This part entails that culture is a distinct feature that distinguishes a community, individual, or group of individuals from others. Cultural traits or elements have been conveyed from one group to another due to people’s interaction and socialization. However, four critical ways of transmission can be identified: cultural appropriation, cultural assimilation, acculturation, and, lastly, the cultural interchange(The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica). The other three ways, unlike cultural appropriation, entail mutual permission and understanding, and as a result, they are widely accepted. The use of ideas, artifacts, expressions, and intellectual property rights without authorization has been termed cultural appropriation(Balint et al., 2020).
Nguyen and Strohl’s Perspective on Cultural Appropriation
What is an ‘expressive’ charge of appointment? From the start, the distinguishing feature of ‘expressive’ allotment claims appears to be that they stand without the need for explanation,’ are ‘not commonly open to coordinate contestation,’ and are not ‘accessible for contention’ (Nguyen and Strohl, 2019, p. 984). Nguyen and Strohl contrast ‘freely grounded’ allotment claims with those that admit to supporting the (putative) approach of realities free of actual cases and that can be conjured to give comprehensively consequentialist reasoning to not participating in the kind of style appointment in question.
Indeed, even articulations given immediate gathering concerns are ‘freely moored,’ as Nguyen and Strohl put it (2019, p. 984): they are established in realities about bunch closeness that are autonomous of our perspectives about them. Subsequently, a gathering might be misguided about where the limits of its gathering closeness lay. Consequently, it is wrong to accept that a confirmed break of such correspondence has happened because of a style allocation act.
Why may Black women wear straight and light weaves, but non-Black women cannot wear cornrows or braids? What appears to be a complicated subject of cultural allocation and beauty is simpler than you might think. The Tignon Laws of the eighteenth century are arguably the earliest known examples of legal oppression of Black hair, but it did not end there (Strohl et al., 2019). You’d be surprised to learn that legal victimization of ordinary hair continues today, with the most recent examples standing out as truly newsworthy in 2021.
Cultural appropriation in Natural Hair
The presentation of splendor through haircuts has always been associated with people of color. Black women use their haircuts to address the shift of Black culture over time, from the “afro” to hair wraps and twists. As a result of this evolution, an increasing number of Black women embrace the natural beauty of their hair. Whatever the case may be, it isn’t without its share of banter. Excellence, particularly hair, has long been a source of contention in Black culture, dating back to the Civil Rights Movement and beyond (Williams 2019).
The Kardashians are an example of cultural appropriation. They exploit black culture (and other cultures) as accessories to look nice in front of the camera and the public. Big lips, a tiny waist, a fat butt, dreadlocks, hairstyles, and clothes are all factors(Ibarra 2017). In our generation, we also regard it as a fad or “new style.” When we see a black lady with dreadlocks, we immediately think “filthy,” “disrespectful,” “ugly,” and “crazy.” Kyle Kardashian, on the other hand, has dreadlocks and is described as “pretty,” “goals,” “sexy,” “queen,” and “clean” by the public(“The Cultural Appropriation of Natural Hair” 2016).
.Kylie Jenner was credited with spearheading a ‘tense’ new hair pattern, while Zendaya, a black actress, was chastised for doing likewise. Interestingly Zendaya’s normal hair was seen as a defect. In any case, Kylie Jenner, who has no connections to the people of color, was credited with taking something that wasn’t hers.
Natural hair is attractive not because another culture has sanctioned it. It’s stunning because black ladies who choose to wear their hair naturally are stunning. We have a responsibility to call out cultural appropriation when we witness it. This is about more than just hair; it’s also about history. We should praise black women’s efforts to break away from the time-consuming techniques involved in making their hair look more like the images of beauty forcefully conveyed in the media. Now that black women are beginning to reflect the ideas of powerful black heroines from the past, I believe it is a time to rejoice.
Matthes’s Perspective on Cultural Appropriation
Contra to Erich Hatala Matthes, I do not believe that appropriations regarding group closeness can provide regularizing avocations to style allocation. Matthes (2019, pp. 1007, 1009) argues that group closeness can make such justifications unconvincing. Thus, he prefers a record of expressive appointment guarantees with a different standardizing force source (2019, p. 1007); as indicated by Matthes, “what bases expressive apportionment claims” is “verifiable and continuous abuse persevered by certain networks, autonomous of contemplations of closeness” (2019, p. 1009). ‘The way they come from abused groups is the regularizing ground for expressive apportionment claims,’ he proceeds.
The way that it ‘seems to infer that any culture can have an honor of intimacy, as indicated by Matthes, grounds such contemplations (2019, p. 1009). On the off chance that this entailment holds, when we acknowledge that there are conditions where a groups intimacy gives ace tanto regularizing motivations to keep its allotment claims, we have no other option except to perceive that the Ku Klux Klan’s gathering closeness accomplishes the same thing (2019, p. 1009)
We agree with Nguyen and Strohl that we should not consider group members obligated to litigate justification concerns when making appropriation claims. This is self-evident or impolite to ask for one. The practice of cultural appropriation is damaging and dangerous. It is not a path to cross-cultural understanding. This isn’t to suggest that we shouldn’t be cautious about adopting activities from other cultures or altering prejudices and learning about disadvantaged people.
Ibarra, Rosa. 2017. “Beyoncé and Coldplay Found Guilty for Using Cultural Appropriation in Their Music Video.” Medium. March 28, 2017. https://medium.com/applied-intersectionality/beyonc-and-coldplay-found-guilty-for-using-cultural-appropriation-in-their-music-video-89da9a8c7ac8.
Lenard, P. T., & Balint, P. (2020). What is (the wrong of) cultural appropriation?. Ethnicities, 20(2), 331-352.
Nguyen, C. T., & Strohl, M. (2019). Cultural appropriation and the intimacy of groups. Philosophical Studies, 176(4), 981-1002.
“The Cultural Appropriation of Natural Hair.” 2016. HuffPost. September 7, 2016. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-cultural-appropriation-of-natural-hair_b_57cf2cb3e4b0273330ab127e.
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. n.d. “What Is Cultural Appropriation? | Britannica.” Www.britannica.com. https://www.britannica.com/story/what-is-cultural-appropriation#:~:text=Culturalappropriationtakesplacewhen.
Williams, Ashleigh. 2019. “The Connection between Hair and Identity in Black Culture.” C+R Research. 2019. https://www.crresearch.com/blog/connection-between-hair-and-identity-black-culture.
Culture And Conflict Reflection Essay Essay Example For College
Children of mixed-race parents face more difficulties than those from a similar race. Biracial children are born from parents who come from two distinctive races. These children face the challenges of racial identity where they are forced to conform to a one race and neglect the other. Therefore, this article seeks to expound on the primary causes of their problems, the effects of negative experiences they face, and strategies to improve conditions for biracial children.
Primary Causes of Problems for Biracial Children
Social identity helps society classify one with various characteristics; however, being biracial poses a challenge to them. Biracial or multiracial children may face pressure to conform to one ethnic identity and dismiss or denounce the other (Weaver & Block, (2020). In the past, one’s race determined how one would be treated as their skin color gave them their social identity. White people were considered top priority where they were primarily landowners, while the Blacks were enslaved. Parents with multiracial children find it hard to socialize with their children in society. They must equip their children for the societal obstacles that their racial ancestry may bring. At times the child may pass as white, and therefore they will be given some privilege, unlike black children. Thus, the child may be forced to dismiss their black heritage due to those privileges.
Multiracial children also face victimization in school, especially from their peers. Biracial children and adolescents are subjected to peer victimization due to their skin color (Hong et al., 2022). Racist slurs, negative cultural references, and race-based teasing are all common among these children. Their peers believe they are a mistake as there are from the other races. Because their peers perceive the biracial youngster ass white, they think that it will be okay to make racially insensitive comments that are insulting to their black ancestry. Thus, the child is demoralized as they think part of their identity is not being respected.
Biracial children face systemic racism due to their mixed ethnic background. Systemic racism occurs when unequal opportunities or services are provided to all members of society (Banaji et al., 2021). It is hard for a rigid society to put biracial children in a box; therefore, these people suffer from social exclusion or isolation. The majority of these youngsters are discriminated against in both public and private organizations. Several institutions do not allow multiracial children to fill out demographic forms with more than one race. Therefore, these children end up missing out on opportunities in these institutions.
The Effects of Negative Experiences on Biracial Children
Racially mixed children experience adverse effects due to systematic racism that often causes them to be victimized. Low self-esteem, depression, poor metabolic control, cardiovascular disease, and obesity are all common outcomes of racial prejudice (Choi, K. H., and Reichman, N. E., 2019). Racists’ slurs toward children often demoralize their self-perception, thus diminishing their self-worth. These children will sometimes be spit on, physically harmed, or frequently wrongly profiled by the police. Such acts could cause trauma which, if not mitigated early enough, could cause depression and anxiety. In severe cases, depression and anxiety could lead to suicide.
Strategies to Improve Conditions for Biracial Children
Various strategies could be adopted to help biracial children overcome their negative experiences. Biracial parents could strive to help their children create healthy identities (Do & Countryman, 2008). Identity formation is a process that often evolves around reflection and observation where an individual contemplates how others perceive them and how they view themselves. Therefore, parents with biracial children could help them find their identity in society by explaining their ancestry. This will help the children appreciate their origin, thus, giving them the confidence to stand proud as a unique group.
The government could introduce multicultural education into the school curriculum. Multicultural education is a reform movement aimed at changing the academic organizations so that students from diverse cultural and racial backgrounds share a common outlook on life and exploit various opportunities in those institutions (Slamet et al., 2021). Multicultural education helps students appreciate the mixed races in the school system. Students will learn that people come from various works of life, and therefore it would be wrong to discriminate against one due to their race. Understanding diversity will also help reduce the racist slurs often directed at biracial children. Introducing multicultural education in the school curriculum will also influence the government to raise the biracial option in school form. Therefore, these children will be given a chance to exploit opportunities awarded to other races.
Potential Opposing Viewpoints
However, some studies have dispelled the allegation that biracial children face challenges compared to children from parents of similar races. Research found that children raised with a legitimate multiracial or diverse identity are often happy than minors raised with a particular ethinicity (American Academy of Children & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2016). Children with parents of white and Asian ancestry are at an advantage compared to those from the Asian community. They often pass as whites, and thus society will disregard their Asian origin. They will not be classified with other minority groups, and therefore they will get to enjoy opportunities and privileges meant for white people.
In conclusion, biracial children encounter various challenges, unlike children from parents with a similar racial origin. At most, they are wrongly profiled by society and forced to choose one racial identity at the expense of the other. This is detrimental to them as their perception often changes to fit society’s view of themselves. Therefore, parents with biracial children should help them create their own identity that helps them stand out as a unique group compared to other races.
American Academy of Children & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2016). Multiracial children. https://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/FFFGuide/Multiracial-Children-071.aspx
Banaji, M., Fiske, S., & Massey, D. (2021). Systemic racism: individuals and interactions, institutions and society. Cognitive Research: Principles And Implications, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-021-00349-3
Choi, K. H., and Reichman, N. E. (2019). The health of biracial children in two-parent families in the United States. Demographic Research, 41(98), 197-230.
Do, R. H. and Countryman, J. (2008). Biracial identity development and recommendations in therapy. Psychiatry, 5(11), 37–44.
Hong, J. S., Yan, Y., Espelage, D. L., Tabb, K. M., Caravita, S. C., & Voisin, D. R. (2022). Peer victimization and adverse psychosocial wellbeing of Black/White biracial adolescents: Is ease of talking with family a protective buffer? School Psychology Review, 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/2372966X.2022.2034474
Slamet, S., Agustiningrum, M., Soelistijanto, R., Handayani, D., Widiastuti, E., & Hakasi, B. (2021). The Urgency of Multicultural Education for Children. Universal Journal Of Educational Research, 9(1), 60-66. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2021.090107
Weaver, J. Block, A. M. (2020). Identity development in biracial children: contextual factors from social work keystone. Journal of Undergraduate Research 7(1): 13-22. 2020
Cultures And Values Sample Assignment
Culture is an essential aspect that governs how different societies in the world conduct their day-to-day activities. There is a need to understand and appreciate the comparison between different cultures, such as their beliefs, life experiences, and even the type of governance, language, type of sporting activities, and aspects regarded as either moral or immoral in the society. The interaction between different communities has led to an exchange of cultural practices, which has brought about cultural diversification. An example of such cultural interaction is between African and American people. These two societies have an abundance of cultural practices shared within several generations without losing their importance. Considering the enormous history these two share, it is essential to evaluate the cultural distinctions between these two continents and provide recommendations that encourage intercontinental integration.
Religion serves as a guide in many cultures. It establishes the framework for human existence by laying the groundwork for the emergence of societal laws. Various ceremonies within cultures result from the guidance and the teachings of religious organizations. Abrahamic faiths account for the majority of religion within African populations. Sub-Saharan Africa has the most Christians, whereas the northern region has the most Muslims. Missionaries are the ones who brought the Christian faith to Africa during the pre-colonial period. People were forced to convert to Christianity during the era of colonization or be enslaved. The spread of the Islamic religion in North Africa was due to their exposure to trade and invasion. America also shares the same religious statistics (Sibani, 56-72). Most Americans, particularly those in the north, are Christians. America was also colonized by European countries, which promoted the Christian religion. Americans celebrate religious occasions such as Easter and Christmas just like their African counterparts.
African and American Christians share similar aspects of religion, such as having priests and tricksters and utilizing herbal remedies as a powerful tool. They both believe in the presence of an extraterrestrial being. Faith is linked with their way of life such that everything is influenced by it. They have a close bond with supernatural beings, believing in life after death. The Native Americans had a religion and believed in the existence of the Great Spirit before Christianity arrived in America, and it was based on nature and mainly animals (Wuthnow, 49). They fasted and caused harm to themselves to build courage in their search for the spirit companion, an animal. They believed that spirits were responsible for bad weather, sicknesses, and diseases. They had a close bond with nature and urged their fellow men to live in balance with nature. They conducted rituals and sacrifices to honour the gods. They had unique places such as the mountains and forests where they went to worship and appease their gods.
Another method of determining a person’s culture is the type of food they take. Food plays a vital role in both American and African cultures. Celebrations in Africa were identified by the presence and abundance of food from many cuisines. African countries save chickens, cows, and goats in large numbers (Hlongwane, 22). These formed part of food since the pre-colonial days. Celebrations had different kinds of meats for special occasions. African ceremonies were based on the butchering of chickens and goats. The meat was eaten together with vegetables. Most Africans practised hunting and gathering in the pre-colonial period. Their staple food was mainly animal meat, but they later found vegetables and fruits that could be cooked quickly and supplemented their diet. Africans used to drink and consume raw beef; however, they modified their ways with the Europeans’ arrival and started cooking their meals before consuming them.
Americans followed a comparable diet with a high quantity of animal meat. Americans also mix white and red meat like their African counterparts. They reared turkeys and butchered them for particular events or celebrations. Chicken is also a feature of American meals, just like the Africans. The demand for fish and seafood is high in America, and they are included in their regular diets, the same as Africans (Bessey, 153). The majority of Americans eat three meals every day, including breakfast, lunch, and supper. Snacking is still a popular way of eating for Americans, while Africans prefer taking wild fruits as snacks in most cases. Eating at different times of the day is a culture shared by both Africans and Americans. Contrary to the Hindus who eat just vegetables, Americans and Africans combine meat and veggies.
Africa contains nearly 2000 different languages, making it the world’s most linguistically diverse continent. Africans used their local languages during the pre-colonial period for communication but pursued the help of translators during trading activities. They used traditional methods such as smoke signals for communication whenever there were language barriers (Kaschula, 58). Various colonists left different languages in different sections of the continent, resulting in one of the most linguistically varied societies. Africa mainly employs English and French as the formal languages when engaging in international dealings. A significant portion of Africa operated under the rule of the French and Britain. These two countries assimilated locals and forced them to understand their languages. Those countries have since maintained the colonizer’s language and used it as a de facto language in transacting business activities. Swahili is now the most commonly and extensively used indigenous language in Africa. The language arose from the interaction between the Bantus and the Arabs along the East African coast.
America also has a wide range of languages, just like Africa. They conduct business activities in Spanish and English, but English is the de facto language. Colonizers persuaded the locals to relinquish their speeches favouring the Queen. Immigrants to Latin America contributed to the growth of the Spanish language. America, like Africa, has a shared sign language that they employ to conquer the linguistic obstacles (King, 300). Unlike the Americans, who have a distinctive English language, Africans combine British and American English. Due to present globalization, both continents have a lot of conformity in language. Lastly, slang languages exist in America and Africa that locals only understand. Based on the linguistic use and change of critical English and French terms, the American vowel expression is comparable and similar to that used in Africa. British supremacists’ invasion of these continents resulted in the widespread usage of vowels and key English terms.
Kings throughout the pre-colonial era ruled African countries. Apart from a few countries, pre-colonial Africa had a governance system safeguarding its citizens against extremist violence. The arrival of colonialists carried a democratic political structure with them, with democratically elected governments ruling most countries. The government structure in democratic countries has three arms. They have the judiciary that interprets and protect the rule of law, the executive involved in enforcing policies and regulations, and the legislature involved in making laws. African countries have continued to adopt practical politics, in which the majority has the final word, but the minority has a say (Ricart-Huguet, 740). Swaziland and Morocco have maintained traditional African government institutions, with Swaziland being led by a king. Many African systems were forced to renounce their traditions, including governance, to adopt the British and European ways of leadership.
America has a similar governance structure to most African countries. They abolished their previous governance structure and embraced the British leadership style, complete with British culture and conventions. America is governed by a president who heads the states and the national government. The government system comprises the judiciary, which interprets the law, the executive, and the parliament, which makes the law (Tsai, 91). America’s system of government is similar to that of Africa, and the only difference is that America’s government has a robust democratic process, as opposed to African countries, where the people’s will is often disregarded. As a proper democracy, America has succeeded in establishing effective institutions, while its African peers attempt to draw beneficial lessons from the nation to advance other resemblance.
America has several issues that they regard as immoral and inappropriate in their societal structure. Morality is referred to as the acknowledged code of behaviour. The cornerstones of American character are based on the Ten Commandments, described in the Bible and taught by the Quran. Extramarital sex is considered unethical in the United States, and women who are found responsible are often stigmatized by society (Ikuenobe, 589). Americans feel that divorce is permissible as long as the individuals involved agree on their post-divorce lifestyle. Americans condemn suicide, and individuals found attempting to commit the act are usually imprisoned. Americans condemn polygamy as they advocate for one man, one woman. Drug misuse and misconduct are prohibited in American culture while under the influence of drugs.
Several issues are considered immoral in African society. In most African nations, prostitution is still sinful. Abortion falls under the same group of destructive behaviours prohibited in Africa, just as prostitution. Like those in the United States, African values are based on Christianity. Most African countries condemn suicide, unusual sexual behaviour, divorce, abortion, and premarital sex (Besong, 83). Africans prioritize human life, and acts of suicide are met with the worst possible societal scorn. Premarital sex is prohibited in African society, with women being tested immediately before marriage to ensure their purity. Virgins would get married as first wives, while the already broken ones would only get sympathetic marrying off to old widowers in the society. With time, the fundamentals of sexual preference have evolved, and many people now regard marrying someone of the same sex as a good thing. Africans continue to oppose same-sex marriage, believing it to be immoral.
Football and athletics are the most popular sports on the African continent. Sports have remained one of the continent’s most important sources of entertainment and revenue. Great African footballers and athletes have topped the podium and been lauded for their efforts across the world. Africans had a variety of sports before the arrival of the colonizers, including boat racing, boxing, and hunting (Andrew, 12630). New sporting activities have evolved in recent years, and Africans continue to make significant progress in the sports world. Other sports brought by Europeans have been tried by Africans, although they seldom achieve considerable success in the arenas. America also has some tremendous athletic activities that have helped place them on the map across the world. Football, basketball, and baseball are among America’s favourite sports. The mentality and fibre that drives American athletics are comparable to African nations.
In conclusion, culture and language are the foundations for determining a person’s way of life and the best method to approach them. An in-depth examination of the traditions of America and Africa discovered that the two continents have a shared past, making their cultures comparable from a broader viewpoint. European countries colonized America and Africa, with Britain taking the most significant piece of both continents. To improve understanding, the two continents should do cross-cultural research, embrace each other’s cultures, and pursue cultural exchange programs. Although the globe is varied, we have cultural and linguistic connections that we should acknowledge and embrace.
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