My cyber attack would involve evil twin phishing that occurs when a threat actor sets a fake Wi-Fi access point, intending that the public will connect to it rather than the real network. The target of the attack would be anyone who connects to the network. The plan is to set up the Wi-Fi network in a public and popular space experiencing people’s traffic, such as a strip mall or a coffee shop. People must provide personal details before fully connecting and enjoying the network. The attackers receive the information and then monitor the users to learn about their bank activities or any financial aspects intending to steal money.
The cyber-attack threat actors are non-state actors. Non-state actors undertake cyber-nature actions but are not involved with a nation-state. The group falls in the non-state actor’s category of cybercrime gangs and scammers since it uses the information connected to the Wi-Fi to steal from individuals. They pretend to offer legitimate Wi-Fi network connections, but in reality, they are after the users’ personal information, which can help them steal their money (Van Wegberg et al., 2018). The threat actors are financially motivated as they aim to gain personal information that can assist them in stealing money from the users’ accounts. The group should consist of experts in Wi-Fi settings and operations responsible for setting the Wi-Fi and its operations, financial analysts responsible for analyzing the financial information received and laundering money, and software developers responsible for developing all the software requirements to see the plan through.
For better execution of the plan, the threat actors would reside both domestically and internationally. The reason for residing internationally is a defensive measure to avoid being recognized. The best international country to reside in would be the one that is an enemy of the domestic country. This way, the attackers may utilize the weaknesses brought about by the lack of unity between the two countries. Residing domestically is helpful for the operation of Wi-Fi software (Rutherford, 2018). Wi-Fi can be stronger when the network providers are close to the public place. Also, collecting personal information must be immediate to avoid piling up and causing unwanted attention. All these reasons raise the need for some actors to reside domestically to execute the plan effectively.
The target population for the attack is the general public, every person connecting to the network at a coffee shop or a strip mall. People, especially the current generation, tend to connect to public networks to read online messages from WhatsApp, E-mail, Facebook, and other social media (Rutherford, 2018). Public networks are provided as a way of customer service, such as people can enjoy online entertainment when taking a cup of coffee or in any other public space. The target population ranges from young people to old ones with gadgets that can connect to a Wi-Fi network.
The plan involves luring people to use the free Wi-Fi network; in turn, the actors access the users’ personal information. Such a plan may fall into the fraud scheme method of attack (Rutherford, 2018). Fraud scheme attacks involve an enterprise or group of people tricking others into accessing their personal information, which they later use for personal benefits and financial gain. During signing in to the network, users are supposed to provide personal details, which the actors use to monitor the users’ financial activities hence determining the effective methods and the right people to steal money from.
Communication in carrying out the attack is essential for the attackers’ anonymity and the plan’s success. The threat actors are to ensure they use very secret mediums and do not store the messages between the actors. In a platform that stores the messages, they may later be retrieved, leading to their arrest and using the messages as evidence against them. To remain anonymous and avoid capture, the actors may adopt the various black web to enhance communication (Gilmour, 2014). Such dark webs are the sites that end with ‘onion,’ which cannot be accessed by a regular browser and require special software and encryption. The actors also develop untraceable banners that they can use when on the ground, updated daily to avoid tracing from other actors such as governments and private organizations.
The attack is only partially successful if the money stolen from the users has yet to be laundered into legitimate accounts. Here is where the financial experts’ abilities are tested. They are responsible for determining weaknesses in the financial system that the attackers can use to cash out after the large heist. The intention is to use untraceable money laundering techniques. The best way to launder money is through using front companies and cryptocurrencies (Lee et al., 2019). Using front companies involves choosing less risky businesses such as fishery, garment, seafood, and textile businesses. The businesses are used to obfuscate funds and in countries in East Asia that have unstrict and fewer regulations. With less government involvement, laundering becomes more accessible and faster.
On the other hand, cryptocurrency involves virtual or digital currency using cryptography to carry out transactions. Cryptocurrency is essential because it has no regulating authority or central issuing. It involves a peer-to-peer system enabling anybody to receive and send payments. Cryptocurrency includes Ethereum, Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ripple. The use of cryptocurrency is most effective for cybercriminals due to its anonymity and decentralized nature, making it challenging for the government to track the actors down. Transactions through such platforms do not require personal information, and due to this, the users remain anonymous and are hard to be tracked down (Gilmour, 2014). The transactions are also recorded on a public ledger that is not controlled by any government or central authority. Bitcoin would be the best cryptocurrency since it is the most popular, provides a high liquidity level, and is the most accepted on the dark web.
Money laundering aims to turn the proceeds into legitimate property or cash that can be used without raising any suspicion—there are three main phases of money laundering. The first phase is placement, including smurfing, false invoicing, cash businesses, aborted transactions, trust, offshore companies, and foreign bank accounts (Lee et al., 2019). The next phase is layering, which involves repeating the phase of placement and extraction repeatedly. In every layer, the criminals use different amounts to make tracing transactions as hard as possible (Gilmour, 2014). The final phase is extraction or integration, which involves getting money out into legitimate accounts that can be used without raising suspicion or attracting the regulator’s attention. The criminals always abide by taxes to make the laundering legitimate. It involves actions such as fake employees paid in cash, loans to directors that are never paid, and dividends paid to shareholders of organizations controlled by criminals.
One of the main challenges when executing the plan is gaining useful personal information to carry out the attacks. The challenge is determining personal details belonging to people with substantial money. Most public network users are middle- and lower-income earners with fewer savings, and all their salary is over even before it is received. Another challenge is the laundering process that involves so much risk of being noticed by the regulating bodies. Making the proceeds legitimate is the most crucial but challenging step in the plan. The target population is also well educated on the evil twin attacks, where they tend to avoid public networks and those marked as unsecure. Others have learned to use personal hotspots and disable Wi-Fi autosave. The users have adopted the use of VPN that encrypts the users’ data making it inaccessible to a third party (Yan et al., 2019). Another defense mechanism adopted is the use of two-factor authentication that is required at any login, making it hard for attackers to access one’s accounts even if they have personal information such as passwords and usernames. The target public ensures they use HTTPS sites that have end-to-end encryption. The encryption prevents the attackers from seeing and monitoring web page activities. By using those sites, the hackers cannot monitor the users’ financial aspects, hence have no way to determine ways to exploit the users.
The anticipated reaction by the public is the complaint and cry to the government and other regulatory bodies to recover their money. There will be a public cry that may force the government to react swiftly. For this reason, it is advisable to complete the process as fast as possible to avoid detection by government agencies (Yan et al., 2019). The public reaction will be to increase security in their accounts and avoid public networks that may place them under a similar attack in the future. Also, there may be increased public campaigns advising the public on how to prevent the occurrence of such attacks. In the whole plan, I may be involved as the leader of the cybercrime group. I believe in my leadership qualities and can lead the group into a successful heist. The plan’s success depends on many factors, but most of all require the group members to act in unity and everyone to effectively carry out their tasks.
Gilmour, N. (2014). Understanding money laundering. A crime script approach. The European Review of Organised Crime, 1(2), 35-56.
Lee, S., Yoon, C., Kang, H., Kim, Y., Kim, Y., Han, D., … & Shin, S. (2019, February). Cybercriminal minds: an investigative study of cryptocurrency abuses in the dark web. In 26TH Annual Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS 2019) (pp. 1-15). Internet Society.
Rutherford, R. (2018). The changing face of phishing. Computer Fraud & Security, 2018(11), 6-8.
Van Wegberg, R., Oerlemans, J. J., & van Deventer, O. (2018). Bitcoin money laundering: mixed results? An explorative study on money laundering of cybercrime proceeds using bitcoin. Journal of Financial Crime.
Yan, D., Liu, F., Zhang, Y., & Jia, K. (2019). Dynamical model for individual defence against cyber epidemic attacks. IET Information Security, 13(6), 541-551.
Determining The Risk Factors For Donor Cell Leukemia Essay Example For College
Donor cell leukemia (DCL) is a rare but severe complication identified in 1971 in a female patient who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 62 days post-transplantation from her brother. Cytogenic analysis showed XY karyotype wove pointing toward a donor cell origin of leukemia(Fialkow et al.,1971). The condition usually arises after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), a curative modality for haematological malignancies. Patients undergoing SCT treatment have recurring leukemia; up to 5% are DCT(Williams et al., 2021). There has been no clear cause of DCL. However, alteration of the microenvironment during SCT may increase the likelihood that the progenitor cells from the host become leukemia. The proposed mechanism for the development of DCL includes and is not limited to the presence of an underlying stromal defect either inherent in the host or those acquired during radiotherapy and conditioning regiments, the transformation of donor cells by viral or host antigenic stimulation, oncogene transection by fusion of donor cells with the residues of leukemia cells, presence of occult leukemia in the donor among others(Engel et al., 2019). Recent advancements in molecular chimerism monitoring have indicated a rising upsurge in such cases of DCL. However, they could have been there before and only realised due to advancements in diagnostic techniques. The identification of the DCL and the risk factors associated with it is critical in the identification of the donors as well as potential concerns on the health of the donors, and ethical consideration in notifying the donor of future possibilities of emergence of leukemia, particularly in case of umbilical cord blood transplantation which is among the risk factors of DCL.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) is a treatment modality for haematological malignancies, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia. However, disease relapse remains a significant challenge (Adachi Y.,2018).DCL is a new form of leukemia that develops in donor-derived haematopoetic precursor cells and whose incidence remains underestimated due to poor prognosis to distinguish between recipient-derived and donor-derived cells post HCCT. However, current genetic sequencing techniques have an allergy to differentiation. Such methods include fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that detects and locates specific DNA sequences. DCL is commonly diagnosed with a median time of 31 months (Wiseman, DH.,2011).
Table 1:Main difference between original leukemia and donor cell leukemia according to WHO classification.
|Element||Original leukemia||Donor cell leukemia|
|Cell surface markers||Positive: CD13, CD34, HLA-DR
|Positive: CD7, CD13, CD21,CD34,CD33,CD38,CD41,CD56,HLA-DR|
|G-banding stain||47, XY, +1, der(1;7)
|WHO classification||AML with myelodysplasia-related changes||Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia|
Although there have been no notable causes of DCL, there have been progressive steps in determining the risk factors associated with DCL. A range of possible risk factors includes the age of the donor and the source of the stem cell, which could either be bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or perspiration blood.
Other causes are conditioning therapy and intensity. Such factors have been associated with the ability to influence the microenvironment of the bone marrow, which ultimately influences the genomic stability of the donor’s stem cell.
i) Source of stem cell
Umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood, and bone marrow are the progenitor cells used in HSCT. It has been noted that the source of stem cells used influences the chances of DCL occurring, the duration of time between the transplantation and the occurrence of DCL, and the types of karyotypes(Shiozaki H.,2014).
Umbilical cord blood(UCB) is a feasible source of progenitor cells for allo-HSCT patients, particularly those lacking HLA matcher bone marrow donors. UCB had been identified to be the risk factor for DCL. Despite being the most used type of stem cell source, UCB has been linked to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. Systemic screening of a large series of unselected cord blood samples revealed that approximately 1% harboured putative pre-leukemia mic clones with the AML-1 fusion gene. Using such ‘pre-leukemia’ samples as a source of stem cells might involve a risk of DCL(Ando T et al., 2006).
In addition, cord blood cells are immunologically naive. Their naivety makes them more tolerant of a tissue mismatch between the donor’s cord blood cells and the recipient.
The characteristics of DCL occurring after umbilical cord blood transplantation differed from those that occurred when a donor is transplanted with a bone marrow transplant, including the time between transplantation and the occurrence of DCL. Donor cells occurred within a shorter period in DCL. The median duration for DCL to occur after transplantation with UCB is 14.5 months, and 36 months for BMT(Shiozaki H., 2014)
Figure 1: The latency time taken between HSCT to development or DCL.UCB shows a bigger risk for the development of DCL.
ii) Chemotherapeutic agents
a) Alkylating agents
Alkylating agents are chemotherapeutic drugs used against malignant cells and leukemia and lymphoma patients. Common samples of those drugs include cyclophosphamide, carmustine, Meghalaya, and busulfan. These drugs interfere with the cells’ DNA transcription—the drugs act by cross-linking strands of DNA, specifically at the N7 position of the base guanine. Exposure of the genome to the alkylating agents interferes with the chemical composition of the DNA. As such, under rare circumstances, a misrepair of the DNA through methyl adducts and cross-link formation result in genotoxic outcomes, and high exposure to doses of alkylating agents, DNA repair may result in increased mutation(Klapacz et al., 2016).
Chemotherapy using these alkylating agents causes cellular damage to mesenchymal stromal cells(MSC) in vitro and invivo(May J., Morse, 2012). If there is damage to the MSC, these two may result in graft failure, and the damage induced in the DNA may increase the risk of genetic instability and, thus, malignancies develop (Popp & Bohlander.,2000).
Figure 2: The time taken for DCL to be diagnosed reduced among patients who have been on chemotherapeutic drugs of class.
Alkylating agents are significantly reduced compared to the time the DCL takes to be diagnosed in patients on other drugs, which are neither alkylating agents nor antimetabolies.
b) Non-myeloablative(NMA)versus myeloablative(MA).
NMA regimens use less doses of total body imitation and may cause mild myelosuppression and low treatment toxicity.MA uses high doses and requires stem cell support(Balkan M.,2017). MA, which is highly toxic, is expected to cause DCL faster than NMA. However, the NMA genotoxicity is enough to cause DCL.
c) Bystander radiation damage
DCL leukemogenesis has been linked with bystander radiation damage through several mechanisms. First, the oncogenic materials released by the cell during radiation possibly transfer into the donor’s HSCT and cause damage(Havelange et al.,2006)
iii) Leukomogenic marrow environment
The bone marrow microenvironment maintains the HSCT’s Homeostasis (Duarte D., 2018). Alteration of mesenchymal stem cells, stromal cells, osteoblasts, and adipocytes have been shown to cause the initiation of leukemia and its progression and development of therapy-resistant leukemia clones(Witkowski MT., 2020).
Therefore, if such leukemia and transformed bone marrows have their cells defective, replacing such bone marrows through allo-HCT may not be sufficient to prevent donor cell leukemia.
Figure 3: The cross-link between leukemia cells and the microenvironment.
The impaction stage involves alterations of signalling pathways in specific cell types in osteoblastic and stroma cells. The expansion and chemoresistance state involves the leukemic stem cell(LSC) interacting with the microenvironment and proliferating using adhesive molecules(CD44 and VLA-4). As the HSC proliferates (remodeling), it impairs the MSC differentiation and destroys HSC-supportive hinches. This results in recipient-donor cell-derived leukemia; DCL melody plastic syndrome.
DCL remains a rare complication whose prognosis is not well defined, but possible risk factors have been discussed on how they could affect its aetiology. While the pathogenesis of DCL remains complex, the improvement in detection, genetic analysis, and detailed screening of the donors of the stem cells for germline mutations and history of malignancy remains and could offer greater insight into the detection and prevention of DCL post-HSCT.
Adachi Y, Yamaguchi Y, Sagou K, Yamaga Y, Fukushima N, Ozeki K, Kohno A. Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Developing as Donor Cell Leukemia after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation. Intern Med. 2018 Feb 15;57(4):569-574. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.9005-17. Epub 2017 Nov 20. PMID: 29151503; PMCID: PMC5849555.
Aldoss I, Song JY, Curtin PT, Forman SJ. Multiple donor-derived leukemias in a recipient of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for myeloid malignancy. Blood Adv. 2020 Oct 13;4(19):4798-4801. doi 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002803. PMID: 33022063; PMCID: PMC7556138.
Ando T, Yujiri T, Mitani N, Takeuchi H, Nomiyama J, Suguchi M, Matsubara A, Tanizawa Y. Donor cell-derived acute myeloid leukemia after unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. Leukemia. 2006 Apr;20(4):744-5. doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2404121. PMID: 16437136.
Engel N, Rovo A, Badoglio M, Labopin M, Basak GW, Beguin Y, Guyotat D, Ljungman P, Nagler A, Schattenberg A, Schroeder T, Schroyens W, Tischer J, Socie G, Kolb HJ, Tichelli A, Salooja N, Duarte RF; Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. European experience and risk factor analysis of donor cell-derived leukemias/MDS following haematopoietic cell transplantation. Leukemia. 2019 Feb;33(2):508-517. doi: 10.1038/s41375-018-0218-6. Epub 2018 Jul 26. PMID: 30050122.
Fialkow PJ, Thomas ED, Bryant JI, Neiman PE. Leukaemic transformation of engrafted human marrow cells in vivo. Lancet. 1971
Havelange V, Antoine-Poirel H, Saussoy P, Van Den Neste E, Ferrant A. Donor cell leukemia developing after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Acta Clin Belg. 2006 Mar-Apr;61(2):82-6. doi: 10.1179/acb.2006.016. PMID: 16792340.
Jennifer E May, Craig Donaldson, Liana Gynn, H Ruth Morse, Chemotherapy-induced genotoxic damage to bone marrow cells: long-term implications, Mutagenesis, Volume 33, Issue 3, May 2018, Pages 241–251
Klapacz J, Pottenger LH, Engelward BP, Heinen CD, Johnson GE, Clewell RA, Carmichael PL, Adeleye Y, Andersen ME. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res. 2016 Jan-Mar;767:77-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2015.11.001. Epub 2015 Dec 2. PMID: 27036068; PMCID: PMC4818947.
Popp, H. D. and Bohlander, S. K. (2010). Genetic instability in inherited and sporadic leukemias. Genes. Chromosomes Cancer, 49, 1071–1081.
Williams L, Doucette K, Karp JE, Lai C. Genetics of donor cell leukemia in acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2021 Jul;56(7):1535-1549. doi: 10.1038/s41409-021-01214-z. Epub 2021 Mar 8. PMID: 33686252.
Wiseman DH. Donor cell leukemia: a review. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 17: 771-789, 2011.
Drilling For Oil In The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Balancing Economic And Environmental Interests Sample Assignment
With many factors, including its potential as a location for oil drilling, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been the subject of discussion for many years. The coastal plain in northeastern Alaska is the main point of contention for the refuge, which spans 19.6 million acres. The problem is complicated, and balancing economic and environmental interests is necessary. This essay examines the background of the ANWR controversy, the benefits and drawbacks of drilling there, the potential effects on the economy and the environment, the enactment of the decision, and suggestions for further action.
History of the ANWR Debate
Due to its biodiversity and importance to indigenous tribes, the ANWR is noteworthy. Numerous wildlife species live there, such as the polar bear, caribou, and musk ox, all in danger. Congress classified the ANWR as an ecologically sensitive region in 1980, but the coastal plain was not, leaving space for prospective drilling (Raval & McCormick, 2021). The discussion about drilling in ANWR began when the Trans-Alaska Pipeline was built in the 1970s. The pipeline passes through the area, and its construction was considered a chance to use the ANWR’s oil riches (Field et al., n.d.). Drilling proponents contend it would increase employment, strengthen the economy, and lessen reliance on foreign oil. Environmentalists and indigenous groups, meanwhile, are in favor of drilling because of the possibility of environmental harm and the region’s historical significance. By holding an auction for drilling leases in 2017, the Trump administration made the ANWR accessible for oil development (Field et al., n.d.). However, as of June 1, 2021, these leases were momentarily stopped, and since then, most businesses have terminated their contracts.
Pros and Cons of Drilling in ANWR
Drilling in the ANWR is supported by the claims that it will increase the economy, create jobs, and lessen reliance on foreign oil. Oil production is a significant part of Alaska’s economy, and drilling in ANWR might bring in billions of dollars for the region (Raval & McCormick, 2021). According to supporters, modern drilling techniques have allegedly lessened the impact of oil exploration on the environment. Meanwhile, environmentalists and indigenous groups oppose drilling because of the possibility of environmental harm and the region’s past importance (Fang, n.d.). Drilling in the ANWR could impact the ecology and local fauna, especially the Arctic Ocean. Additionally, indigenous groups consider the land sacred and depend on it for their lives.
Effects on the Economy and the Environment
Drilling in the ANWR might significantly negatively affect the environment, harming the ecosystem, polluting the air and water, and releasing greenhouse gases. Polar bears, one of several species on the brink of extinction in the region, could be affected by drilling operations. Drilling may also contaminate the air and streams, endangering the health of wildlife and native communities. Conversely, drilling in ANWR might significantly improve Alaska’s economy (Dister, 2022). Oil production is a significant part of the state’s economy, and drilling in ANWR might bring in billions of dollars for the government. It also increases employment and lessens reliance on foreign oil.
Implementing the ANWR Decision
Environmental organizations and indigenous populations opposed the Trump administration’s decision to allow oil drilling in ANWR. The Gwich’in Steering Committee and various environmental organizations filed legal challenges against the decision. The leasing procedure for oil and gas production in the ANWR will be suspended while a thorough evaluation of the program is being conducted, the Biden administration declared in March 2021. On June 1, 2021, the leasing procedure was permanently suspended, effectively ending any potential drilling operations in the area (Dister, 2022). The decision to postpone the leasing procedure significantly impacted the energy sector and environmental organizations. Due to the hazy future of drilling in the area, most businesses have since canceled their leases. Due to this decision, many businesses are still determining whether they will be permitted to continue their drilling operations in ANWR in the future (Dister, 2022). Environmental organizations have also applauded the decision, viewing it as a significant success in the struggle to preserve one of the country’s last remaining wilderness areas. The outcome of the leasing procedure is still up in the air, and controversy is likely to surround the subject for years to come. The more excellent discussion surrounding American energy policy and the future of ANWR are intertwined. The future of ANWR will continue to be an essential topic in the national discussion as the nation struggles to meet its energy demands while conserving the environment.
Recommendations for Future Action
It is advised that drilling in the area be wholly outlawed due to the potential adverse effects on the ecosystem and indigenous inhabitants. Alternative energy sources like wind and solar power should be investigated to meet the state’s energy needs. The federal government should contribute financially to Alaska’s transition to a less fossil fuel-dependent economy. This would entail spending on infrastructure and providing employment training for those employed in the renewable energy industry (Home – Arctic – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, n.d.). While some politicians and business interests may oppose the drilling restriction in ANWR, it is crucial to put the preservation of the area’s distinctive ecosystems and indigenous inhabitants first. Oil drilling may have long-term effects on the environment and the community that outweigh any immediate economic benefits by a significant margin.
Additionally, putting money into alternative energy sources can boost the local economy and open new job opportunities. Moving away from fossil fuels is becoming more and more feasible as the cost of renewable energy technology keeps falling (Raval & McCormick, 2021). The federal government should lead in advancing and aiding the creation of renewable energy sources, particularly by allocating funds for innovative technology research and development.
To sum up, whether to permit or forbid drilling in ANWR is complicated and requires thoroughly examining economic, ecological, and social concerns. Drilling in the area may have some economic advantages, but these must be balanced against the adverse effects on the ecology and indigenous groups. It is advised that drilling be prohibited in the area indefinitely after examining the background and effects of the ANWR dispute. In order to satisfy the nation’s energy needs, different energy sources, including wind and solar power, need to be investigated. The federal government should also give Alaska financial assistance so that it may transition to an economy that is more environmentally friendly. In deciding on our energy regulations, it is critical that we put the preservation of our planet’s resources and the welfare of the people we serve first. We can build a more sustainable and just future for everyone by investing in renewable energy sources and encouraging individuals to move to alternatives to fossil fuels.
Dister, M. M. (2022). Wilderness v. Oil: Resource Balancing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Alaska Law Review, 39(2), 313-345. https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/alr/vol39/iss2/6/
Fang, A. Oil Exploration In The Alaska National Wildlife Refuge. http://edwardwimberley.com/courses/EnviroPol/ANWR.pdf
Field, A., Williams, M., Freund, E., & Lystad, G. The Economics of Oil Development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. https://files.worldwildlife.org/wwfcmsprod/files/Publication/file/2x48k6w2jd_Economics_of_Oil_Development_in_Arctic_Refuge.pdf
Home – Arctic – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (n.d.). Www.fws.gov. https://www.fws.gov/refuge/arctic
Raval, A., & McCormick, M. (2021, June 2). Biden suspends Arctic drilling rights sold in Trump’s last days as president. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/ed5df5fa-17e2-41cb-b2e3-24a2b2ec7c99