Essay On Drilling Engineering Sample Essay

Drilling engineering is a discipline of petroleum engineering that is concerned with the use of various tools and techniques to extract various types of wells to get access to oil reservoirs. It entails intense missions related to the exploration of water, oil or gas components from the underground reservoirs. This field is further classified into four other engineering professions that include completion engineering, operational engineering, production engineering and reservoir engineering. This topic is important in the field of petroleum mining because it determines the cost of oil mining and production process. It is designed to convert theory into practice by relating many of the ideas known in theory to practical solutions. It delivers the appropriate research materials and emerging technologies to enhance the drilling process. This research paper provides an overview of the drilling exercise for purposes of helping the general population to understand the mechanics behind the process. It covers the principles of drilling, the drilling fluids and some of the common drilling problems.

The petroleum sector has been serving and continues to act as the backbone of the energy sector in the modern world and hence a driver of modern civilization. Whereas most people are only conversant with the drilling of petroleum wells, the exercise dates back to the dawn of human civilization. Traditionally, people drilled wells to access water for drinking and other domestic uses. In this regard, wells provided the best source for drinking water as the water obtained had plenty of minerals that were excellent for the body. Later people began extracting fossil fuel, which they utilized in its natural state. However, today, as the technology continues to advance, engineers and researchers have developed more effective and efficient techniques to access and extract the fossil fuels, a process known as drilling. This topic is of great importance in the modern study of sustainable oil and gas development strategies. There is a need to formulate more environmentally friendly mining techniques that will conserve the ecology.

Principles of Oil Well Drilling

The drilling process is characterized by an interaction with rocks and other earth components. Therefore, a successful drilling process requires one to understand the character and attitude of the rocks and also the manipulation of the tools. The most common objective of drilling is to obtain oil, water, or gas. Consequently, it is important to assess the principles of the oil drilling by considering some of the important determinants of the drilling processes, such as the structure of the earth. This understanding helps miners to properly select sites with favorable rock formations towards the mining process.

Structure and Character

Oil and gas mainly occur in sedimentary rocks, which is characterized by shales and sandstones. Their origin is attributed to the gradual decomposition and distillation of organic matter. These materials can rarely penetrate the sedimentary rocks and get into the plutonic rocks. These sedimentary rocks occur in rock structures that are known as anticlines, which are characterized by upward, archlike folds of the rocks as shown in the figure below.

Anticlines

Oil and gas are naturally occurring hydrocarbons, which implies that they are made up of two important elements: hydrogen and carbon. Because of the strong attraction between hydrogen and carbon, the product of this combination results in different compounds (Dutta et al., 590). Thus, the oil processing and refinery processes mainly focus on refining the hydrocarbons recovered from the era to develop other products including liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, kerosene, diesel fuel, and gasoline. Besides, the hydrocarbon products obtained are also essential towards development of other synthetic materials including nylon and plastics. While the crude oil and the natural gas exist in layers of rocks, they occasionally sip out of these rocks onto the surface. However, this process is not common because the rock surfaces above the sedimentary rocks holding the gas is mostly impermeable and will not allow oil and gas to flow to the surface.

The formation

The earth surface holds different types of materials, both organic and inorganic. The organic materials, which mainly comprises plant and animal matter, decompose over time as they are subjected to temperature and pressure. Oil is generated from the remains of microscopic animals and plants that died numerous years ago, between ten million to six hundred million years ago, as these materials travel down the ground. Once an organism dies, it begins decaying. The process takes several years, in which the microbes begin decomposing the materials. The decomposed material continues to be exposed to the natural conditions of high temperatures and pressures, disintegrating further and getting incorporated into the soil particles. The resulting materials are sediments characterized by a fine-grained shale, also called a source rock. The geological processes also take place, where the materials sink further down the earth, forming layers in what becomes sedimentary rocks.

Oil Drilling Techniques

Oil and gas exploration can be done in a variety of ways. Cable drilling or percussion, electro-drilling, rotary drilling, directional drilling and dual-wall reverse-circulation drilling, are the five common prevalent (Funnell). The technique to be employed depends on a variety of factors, including the kind of formations, geographical region, and soil composition, among others.

Cable Drilling OR Percussion

Percussion drilling is a typical manual drilling technique that involves attaching a pounding bit to a long cable and lowering it into an open hole. Because of the lengthy cable, and in this scenario, the driller supports the tools using a tripod, the method is also termed as cable drilling. The driller then repeatedly moves the hammering bit back and forth, loosening the soil in the borehole and then extracting it using a bailer. The bit is then removed occasionally, during which the cuttings are suspended in water. The water is pumped to the surface to remove these cuttings. The hole is supported by a steel casing, which prevents it from curving inside and also prevents the hole from being contaminated by the ground water. A permanent screen plus casing is fitted after some time, and the temporary one is removed. Drilling in consolidated and unconsolidated strata, including silt, sand, gravel, and sandstone, is possible using this method (Funnel). The method can be used to drill holes that are approximately twenty-five meters deep. An image of the drilling approach is shown below.

Drilling approach

Source World Environment Library

Rotary Drilling

One of the most used drilling procedures is rotary drilling, and it mostly entails the digging of wells. This method is more applicable in exploring depths that are more than give miles below the ground. The technique involves the use of lightweight drills in drilling low-depth wells on land. The exploratory wells are next drilled with different sizes of floating drills and rotary mobile. The approach is frequently employed to create a large inspection borehole or to gather representative rock samples. It entails mounting a motorized rotary cutting head on the tip of a shaft that revolves into the surface. It needs lubricating in order to keep the cutting head cold. This instrument is seen in the figure below.

Rotary Drilling Instrument

The device is installed on a pedestal with a spinning table as well as a forty-meters-high derrick, as well as an injector pump, mud mixer, and a convenient engine. A twenty-seven-meter-long pipe, and a winch piece are among the equipment. The drilling pipe is attached to a square Kelly, and the rotating table directs it. A mud swibel is attached to the pipe and is linked to blowout suppressants. The drill is comprised of sharp cutting edges, also known as rolling cutters that are characterized by powerful teeth, and drag bits, and the pipe rotates at a speed of forty to two hundred and fifty revolutions per minute. Fluid circulation then aids in the removal of cuttings that have made their way into the pipe. When the driller uses air-based liquids instead of water-based liquids, the penetration rate increases. In cases where the drilling exercise entails penetration of unconsolidated sediments, a drag bit is more useful. On the contrary, the roller bit can be helpful in drilling through consolidated rock. Depending on how hard the formation material is, the drill’s total rotational speed can be increased or decreased.

Dual-Wall Reverse-Circulation

Two central drill pipes that provide a regulated flow characterize this method of rotary drilling. Drilling fluid is pushed via a swivel on the exterior of the bit until it reaches the bottom, where it deflects upwards into the main duct. To assure a constant water sample, and return of formation the approach employs a flush-threaded double-wall drill pope and high-pressure air. The primary benefit of this method is that the trimmings and formation fluids are not polluted by drilling chemicals or combined with other borehole materials. The logging procedure is more reliable thanks to its up-hole velocity of about seventy feet per second. The samples of the specific strata where the drilling is taking place is then airlifted or bailed to the surface. The technique is more effective for geologic sample collection, in which case the samples are delivered via the cyclone that is formed at the ground. This approach is harmonious with both percussion drilling and rotary drilling techniques. The process cycles the liquids in a contained way, allowing for the recovery of all cuts at any moment. Another advantage with the technique is that it does not require surface casing. Furthermore, the approach is linked to high sample recoveries and enables for speedier penetrating in fissured or alluvial rock. It is also useful for getting a more precise estimate of aquiver production from the formation’s depths. The image of the technique is shown below.

Drilling technique

Electro-drilling

This technique should be perceived as a commercial drilling alternative to other popular techniques, such as the rotary motor system. It is more effective in penetrating earth formations and rock structures. It utilizes electric arcs to penetrate the desired structure. Besides, it is popular for utilizing circulating fluids to clear the arc area and sweep away the cuttings. The method uses fluid circulation to withdraw molten, electrically drilled material from the wellbore. In addition, it is known to utilize electrical arc cutting techniques with air blowing or water supply means connected to concurrently heat and cool the rock surface and facilitate its disintegration. The method is comparable to the classical flame blast, gas flame, or burner drilling approach. It is also known to utilize gas blast and a cooling medium against a rock face, which ensures that the rocks disintegrate by thermal shock. After the rocks have disintegrated, the liquids are circulated to carry cuttings and spallings out of the way of the cutting operation. The slag formed by the drilling blast is broken up using mechanical means with the flame blast drilling.

Electro-drilling

Directional drilling

This approach is an expansion of the rotary drilling technology, and works by directing the drill along a curved route as the hole deepens. The method is useful for oil explorers as it helps them to reach the depths that cannot be reached using vertical drilling. The major motivation for employing this technology is to save money since it allows you to create multiple boreholes in all directions from a unified platform. The technology also enables the driller to get accessibility to subsea reserves by utilizing computer systems as guides, and without the need to connect and disconnect sections. The method, which is also called directional boring, is preferred in the gas and oil mining industry because it increases the efficiency of the process and can also reduce the environmental impact of the drilling process. In most cases, the oil wells are located above the targeted reservoir. Consequently, accessing them requires vertical drilling to the well below. Consequently, while the rest of the drilling exercises entail vertical drilling, directional drilling involves drilling at a non-vertical angle. Therefore, directional drilling refers to any drilling process that is not vertical (Islam & Enamul 179). Its ability to allow the explorers explore various oil reserves without the need to drill many holes makes it more preferable and recommended by environmentalists.

Challenges of Drilling Engineering

Even in very carefully planned events, problems are always likely to happen. For example, even in instances where similar drilling practices are practices, since no two formations are homogenous, each of the two projects is likely to have different conditions, that make it different to different geological conditions. Consequently, there are various types of drilling challenges as covered below.

Pipe Sticking

The drilling exercise involves sticking a pipe inside the ground to access the minerals. A stuck pople occurs when this pipe gets stuck within the rock surface, making it difficult to obtain if back without breaking it. Such occurrences may be highly costly, accounting for around fifty percent of the overall cost of the well. Well-control and lost-circulation valves, which are a substantial concern in high-angle and horizontal wells, are frequently related with stopped pipes. This issue arises from the common practice of drilling in areas or regions where the annulus pressure surpasses that of the formation, potentially causing drill string failure. The easiest way to deal with this issue is to correctly regulate the lubricity of the drilling fluid as well as the filter cake purity throughout the formations.

Pipe Sticking

Lost Circulation

Another problem associated with drilling mining is lost circulation, which refers to the process by which mud flows uncontrollably into a formation. This section is sometimes known as the “thief zone”, which results into what is called blind drilling if the drilling process continues during this lost circulation. This predicament arises from a variety of factors, including naturally fractured rocks, inappropriate drilling circumstances, and artificial breaks caused by high downhole pressure. Zones of lost circulation might be either partial or entire, depending on the situation. With partially lost circulation, mud keeps flowing to the level, causing some damage to the underlying geological structure. In contrast, total lost circulation happens when all of the mud is carried away into a mound and does not appear again. Blind drilling is the term used to describe drilling that occurs during a period of absolute loss of circulation. In the industry, this is not a normal protocol unless all of the minimum guidelines are satisfied, which are; The creation above the thief zone is dimensionally strong, there is no creation, the liquid is clear water, and it is financially effective and acceptable to drill in this formation.

Hole Deviation

The inadvertent deviation of the drill bit from a predetermined borehole trajectory is referred to as this hole deviation. Whether the procedure includes drilling a linear portion or a curved-hole portion, the bit has a propensity to meander off from the targeted route, which can result in drilling obstacles such as greater drilling expenditures and legal issues with loose boundaries. An example of a hole deviation is as shown in the diagram below.

Hole deviation

Although the actual reason for a bit diverting from its intended section is yet unknown, there are several possibilities. According to the researchers, the varied nature of the formation dip angle, drill string characteristics, stabilizers, installed weight on bit, and the hole’s inclination angle from vertical are all elements that contribute to the disagreement between the two measurements.

Pipe Failures

Another notable problem in drilling engineering is drill pipe failures. Twist off induced by extreme torque, splitting generated by severe tension, bursting or collapsing caused by extreme internal or external pressure, or fatigue due to the mechanical cyclic loads happening with or without corrosion are all examples of the issue. While it is impossible to totally eliminate the problem, there are some measures that one can take to minimize it. For example, by limiting generated cyclic loads and maintaining a non-corrosive condition throughout drilling sessions, fatigue failures can be reduced. Managing dogleg severity as well as drill string vibrations, on the other hand, can help to reduce cycle loads. In the existence of H2S, corrosion can be avoided by using corrosive scavengers or stabilizing the of the mud. To avoid drill string malfunctions, it’s also critical to handle and examine the drill string properly.

Borehole Instability

This procedure describes an unpleasant condition in which an open hole interval loses its gauge size, form, or structural stability. Mechanical fault due from in-situ strains, erosion originating from fluid flow, as well as chemicals arising from borehole fluid contact with the formation are some of the sources of this instability. Borehole instabilities can manifest themselves in a variety of ways, including hole closures or downsizing, hole expansion, fracture, and collapsing. The graphic below depicts the several types of hole instability problems.

Several types of hole instability problems.

The mechanical rock-failure may happen if the pressures exerted on the rocks surpass the tensile or the compressive strength of the rocks. Compressive failures arise from shear pressures arising from poor mud weight, while tensile failure occurs from normal stresses which originate from high mud weight.

Mud Contamination

Mud contamination is also a common drilling problem that occurs when the mud where the drilling process is taking place gets contaminated with foreign material and leads to undesirable changes in the characteristics of the mud. It may change the mud density, its viscosity, and filtration. The most susceptible mud systems towards contamination are the water-based mud system and one of the notable causes of this form of contamination is the overtreatment of the mud system with additives. Besides, this contamination may result from the material that enters the mud during the drilling process. Some of the most common sources of the contaminants include gypsum, soluble sulfides, soluble bicarbonates and carbonates, salt, and cement or lime.

Formation damage

The term “formation damage” refers to the invisible being harmed by the unavoidable, resulting in an unidentified lowering in the unmeasurable. The procedure, in a different situation, pertains the damage to the reservoir caused by wellbore liquids used in the drilling and workover procedures. It refers to a zone of decreased permeability near the wellbore (skin) caused by foreign-fluid attack into the reservoir rock. Therefore, the overall definition of the process is the unintentional impedance to the flow of fluids into and out of a wellbore. A drop in permeability with in near-wellbore area, wide variations porosity to the hydrocarbon’s phases, and unanticipated flow constraints in the completion phase are all examples of flow restrictions that fall within this wide description. For the reasons that, while they may end up causing flow obstructions, flow constraints in the pipework, including those forced by a well partly infiltrating a ground water or other elements of the finalization geometry, are not in this description, they are either set up by structure to accomplish an objective or do not make an appearance in usual indicators of formation damage like skin. Solids clogging, clay-particle enlargement or scattering, saturation variations, wettability turnaround, emulsion stoppage, or mutual precipitation of the soluble salts are some of the additional processes that cause the processes. The process can be quantified using the below equation:

Formula

Formation damage, on the other hand, is measured using the skin factor, S, a dimensionless pressure decreases as a result of a flow restriction near the wellbore. The following equation is used to express it.

Formula

Hole Cleaning

The procedure refers to the ability of a drilling fluid to carry and keep drilled particles throughout the drilling operation. As per the study, drilling at an inclination angle more than three hundred degrees from vertical could cause challenges with trimmings removal that are not seen in vertical wells. The production of a stationary cuttings or a moving bed, as shown in the diagram below, is a significant issue when the flow rate for a certain mud rheology falls under a threshold level.

Hole Cleaning

Conclusion

Drilling engineering is a sensitive process that requires careful planning and execution. The exercise is characterized by various challenges that may result in contamination of both the material being mined and the environment. Therefore, it is important for one to undertake the due procedure that will minimize such events from occurring. Understanding the structure of the surface from which the mining process will take place is important as it will determine the type of drilling to undertake. The choice of drilling will also depend on other factors, including the costs. Finally, one has to understand some of the common problems associated with the drilling process. This understanding helps the drillers to avoid making certain mistakes that may lead to significant wastages and unexpected losses. It also helps the researchers take appropriate precautions towards preserving the environment and protecting the ecosystem.

Works Cited

Funnell, Matthew. “Five Most Common Drilling Methods Used in Oil and Gas Exploration.” The Driller RSS, The Driller, 18 July 2018, https://www.thedriller.com/articles/90598-five-most-common-drilling-methods-used-in-oil-and-gas-exploration.

Hossain, M. Enamul, and Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Majed. Fundamentals of sustainable drilling engineering. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.

Islam, M. Rafiqul, and M. Enamul Hossain. Drilling Engineering: Towards Achieving Total Sustainability. Gulf Professional Publishing, 2020.

Mitchell, Rober, and Stefan Miska. Fundamentals of drilling engineering. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2011.

An Article Review Of Spyros Louis: The Olympics Marathon Hero Who Did All To Impress A Girl Sample Paper

Who is Spyros Louis? He was a Greek water carrier and winner of the first modern-day Olympic marathon. Perhaps the humblest man to ever win at the Olympics. Spyros Louis is the Olympic marathon hero who did everything to impress the girl of his dreams.

Louis has an intriguing story. To start, Louis was born into poverty and spent most of his childhood helping his father support their family as water carriers (Just a Moment, 2022). At the same time, most athletes who competed in the Olympics were molded from a kid to compete. Louis was also oblivious to the athletic competition, which was odd because the Ancient Olympic games were the only thing men cared about then. Winning was everything to them. To some, to lose was worse than dying. Nevertheless, Louis did not care about winning or athletic competitions in general, and his sole purpose was to impress the girl of his dreams (Just a Moment, 2022). This could explain why he almost did not make it, finishing the qualifying race in fifth place. However, when it came to the 1896 Summer Olympics, he went on to win gold. Louis destroyed his competition so badly that they accused him of cheating. No one could accept that they were just beaten by a peasant water carrier, who also ran the marathon in a fustanella. The accusations eventually were dropped due to a lack of supporting evidence.

This article explores and contributes to understanding how a specified goal accompanies accomplishment. The fascinating story of Louis from its beginning tells the audience that his background is in dispute, but he shepherds a thundering endorsement. This abstract information directs the article to its social context and an evocative story of suspense. How could just a water carrier of a mineral water shop lead a 4km from the finish line, crossing a vast distance ahead of his nearest rival competitor to the joy of over ten thousand spectators? To such a complicated paradox, the author presents Louise’s story to capture the reader’s imagination and express the narrative that the history of the past is a leaving force to the present and future. And while this is explicitly laid out as a theory in a story, the article ultimately submits that there is no best design for goal accountability agreement than a tangible level of a specified goal. Every part of Louise’s story identifies itself with two critical things: A significant and a good running story and the ability of the story to contribute something new to the telling of it. The story of the champ becomes a selection of the best and most important inspiration that rational beings can survive and flourish when they identify themselves with a common purpose.

The statement “Spyros lived a modest life as a long-forgotten hero” in the article evocates how strong and resourceful Louise was in confronting all his fears to his specified goal. Although this article critically evaluates its context, it presents a short, evocative description to keep the audience from whooping, yet not long enough to make Louise push too hard and tap what looks like an oxygen debt to his achievement. Furthermore, as the article interprets, the context of the article is not reminiscent enough, if not reminiscent, to give the herald (Louise) summoning its efforts and the ceremonious trumpet of the crowd. This does not add to the sporting drama whether a race will end with a funeral or a wedding. However, as the article presents, Louise’s championship hunt for impression and his love infancy connects the hero with her success story. Without omission, the article defines how Lousie’s love for a girl is transferred into an Olympic race and to an equivalent of his success.

Generally, this article is very straightforward and intentional in the beginning. It is not until the body information gives a little less evocative context that it does not reflect the abstract information presented in the title. This article gives the audience a really good relevant story of the everyday life of a fighter.

Reference

Just a moment. . . (2022, March 29). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://greekreporter.com/2022/03/29/spyros-louis-olympics-marathon-hero-impress-girl/

Analysis Of Apple Company Employees’ Preferred Leadership Traits And Leadership Styles Sample Assignment

Introduction

Apple Company background

Apple Inc. is a multinational firm that makes computers, smartphones, tablets, computer software, hardware, and commercial servers and digitally distributes material (Trivedi, 2019). Apple also has a network of physical locations known as Apple Stores, which sell Apple products and are accessible through the company’s online store.

Apple Computer was founded on April 1, 1976, by Apple co-founders Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne. Apple Inc. was formally established on January 3, 1977, in Cupertino, California. After that, Wayne decided to no longer work with the company, leaving Jobs and Wozniak as the remaining co-founders (Heracleous & Papachroni, 2013). Apple’s IPO followed this on December 12, 1980, when shares were priced at $22.00. Since the initial public offering (IPO), the stock has undergone four splits, resulting in a split-adjusted IPO share price of $0.39 (Trivedi, 2019). Currently, Tim Cook is running Apple Inc. as its chief executive officer.

Apple Inc. first focused on the American domestic market. Over the past decade, the corporation has expanded significantly into new areas outside the United States (Heracleous & Papachroni, 2013). Apple is currently among the world’s most successful multinational corporations. As a leader in the personal computer business, Apple has cornered a sizable portion of the global mobile communication market. Apple Company has tried to be competitive through the non-competitive approach to survive and control a substantial share of the worldwide PC business. Apple Computers, Inc. was launched in 1976 and had locations throughout the United States (Trivedi, 2019).

There is no doubt that strong leadership is crucial to the success of any business, and Apple has shown remarkable innovation ever since it was created. Since Steve Jobs’s passing on October 5, 2011, Tim Cook has served as Apple Inc.’s chief executive officer (Trivedi, 2019). Many people feel that Apple has lost a beloved leader in Steve Jobs, who is widely acknowledged as the guy who founded and nurtured Apple from its infancy into its current status as a global powerhouse. However, the impact of Tim Cook in collaboration with other leaders within the company cannot be ignored.

Purpose and objective of the research

The extent to which a leader is preferred by his or her subordinates determines how effective that leader’s leadership style will influence employee performance. Businesses must find and implement the most successful leadership styles to maximize productivity. This research aims to identify the most sought-after leadership qualities in the information technology industry, focusing on Apple Company. In order to determine and recommend the ideal characteristics of a leader, this qualitative study employed the Full Range Leadership Model. Purposeful sampling was employed in this study.

Questions designed to be used in interviews were the means by which data was collected. Six (6) interviewees provided information, all of whom work at Apple Company. All respondents favoured the transformational leadership style because they experienced the most benefits from the transformational leader’s characteristics. It is recommended that the management team enhance its emotional intelligence and listening abilities to ensure its leadership is top-notch.

Section B

The role of leadership in a company is essential because it creates a shared sense of purpose, drives employee engagement, and ensures that the business is on track to achieve its objectives (Delay & Clark, 2020). According to Delay and Clark (2020), effective leadership is the key to gaining others’ trust. An employee plays a key role in the company as a whole, ensuring the company’s continued success (Asrar-ul-Haq, & Kuchinke, 2016). A leader has little value to an organization unless there is someone to do the task. That’s why it’s so important for leaders to set a good example for their followers. The result will be a more enthusiastic workforce. This section will focus on discussing the perception of Apple company employees on the current leadership trait of managers at their organization.

The Full Range Leadership Model

There are three primary types of leadership described by the Full Range Leadership Model: laissez-faire, transactional, and transformational styles.

Laissez-faire leadership

Leaders that adopt a laissez-faire approach put their faith in their staff and stand back to let them do their jobs. They refrain from being overbearing in terms of management style and oversight. Instead, leaders who adopt a laissez-faire approach encourage their teams to rely on their ingenuity, expertise, and resources to succeed.

Leaders who use a laissez-faire approach find success when their teams consist of professionals who are used to working together in a collaborative setting, such as staff experts or consultants. Accordingly, teams may perform better when they set their timetables, tackle tasks without being micromanaged, and reach choices collectively rather than waiting for the CEO’s approval.

Transactional leadership

Managerial leadership, often known as transactional leadership, is a management style in which higher-ups utilize financial rewards and punishments to encourage subordinates to perform to their full potential (Saeed & Mughal, 2019). When a leader engages in transactional leadership, he or she and his or her followers engage in a two-way conversation. When subordinates carry out their duties following their superiors’ directives, they are rewarded monetarily, in the form of bonuses and promotions, and socially, with increased status (Alrowwad & Alqatawenah, 2018). Khan et al. (2018) subsequently observed that leadership studies were often framed as monetary transactions or cost-benefit analyses.

In particular, transactional leadership theories are predicated on the idea that leader-follower relationships are established via a series of trades, or more precisely, on the implicit contracts between leaders and followers (Saeed & Mughal, 2019). These clarifications point to the leader as the go-to person if the job itself or the work environment falls short of providing enough inspiration, fulfilment, or focus. Notably, these flaws can be rectified only by the leader’s actions and behaviours (Alrowwad & Alqatawenah, 2018).

Transformational leadership

Leaders who adopt a transformational leadership style inspire, motivate, and encourage their teams to make changes that will boost the company’s future prospects through innovation and creativity (Busari et al., 2019). Transformational leaders can execute novel ideas by embracing a more malleable and universal approach to influencing and perpetually bettering those around them (Atan & Mahmeed, 2019). Leaders who use this style of management focus on their employee’s personal growth and development, intending to increase everyone’s intrinsic drive. According to Busari et al. (2019) boldly, inspirational leaders try to get their teams to buy into the importance of their big-picture goals and their vision for the company’s future (Alrowwad & Alqatawenah, 2018). By providing vivid descriptions of his plans and actions and outlining his sincere personal views, a transformational leader demonstrates to his followers that he shares their values and inspires loyalty. These outcomes are possible because transformational leaders share common traits.

Transformational leaders clearly grasp their strengths and convictions and use them to guide their organizations forward (Alrowwad & Alqatawenah, 2018). People who believe in themselves and their talents are more invested in the company and more likely to stay engaged (Alqatawenah, 2018). They are highly self-motivated, enabling them to establish a feeling of organizational purpose, which influences the organization’s followers, who in turn assist in moving the company forward (Atan & Mahmeed, 2019). They are self-motivated, which allows them to see themselves as successful people who do not depend on chance. These insights into their nature enable them to affect positive change in their communities ( Busari et al., 2019).

Another quality of transformative leaders is their capacity to comprehend the people in their immediate vicinity, particularly those who report to them. Atan & Mahmeed (2019) asserts that a transformational leader is one who not only thoroughly comprehends but also thoughtfully influences and motivates his team members to fully comprehend the objectives and work together towards achieving that goal, as he helps his team members recognize the true value of what they are working for.

The perception of the employees on the current leadership traits of managers at the organization.

Employees have a favourable impression of the current leadership because they emphasize transformational leadership qualities. The features perceived, however, are viewed differently by each interviewee. Most respondents who described their leader as having a transformational management style also believed that their leader encouraged them to be more creative and problem-aware. But only one of the interviewees said the leader inspired them to commit to the vision. Also, none of the six interviewees mentioned feeling comfortable with micromanaging leaders explaining that in the Apple organization, micromanagement is rare.

Five respondents painted a picture of a leader with idealized influence, one who inspires people to look up to them and take their cues from them. This is because employees have more faith in their superiors and are, therefore, less likely to fight organizational changes (McCann $ Sparks, 2019). It agrees with Busari et al.’s conclusions that transformational leadership will cause highly motivated workers and infuse a feeling of fairness, loyalty, and trust. In a nutshell, Apple’s support personnel views its leadership as having a revolutionary approach.

A second interviewee agreed, saying their leaders emphasize individual care and idealized influence. Except for one, all those interviewed fit the profile of being intellectually stimulated by having a leader who encourages them to share ideas in an environment where leaders’ creation of a concept of a participatory approach is crucial to the organization’s success. That is to say, it promotes a culture where subordinates are encouraged to think outside the box when confronted with a challenge (DeLay $ Clark, 2020). Leaders that can inspire their teams, make bold statements about the future, and provide their employees with opportunities are invaluable to any firm.

Furthermore, another interviewee mentioned that the leader should provide a clear view of the future to their subordinates, supported by McCann & Sparks (2019), where the charismatic and visionary type of leader can inspire their subordinates for their benefit and the benefit of the organization. Atan & Mahmeed (2019) claim that individual attention occurs when individuals are treated differently and uniquely based on their knowledge and abilities, which, according to Interviewee 2 and Interviewee 5, necessitates the leader to stimulate the followers on an individual basis.

The preferences of leadership styles in the organization by the employees

Workers at Apple Inc. favoured a transformational rather than a traditional management style. As was discussed previously, transformational leaders are committed to creating an environment where employees are highly motivated by recognition and praise for their efforts. The majority of interviewees favoured this leadership style because of the positive effects it had on their lives, such as the preference’s emphasis on inspiring employees to coordinate and achieve the set objectives. They also added that they preferred leaders who ensure their teams have clear goals for the near future and know what they need to do to succeed. Last but not least, when faced with an issue, a leader takes action quickly to find and implement the best feasible solution so that output increases are preferred.

Moreover, the respondents claimed that through transformational leadership, the motivation of employees is quite high, driven by both benefits connected with productivity and a sense of belonging in the workplace. Leaders who transform their teams foster an atmosphere where everyone feels welcome and is open to contributing their ideas. Interviewer X asserted that employees working for such managers maintain a high level of motivation because of the trust they place in their subordinates and the recognition they give for good work. Since they have come to expect little from their bosses, such workers tend to stick around for a while. Similarly, Interviewee Y also claimed that employees become more productive by focusing on meeting their goals and reaping the benefits. Since highly motivated workers have a shared purpose, are content with their supervisors, and consider themselves an integral part of the organization, they are less likely to conflict.

Most respondents valued leaders that exemplified idealized influence attributes like reliability and charm to inspire their teams. Others who provided input favoured leaders with inspiring motivation qualities, who could inspire their teams and provide a clear picture of the future so that workers might find purpose in their job. One other desirable quality is the ability to stimulate the mind. Leaders in today’s organizations must be in tune with their teams’ issues and be able to inspire their followers to think outside the box and provide novel solutions.

Personal leadership experience and preference for leadership styles

I have solid leadership experience gained at home, school, and work. Leadership is an aspect practised in daily activities. As a team leader in the workplace, I have experience leading and leading. In my opinion, leadership can contribute to a project’s success or failure, from the simplest to the most complex ones. Through my experience, I have learned that it is essential to develop and implement a suitable leadership style that suits the individual.

We had to work on a marketing project in four groups recently for class. We were assigned to write a 15-page paper and give a 10-minute presentation about a new product. Our project’s ultimate objective was to export the product from Belgium. I volunteered to organize the group discussion about how to divide the workload and set deadlines for each person’s contribution to the project during our periodic meetings throughout the semester. I could rapidly win over the group’s support because I was the one to initiate the discussion and already had a game plan in mind. I collected everyone’s email and set up a group inbox so we could all maintain tabs on each other’s progress and offer support outside of scheduled meetings. My colleagues and I finished the semester with a project grade of 95%.

When I was in charge, driving the team toward a common goal was my priority, which I achieved by motivating and inspiring the team. So that I may best convey the value of a proposed goal or change to the group, I have taken the time to learn about each member’s unique motivations. I carefully gave them compliments and criticisms in equal measure to boost their efficiency. When I speak to my team, they always respond because they know my actions back up my words.

As a result, I prefer the transformational leadership style from my experience as a leader and being led. I prefer this style because it has proven to be effective and productive. Those that lead in a transformational way motivate their followers to go above and beyond their expectations. Members who undergo this kind of change often assume leadership roles themselves. Leaders capable of transformation provide each person with a unique reaction that strengthens their agency and allows them to reach their full potential. Positive results from transformational leadership tend to stick around for a while.

According to Psychology Today’s analysis of available research, teams led by transformational leaders perform better and are more satisfied with their work than those led by leaders of other styles (Alqatawenah, 2018). Positive mental states are fostered, and a deeper sense of purpose in the members’ work is achieved. They get a healthy perspective on themselves and the goals they’ve set for themselves.

Recommendation

Based on my analysis, the Apple company’s management is effective since most of the interviewees were positive about it. However, I would make two recommendations to the company that would enhance the leadership skills: enhance their emotional intelligence, be active listeners and adopt the management style where the general manager is in charge of business units. Throughout the interview and analysis, it was noted that the majority of the employee were sensitive to how the leaders communicated and treated them. Therefore, I would recommend the management of Apple Company enhance their emotional intelligence and listening abilities to enhance their leadership skills.

Regarding emotional intelligence, I contend that effective leadership begins with a correct mindset. That mindset is founded upon an individual’s willingness to lead, to serve others. An effective leader desires the opportunity to step up to be involved in controlling not only his or her actions but the actions of those being led. This leadership attitude flows from a reasoned choice; it is a conscious decision to take on the role with all its rights and responsibilities (Hossain, 2015). Effective leaders can demonstrate a fixed purpose through natural chaos and interpersonal interactions. Such leadership is determined to ensure that personal goals are reached and, more importantly, that the group achieves its objectives and fulfils its mission (Hossain, 2015). Those who seek to lead in place must be compelled to lead no matter the personal cost.

Many of those interviewed also expressed anxiety about their leaders’ listening abilities. Leaders can’t lead successfully if they do not listen to their staff. Effective communication lines are crucial to reaching your personal and professional objectives. It takes two people to have a conversation. Leaders who are good listeners are essential for successful communication. Effective listening is at its peak when practised in its purest form. Negative effects on self-worth, confidence, and originality directly result from poor listening skills.

A second recommendation is for the company to adopt a management structure where business units are under the control of general managers. We think one factor is how challenging it is to implement the change. It requires getting past complacency, shifting authority, adjusting an incentive structure focused on individuals, and developing fresh methods of working together (Podolny & Hansen, 2020). That’s scary, especially for a corporation facing enormous external pressures. Cultivating the experts-leading-experts paradigm may be an intermediary step that can be taken even inside a business unit structure. Instead of looking for the greatest possible general manager to fill the next senior management position, consider someone with extensive experience in the field. However, true change calls for a shift to a more functional leadership structure. Most research demonstrates that the benefits could outweigh the dangers. The method has the potential to yield exceptional outcomes.

Conclusion

Transformational leadership is the most preferred leadership approach. This demonstrated that workers at Apple Inc., an IT company, favour leaders who are not just dynamic and imaginative but also capable of going above and beyond to serve the interests of all parties involved. It is recommended that the management team enhance its emotional intelligence and listening abilities to ensure its leadership is top-notch.

References

Alqatawenah, A. S. (2018). Transformational leadership style and its relationship with change management. Verslas: Teorija Ir Praktika/Business: Theory and Practice, 19, 17-24.https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/247923

Alrowwad, A. A., & Abualoush, S. H. (2020). Innovation and intellectual capital as intermediary variables among transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and organizational performance. Journal of Management Development. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JMD-02-2019-0062/full/html

Aschbacher, M. C., & Sablik, J. (2019). Innovative leadership style for industrial companies. Science Journal of Business and Management, 7(2), 45. http://article.sjobm.org/pdf/10.11648.j.sjbm.20190702.11.pdf

Asrar-ul-Haq, M., & Kuchinke, K., P. (2016). Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks. Future Business Journal, 54-64.

Atan, J. B., & Mahmood, N. (2019). The role of transformational leadership style in enhancing employees’ competency for organization performance. Management Science Letters, 9(13), 2191-2200. https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/236980

Busari, A. H., Khan, S. N., Abdullah, S. M., & Mughal, Y. H. (2019). Transformational leadership style, followership, and factors of employees’ reactions towards organizational change. Journal of Asia Business Studies. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JABS-03-2018-0083/full/html

DeLay, L., & Clark, K. R. (2020). The relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction: a survey of MR technologists’ perceptions. Radiologic Technology, 92(1), 12-22. http://www.radiologictechnology.org/content/92/1/12.short

Heracleous, L., & Papachroni, A. (2013). Strategic leadership and innovation at Apple, Inc.: Case study. London, UK: Pearson.

Hossain, K. (2015). Leadership qualities for 21st-century leaders. Pearl Journal of Management, Social Science and Humanities, 1(1), 18-29.

Khan, S. N., Busari, A. H., Abdullah, S. M., & Mughal, Y. H. (2018). Followership moderation between the relationship of transactional leadership style and employees’ reactions towards organizational change. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 17. https://yadda.icm.edu.pl/yadda/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-fb79f26e-a7fa-475c-a35b-4da129090592

McCann, J., & Sparks, B. (2019). The effects of leadership styles on innovative work behaviour and the role of locus of control in the manufacturing environment. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 19(1), 79-94. Retrieved from https://search.proquest. com/doc.view/2211266361?accountid=40705

Podolny, J., & Hansen, M. (2020). How Apple Is Organized for Innovation. https://hbr.org/2020/11/how-apple-is-organized-for-innovation

Saeed, M., & Mughal, Y. H. (2019). Role of transactional leadership style upon performance: Mediating role of culture. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 13(1), 47-57. https://qurtuba.edu.pk/jms/default_files/JMS/13_1/05.pdf

Trivedi, S. (2019). A Study on Development of Personal and Management Skills in Apple Inc. International Journal of Human Resource Development and Management, 9(1), 1-9.http://mail.ripublication.com/ijhrdm19/ijhrdmv9n1_01.pdf

Appendix

Questionnaire

Part A: Personal Information

Gender:

Age:

Education level:

Job category:

Years employed at the organization:

Are you full-time or part-time?

PART 2 – Leadership Behaviors

  1. For employees to do their work effectively, they need to be micromanaged

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Employees should be fully engaged in the decision-making process

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. When a challenge arises, leaders should allow workers to work out the challenge on their own

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. A good leader is someone who can offer direction without exerting undue pressure.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Being a leader means not interfering with the tasks of those under you.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Most of the time, if leaders want their employees to work hard toward the organization’s goals, they will need to offer them some form of financial incentive or disciplinary action.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Most employees would appreciate the leadership that keeps them in the loop and is always on their side.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Managers should encourage their staff to take ownership of their tasks.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Managers should trust their employees to figure out issues on their own.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. The leader has the most weight when evaluating the team’s performance.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Generally speaking, employees would rather have little interaction with the leader.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. People have a natural ability to do well when given responsibility.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

  1. Leaders who excel at their jobs issue instructions and explain policies.

Strongly disagree             Disagree            Neutral             Agree            Strongly agree

Part C: description of the character trait of a preferred leader

In more than 200 words, please describe the character traits you desire from your leader(s).