecutors and probation officers are involved in providing the available information and intelligence to evaluate violent crime challenges. The law enforcement partners determine the effective strategies to prevent crime by acknowledging efforts from different parties.

Summing up, crime prevention consists of measures and strategies to reduce levels of crime and potential impacts like fear of crime using interventions. Developmental prevention strategies use the scientific method to guide the provision of resources for people and communities to address some of the conditions likely to give rise to crime and anti-social behaviors before these problems become entrenched. Situational crime strategies focus on the setting where criminal acts happen. These strategies do not necessarily aim to improve institutions or communities but reduce criminal activities. Community crime prevention uses several strategies, starting with civic engagement and empowering people in response to crime issues in the surrounding neighborhood.

References

Blasko, B. L., Viglione, J., Taylor, L. R., & Taxman, F. S. (2021). Sorting Through the Evidence: A Step Toward Prioritization of Evidence-Based Community Supervision Practices. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 00938548211036474.

Braga, A. A., Brunson, R. K., Cook, P. J., Turchan, B., & Wade, B. (2021). Underground gun markets and the flow of illegal guns into the Bronx and Brooklyn: A mixed methods analysis. Journal of urban health98(5), 596-608.

Cook, P. J. (2020). Thinking about gun violence. Criminology & Public Policy19(4), 1371-1393.

Sabol, W. J., & Baumann, M. L. (2020). Justice reinvestment: Vision and practice. Annual Review of Criminology3, 317-339.

Weisburd, D., Farrington, D. P., & Gill, C. (2017). What works in crime prevention and rehabilitation: An assessment of systematic reviews. Criminology & Public Policy16(2), 415-449.

Correlation Between Aggression And Boxing In A Psychological Study Free Sample

Abstract

Boxing whose rules and conventions tolerate and even encourage violence and aggressiveness. This study looks at the importance and meaning that male boxers make of the violence and aggression that they choose to express and experience in the particular context of boxing, where such behavior is permitted. For data gathering and analysis, the qualitative technique was applied. A semi-structured interview with twelve male boxers was conducted, which was led by the literature and research question but also permitted an in-depth investigation of the boxers’ viewpoints and experiences. Thematic analysis was utilized to evaluate and arrange the data into coherent patterns that were consistent with previous research. The most acknowledged subject was violence and aggression. Boxers employed excuses, rationalizations, and avoidance to weaken boxing’s brutality and aggressiveness, promoting the sport’s societal legitimacy and even profit. The boxing image promotes the dominant macho male ideal by endowing boxers with power and prestige (Zhou, 2021). Men might well be interested in boxing because of its good, macho qualities, as well as the communal admiration it creates. Boxing is a distinctive cultural arena in which physical aggressiveness and brutality represent masculine strength. Many people love the sport because of the explicit violence and physical risks involved. People cheer and love the violent players. You cannot separate boxing from aggression. For one to be called a good boxer, one must be aggressive.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Social psychologists describe aggression as a behavior with the intent to harm another individual. Since it involves the perception of intent, what one may see as aggression may be different from another view of point.

A study performed on boxers’ activity culture discovered that the aggressiveness of boxers in Boxing is characterized by aggression and violence (Jump, 2021). The aggressive nature of the sport is what makes the fans love boxing, from the body movements, and perfect combinations to knockouts. The sport legitimizes aggressiveness through rules and norms to a point where a boxer can murder an opponent within the boundaries of the sport. Norms and applicable legislation that constitute aggressive behavior are controversial aspects that nearly all researchers believe are significant in the psychological study of aggressive behavior. Psychology has long been opposed to boxing, owing to the catastrophic head traumas incurred by boxers. However, it provides a unique environment for researching aggressiveness and violence in the violent context of boxing.

Researchers argue that some norms and legitimacy are essential components of the aggressive expression. It is said, for one to be a good boxer, one needs to be aggressive to beat his opponent. Most violent boxers are viewed as iconic public heroes. They are celebrated for their aggressiveness. The authorization of violence and hostility in sports has sparked heated controversy. Boxing continues to have widespread societal acceptance. The Hatton-Pacquiao battle drew a sellout attendance of 16,000 spectators. The US Boxing Association awarded Pacquiao more than $20 million as the knockout winner.

A study performed on professional boxers found out that the aggressiveness involved in the sport is projected in life toward the opponent. Brutal deeds and serious damage inflicted on the opponent are justified, and remorse and sorrow are avoided, which might harm the boxer’s confidence and diminish aggressive performance. This strategy is used to absolve the fighter of guilt for aggressive and violent conduct. Boxers utilize self-generated reactions, but these reflexes are highly coached and regulated. Tyson has been compared to a machine, both inside and outside the arena, with no sympathy or sorrow. This comparison of the male boxer helps to box’s robust image while also serving to legitimize violence and aggressive behavior. However, aggressive conduct is not the primary goal; to succeed, boxers must be forced to produce the proper balance of emotional management, confidence, and strength.

Dominant psychological thinking and theory depict violence as an internal trait that belongs to and is ultimately controlled by the individual. However, no agreement on a uniform definition of aggressiveness has been found. Norms and legitimacy, in particular, are debated as crucial contextual variables in interpreting aggressiveness. The primary principles of aggressiveness can be internalized through one being’s purpose to inflict damage on another who is moved to prevent such harm. The validity and acceptability of aggressive behavior that corresponds to the sport’s specific regulations and norms are important in identifying and classifying aggressiveness in sport.

Thus, general psychological definitions of hostility are inadequate in the context of sports. Aggression is accepted as a normal and even necessary aspect of sports (Jump, 2021). Aggression in sports is defined as intense defensive and proactive forces utilized to obtain an edge in the game. The contrast between reactive and instrumental aggressiveness is a violent response in which a player’s anger is motivated by the desire to inflict unnecessary harm on an opponent is referred to as reactive aggression. Anger is not linked to instrumental aggressiveness, but it is likely to motivate uninvited (reactive) aggressive behavior (Zhou, 2021). Controlling one’s wrath is important in instrumental aggression, in which aggressiveness is actively channeled to achieve a goal.

Boxing, by definition, involves and promotes violence and aggressiveness. The most aggressive boxers become heroic public figures, adored and praised for their ferocity (Zhou, 2021). Boxing trivializes the societal consequences of violence while avoiding accountability for its inherently violent nature. It is a rare social setting in which aggressiveness is tolerated and violence is encouraged.

Boxing has been compared to military training in which the boxer’s body and mind are conditioned to function like machines. The famed boxing figure ‘Iron Mike’ (Tyson) has been compared to a machine devoid of sympathy and remorse. In boxing, aggression is believed to be a tactic utilized by the fighter to obtain a competitive edge.

Sports psychology has begun to investigate the nature of boxing to develop performance-enhancing therapies. Rather than being furious, controlling emotions and aggressive conduct appear to be crucial to boxers’ competitive performance. Psychology has avoided engagement in this blood sport due to the physical implications for boxers as well as the aggressive mentality underpinning it (Payman et al., 2018). The social and psychological acceptance of a violent sport like boxing may normalize and support masculine aggression and physical dominance.

Sports psychology has begun to investigate the nature of boxing to develop performance-enhancing therapies. Rather than being furious, controlling emotions and aggressive conduct appear to be crucial to boxers’ competitive performance (Lee et al., 2019). Psychology has avoided engagement in this blood sport due to the physical implications for boxers as well as the aggressive mentality underpinning it. The social and psychological acceptance of a violent sport like boxing may normalize and support masculine aggression and physical dominance.

Chapter 2: Methodology

Design

This research studies how different boxers and people understand aggressiveness and violence in boxing. To capture the boxers’ understanding in-depth, we used the qualitative approach where semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis were applied. A qualitative design made it easy to explore the psychological phenomena of aggression.

A qualitative design that draws on respondents’ knowledge and experiences while considering the researcher’s involvement in the interpretation of data is the best way for studying aggressiveness.

Participants and materials

The study involved male boxers. Semi-structured interviews not longer than an hour were conducted on five male boxers and recorded. The interview questions were formulated in line with the research objective. The interviews were free-flowing, conversational, and focused on addressing the main questions. The two, interviewer and interviewee engaged in a conversational like manner and the interviewee was not limited or restricted on the information to disclose. The interviews were recorded on tape with the interviewees’ consent and later transcribed and analyzed. Notes were also taken during the interviews.

The boxers were sampled from different gyms across major cities. Emails were sent to the boxing gym in the cities and we received a few responses. Four out of the twelve boxers conducted their interviews at public places such as parks, KFC, and coffee shops), three wised that the interviews would be conducted at their residential place while the rest of the boxers conducted the interviews at the gym.

Procedure

Participation in the interviews was voluntary and consent forms were signed by the interviewee to give informed consent for recording and participation in the research. The interview questions were unstructured to enable the interviewee to express themselves freely and not limit them to certain information. Upon finishing the interview, if there were anything that the interviewee was willing to share, they shared the information freely.

Thematic analysis is a versatile qualitative method that aids in the creation of a thorough and complicated description of the facts. Transcribing the data from the audiotape recordings of the interviews allowed for an informal assessment of the information and knowledge gathered in the interviews. The importance of reflexivity is emphasized in qualitative research, which acknowledges the researcher’s participation in data gathering and interpretation.

The research was particularly interested in violence and hostility in boxing. The boxers’ experiences and perceptions of aggression and violence serve as the analysis’s initial subject (Payman et al., 2018). The examination of power and status in and around boxing was recognized as critical to understanding the sport’s brutality.

The significance that boxers attributed to their violence and aggressiveness is essential to this study question. Violence and aggression are major issues in the study of boxers’ attitudes and experiences with their sport (Lee et al., 2019). The boxer’s approach to the problem is characterized by three sub-themes: avoidance of confronting violence, focus on the management of aggression and fury, and frequent rationalizations and excuses for the violence.

Results and discussion

Violence and aggression are major issues in the study of boxers’ perceptions and experiences with their sport. Most of the fighters avoided openly addressing the issue of violence and hostility, instead of focusing on the technicalities and highlighting the scientific character of boxing. They talked about how important it is to think and strategize in the ring. The boxers used emotionally neutralizing phrases to describe their experiences, which may be seen as an attempt to remove themselves from the emotional and psychological aspects of seeing violence and aggressiveness.

References

Jump, D. (2021). The criminology of boxing, violence and desistance. Policy Press.

Zhou, N. (2021). Re-imagining the Boxer Rebellion: popular culture’s engagement with colonialism, anti-imperialism, and identities (Doctoral dissertation).

Tiric-Campara M, Tupkovic E, Mazalovic E, Karalic E, Biscevic M, Djelilovic-Vranic J, Alajbegovic A. Correlation of aggressiveness and anxiety in fighting sports. Med Arch. 2012;66(2):116-21.

Halperin, I, Chapman DW, Thompson KG, Abbiss C. False-performance feedback does not affect punching forces and pacing of elite boxers. J Sports Sci. 2019 Jan;37(1):59-66. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1482526. Epub 2018 Jun 4. PMID: 29863966.

Lee B, Bennett LL, Bernick C, Shan G, Banks SJ. The Relations Among Depression, Cognition, and Brain Volume in Professional Boxers: A Preliminary Examination Using Brief Clinical Measures. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2019 Nov/Dec;34(6):E29-E39.

Payman V, Yates S, Cullum S. Early onset dementia in New Zealand Pacific boxers: a case series. N Z Med J. 2018 May 4;131(1474):20-26. PMID: 29723175.