Essay On Ethical Dilemmas Essay Example

Introduction

Ethical dilemmas mainly arise when a choice needs to be made, and the answers are unclear with imperfect options. Such issues may impact the quality of patient care, result in troubled clinical relationships, and even cause moral distress for healthcare providers. The paragraphs below will highlight an example of an ethical dilemma, point out the conflicting ethical principles, and outline an appropriate course of action that prioritizes ethical principles.

Example of an Ethical Dilemma

An example of an ethical dilemma is the moral obligation to provide patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) with good quality healthcare. According to Green & Chijioke Nze (2017), LEP patients have been shown to receive lower-quality care compared to patients who can fluently communicate in English based on several metrics – patient satisfaction, knowledge of the treatment procedures and disease processes, and the frequency of medical errors that result in bodily harm. These differences are mainly brought about by communication hurdles, physician biases, and inefficient interpretation processes. However, in most cases, the clinicians are provided with interpreters but fail to utilize them due to time constraints and the inability to work with interpreters jointly. These result in miscommunication, missed diagnosis, and reduced health care quality administered to the LEP patients.

For instance, in the article, the case of Mr. S, a fifty-six-year-old Brazilian construction worker, falls victim to the limitations linguistic inadequacies poses to proper health care administration. Due to the busy hospital schedule, the physicians failed to involve an interpreter, yet his diagnosis of renal failure was complete, with his medical record marked as “poor historian” (Green & Chijioke Nze, 2017). Mr. S’s conversation with several seasoned professionals had not yielded many benefits leaving them frustrated and doubtful that spending more time would be beneficial. However, the careful and systematic talk with the third-year medical student reveals that Mr. S was taxing high doses of pain medicine that resulted in nephritis and a bleeding gastric ulcer. Mr. S almost fell victim to a missed diagnosis due to inadequate communication and failure to use an interpreter.

Conflicting Ethical Principles

The main conflicting ethical principles in a dilemma include justice and equivalence. The principles of justice and equivalence stipulate that patients should not typically be given preferential treatment based on their gender, color, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics. It points out that all individuals should have equal access to health care services such that any disparities are directed towards assisting those facing more adverse conditions. In this dilemma, the clinicians fail to adhere to the principle of justice and equivalence in administering healthcare services to LEP patients. LEP patients experience injustice- they have been seen to receive low-quality healthcare and are mostly viewed as outsiders and should take up the responsibility of learning proficient English. The principle of justice points out that LEP patients should receive equal healthcare as their English proficient patients. Despite the busy schedule of the hospital, for patients with similar cases, the physicians should allocate more time and resources towards interaction with LEP patients to ensure all information is captured and, in turn, prevent miscommunication and missed diagnoses, as in the case of Mr. S. this ensures that all patients regardless of their English fluency receive equivalent and high-quality medical care.

Course of Action

The course of action in providing LEP patients with good-quality health care is the utilization of professional interpreters in the treatment, incentivizing medical interpreters and bilingual clinicians. The strategy will aid in coping with the adverse impacts of communication barriers in the administration of healthcare services. The presence of professional interpreters or bilingual clinicians ensures that the ethical obligations of providing LEP patients with adequate healthcare are effectively satisfied (Espinoza & Derrington, 2021). This benefits the patients and their families in terms of better healthcare outcomes and fewer ethical dilemmas for the staff and physicians.

LEP is a primary cause of health care inequalities and aggravates other social factors that affect health. Inequalities due to LEP are unjust and morally wrong. As a healthcare professional, I am obligated to aid in the elimination of this undue advantage and promote equity in the administration of healthcare services. As a result, I chose to use professional interpreters that help minimize the impacts of language barriers and aid in administering equivalent health care for both LEP and English proficient patients (Providers Don’t Always Meet Ethical Obligations for Patients with Limited English Proficiency, 2014). Incentivization of medical interpreters and bilingual clinicians motivates their language services. Incentivization and utilization of interpreters make better healthcare provision more accessible to LEP patients.

Conclusion

LEP patients and families face language barriers to health care access resulting in adverse health outcomes and low healthcare quality. These healthcare disparities are unjust and differ from the ethical principles of equivalence and justice. Health care professionals are morally obligated to aid in the elimination of this undue advantage and promote equity in the administration of healthcare services. Adopting courses of action, such as using professional interpreters and incentivizing medical interpreters and bilingual clinicians, plays a significant role in minimizing the adverse impacts of communication barriers in the administration of healthcare services.

References

Espinoza, J., & Derrington, S. (2021). How Should Clinicians Respond to Language Barriers That Exacerbate Health Inequity? AMA Journal of Ethics23(2), 109–116. https://doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2021.109.

Green, A. R., & Chijioke Nze. (2017). Language-Based Inequity in Health Care: Who Is the “Poor Historian”?. AMA Journal of Ethics19(3), 263–271. https://doi.org/10.1001/journalofethics.2017.19.3.medu1-1703.

Providers don’t always meet ethical obligations for patients with limited English proficiency. (2014). Reliasmedia.com. https://www.reliasmedia.com/articles/21612-providers-don-8217-t-always-meet-ethical-obligations-for-patients-with-limited-english-proficiency

Ethical Leadership: The Case Of Dennis Kozlowski – The CEO Of Tyco International Free Sample

The first part of this essay will discuss the case of Dennis Kozlowski, the CEO of Tyco International; in his case, I will discuss his spending habits. The second company I will discuss is Kevin Johnson. He is the CEO of Starbucks; he took part in a racist and discriminatory act that led to two black men being arrested at his hotel in Philadelphia. Each case has a difference in ethical leadership and how they handled it.

Kozlowski rose to fame in 1992 after being promoted from an auditor role in 1975; he was responsible for much of the company’s success (McCombs school of business, 2021). The company began to struggle as the economy began to decline. He exposed his extravagant lifestyle and very lavish spending. He was accused of taking company assets and receiving bonuses that were not authorized to him. He was also accused of stealing 600 million in assets and paying 30 million dollars for apartments in New York City. He also paid a finding fee to hire an unapproved board member. All information was found because it was created on company accounts.

This study shows that Kozlowski’s key trait is his willingness to take risks. The company grew, and he made strategic investments which led to the expansion of Tyco International. The company’s growth shows his intelligence and bravery. His honesty is another ethically controversial characteristic. This study shows us that he is hardworking and honest. This is true when you consider he confirmed the expenditures because they were recorded in his books and accounts of the company. Most people would have falsified the documents, lied about it, and tried to steal from the company; this happens in most embezzlement cases. All transactions and evidence in his case were taken directly from the company’s records and accounts, which portrays him as honest. What got him convicted is that despite having records, his actions were still portrayed as illegal or unethical. As CEO, he is expected to protect and maximize the company’s returns. His other character trait was that he tended to make decisions without proper oversight or asking for permission, which can indicate selfishness. His selfishness in financing his lifestyle led him to use his position as an unauthorized bonus and use the company to buy assets that would later be traced back to him. This type of engagement encourages self-interest and costs the company and the interest of others.

Kozlowski’s virtues could have been viewed from an Aristotelian perspective of virtue. Aristotle said people don’t need to attach an end to justify the means. It is essential to see the action as good and then practice it if it is beneficial through long-term practices. His honesty was a sign of virtuous behavior and actions. Overall his personality can be deemed as self-interest. This is because he seemed to care more about himself and his lifestyle than anything else, even if that meant using company resources as CEO to pay for his lifestyle. He is more guilty of practicing his lifestyle choices than he is of virtues in this case.

Kevin Johnson – this case involves two black men sitting in a Philadelphia Starbucks, not spending money but just in the Starbucks. They were asked to leave and were later arrested (Tangdall. 2018). Another customer sat there and recorded the incident, which went viral. The CEO of Starbucks took responsibility and fired the manager. He also changed the companies’ policies and restored how people viewed Starbucks. Johnson actions were regarded as one of the most ethical leaders in handling unethical situations involving racism and discrimination that led to the arrest of the two black men. Johnson took the primary approach to handle this manner rationally because he determined that his steps would lead to a long-term solution.

The six steps to approach this decision involved careful analysis of the situation and creating a solution that would help create a new Starbucks culture that is non-discriminatory. The first example is defining the problem (Uzonwannt, 2016). It is essential first to identify the problem to find appropriate solutions. Johnson identified the problem within the company policies after the video went viral; he said that the store manager acted according to his authority but was a mistake. He also owned it as a business. This approach is where the company accepts responsibility and acknowledges that the manager was wrong.

The company’s culture allowed flexible policies to increase the manager’s autonomy. No policy would guide managers on what to do if someone sat there without ordering or what to do if they became disruptive. The second step is identifying the criteria for evaluating possible solutions (Uzonwanne, 2016). Johnson was not the only one who made the decision; he stressed the importance of including the victims and the local community in creating policies promoting inclusion and preventing similar situations from happening again. A plan needed to be developed not just to solve the problem but to maintain the company’s reputation. His actions indicated that he had to apologize to the public and the victims he met in person. He then engaged with the victims and then fired the manager. This was an essential foundation for the future of the company’s policy against discrimination. We must also consider the alternatives and determine which one works best. Starbucks could have chosen to remain silent. Apologize and fix its reputation using only an apology or go into greater detail to address the problem so that it will make victims feel safe and secure.

The company chose to implement the ethical guidelines and make them a part of future companies’ policies. This was the best option; it went on to win an award for the most ethical company of the year following the incident. This shows that leadership is committed to fixing the problem by taking ownership and engaging all parties to change the company’s culture. It is vital to ensure that the new culture does not create problems such as this in the future. This also shows that the company respects its clients who buy Starbucks products and services. It is necessary to follow strict guidelines when making these types of decisions. It shows Johnson’s attributes to provide such ethical leadership in solving issues of racism and discrimination. A leader who is ethically sound can make an organization more morally responsible for its clients and the environment in which it operates.

These two cases show leadership in two very different ways how handled each of these cases. The approaches are taken to discuss improved ethical leadership and accountability when making managerial decisions and demonstrate the difference in their leadership qualities. Johnson is compassionate and selfless, while Kozlowski focuses on what will make him the most money. Even though he is being honest about how that goes about, he is manipulating company records. His actions are designed to enrich himself and sustain his lavish lifestyle. This became a problem for many people within the company. Many people felt that he was not concerned with the company’s values or the needs of others in the company. His main goal was to expand the company and not give it to his shareholders or customers but to allow him to have a better lifestyle by using his leadership position. Johnson was quite different. He is a selfless leader who cares deeply for his clients, employees, and company shareholders. As CEO, Johnson could have fired the manager, but took the time to go, the victim himself, and apologize. He also took responsibility for the company and ensured that the structures were now in place to prevent things like this from happening in its establishment in the future. To ensure that workers learn the new policies and how clients should be treated, he even shut down 8000 branches. This shows improvement. His actions signify a selfless person, which is the exact opposite of Kozlowski’s self-centered attitude.

Johnson can be described as a transformational leader in terms of leadership styles. On the other hand, Kozlowski could be described as a transactional leader. Johnson is looking to change the culture of his company. After what happened, he is successful and continues to follow the matter to the end. He is a leader who inspires others to follow his example. This is why his response and actions were praised. Kozlowski’s main concern was to make profits for his company and himself. He has no relationships with any of the employees or stakeholders. His primary focus is on making the company successful, and he continues to live his extravagant, highly transactional lifestyle. After the financial hardship and complaints start, the transactional relationship with the company ends. He then steps aside from company management, leading to further investigations revealing his interests and unethical uses of the company resources for his benefit.

They also have different views on leadership and ethical approaches. Johnson believes being virtuous is essential; this helps him show empathy for the victims and invest in making sure an incident like this one does not happen again. Kozlowski, on the other hand, believes in the consequentialist approach. He is determined to make the company a success regardless of how or what he gets from his position as the company’s leader. His not guilty plea is a demonstration of this. The company’s accounting books record all of the financial transactions, bonuses, and transfers of assets to Kozlowski. There was no intent to conceal or embezzle. It does not support his transactional or ethical approach to leadership, even though it is on the company’s books.

Tyco’s CEO is a new appointment, which makes it challenging to observe ethical behavior, particularly among its leaders. Based on previous experiences, no clear guidelines or standards are being implemented or followed at the company. Top managers are responsible for their decisions and actions. This situation shows that the company has no clear framework for ethical guidelines. The company must admit that there is a problem in encouraging everyone to be ethical. It can create loopholes allowing others to engage in unethical acts like Kozlowski. Once they have identified the problem and the gap, it is crucial to involve all stakeholders, including the board, employees, and shareholders. This will allow them to provide input on the measures they should take to prevent such conduct. This will allow for the development of an ethical policy that defines acceptable behavior and ethical standards. Engaging them and allowing feedback to build a strong working relationship with employees is crucial to make them feel like part of the company. Next, the company will need to restructure its compensation and benefits. It is not enough to only give yourself bonuses as the leader. A comprehensive compensation plan should be created so that each steak holder and team member can contribute to the company’s success. When the board approves bonus payments, it should share them equally with all employees who contribute to the company’s success. This will make employees feel like part of the success process, and they will be motivated. It will also increase productivity and performance.

Tyco’s ethical behavior is dependent on communication and engagement. This is because most employees feel distant from their managers. Establishing a communication channel that allows them to share information and plan activities like team building to improve each employee’s ethical responsibility is vital. Management can also benefit from a feedback system that allows employees to voice their concerns anonymously or publicly. The communication channels will be restructured in this instance to facilitate free and transparent communications where employees can get timely information to prove their actions. All offices will also be given copies of the company’s ethical guidelines and standards. This should be displayed in every department and communicated to all employees.

Some employees may feel like they cannot do anything because of the pressure of their superiors. People will sometimes conform to the majority’s decisions or take actions they don’t want to because they have to obey authority. Ash’s experiment, where they asked confederates to give a wrong answer to get the rest of the subjects to agree, showed that many subjects supported the majority’s answers despite their doubts. However, the correct answer was given when the majority of the control group was removed. Some members could conform to others even if they didn’t speak out about their unethical actions Kozlowski out of fear of being ruled. Mailgram also conducted an electric shock experiment with students and teachers. Teachers asked questions, and the teacher gave an incremental dose of shocks for each wrong answer. Fearing authority, teachers participated in the experiment even though they were uncomfortable administering the high voltage shock to students who gave incorrect answers. This was because they believed the shocks were natural. (Kaposi, 2020) This experiment shows that authority pressure can force one to follow directions, as was the case with most employees who were afraid of their superiors.

References

Kaposi, D. (2020) Saving a victim from him: The rhetoric of the learner’s Presence and absence in Milligram experiments.

McCombs school of business. (2021). Dennis Kozlowski – Living large – ethics unwrapped

Steinbauer, R., Renn, R, Taylor, R & Njorge, P (2013) Ethical leadership: Followers moral judgment and accountability: The role of followers’ perceived accountability

Tangdall, S (2018). The practice of ethical leadership and the CEO of Starbucks

Uzonwanne, F. (2016) Rational Model for decision making. Global encyclopedia of public administration, public policy, and governance.

Ethical And Legal Dilemma Free Essay

Abstract

This template discusses the problems that the aging group of people faces. These groups of individuals are prone to diseases just like infants, and they also have to be taken care of just like infants to increase their life span. There are recommendations and suggestions to take care of them. Some of the strategies discussed under this template include; living wills, conflicts of interest, rights of families, nursing care, Euthanasia, pain management, withdrawing treatment, withholding treatment, and many more. The newly appointed Hospice care manager is the one who gives these suggestions.

ETHICAL AND LEGAL DILEMMA

An aging population is a group of people aged 65 and above (Yang et al., 2013). Children and grandchildren are responsible for taking care of their parents and grandparents aged 65 and above; they are prone to dangerous diseases like diabetes, skin problems, Urinary tract infections, and many more. This group of people mainly comprises retirement communities. Individuals in this group need to be taken care of keenly. There should be guidelines, policies, and procedures to ensure that these people are well treated. I have come up with recommendations related to care issues that affect the elderly population. These recommendations include; Patients who are not abandoned, patients who have access to high-quality palliative and end-of-life care, conflicts of interest, and living skills are all factors to consider.

Non-abandonment of patients

Abandonment is a form of abusing patients. Most aging people face this abandonment issue because people who are supposed to take care of them have assumed the responsibilities of taking care of these people, but then the abused individuals are deserted. Some of these victims may fail to seek assistance from people they depend on because they feel ashamed of needing help because of the previous denial.

Some of the strategies I came up with to solve elderly abuse include; keeping elders engaged in their communities, giving financial assistance, and keeping them active. Elders can engage in communities by allowing them to tell their life history, among other exciting stories, making them feel valued. It is good to give financial assistance to these individuals for upkeep; even if they have everything they need, it is good for them to hold money in their hands, significantly cash; this will improve their psychology (Ruberton et al., 2016). Keeping aging people active involves keeping them engaged by being around them and having some fun stories with them, and this is essential for their health.

Access to high-quality life care services

It is always advisable to be keen on palliative care because it leads to en of life care, but it is better to treat all of them seriously. Palliative care is a short-term condition, while end of life care happens when one is about to die. My recommendation strategy for the above quality care is to ensure that Hospice care has all ICU facilities for any emergency. All patients need to be treated by doctors equally, and priority is given in the order of first come, first serve, apart from those whose health conditions are adverse.

Conflicts of Interest

From the principle of conflict theory, groups in society compete against each other for scarce resources (Ogura & Jakovljevic, 2018). Most aging people tend to have wealth that the next generation will inherit; sometimes, there is a conflict between the individuals to inherit this. Unfortunately, occasionally aged people get involved in such situations. The best way to avoid these societal issues is by encouraging the expected individuals to be patient about their wealth. Advising the aged not to disclose their next of kin details to their children and grandchildren is another way to avoid conflict of interest.

Living wills

Sometimes, when one is receiving end-of-life care, they may be unable to speak, and it becomes difficult for them to express how they want doctors to treat them. My suggestion to curb this issue is to advise all the individuals to write a living will on how they would like doctors to treat them if they cannot express themselves. For instance, one might direct that doctors give them health care facilities to relieve their pain and allow them to be comfortable even when the health care will shorten their lives. Also, I will make sure that doctors do not abandon the living will and keep their records safe for individuals who have already written their living will.

Rights of families and nursing care

All aging groups of people have the right to families and get nursing care. I suggest that all the family members of these people should prioritize making sure their health condition is well. These people have dot right to advise any of their family members. Conversely, nursing care is a critical thing for this group of people. They have to visit Hospice care frequently to ensure they are not prone to any risk of contracting any disease.

Home healthcare services

People in aging brackets who feel like their condition is good do not have to visit our healthcare facilities; instead, Hospice care will send some nurses to their respective homes to ensues these patients are okay. It is crucial to have home healthcare as it helps some patients from contracting diseases that they are exposed to while in hospital (Davis & Kotowski, 2015). Home healthcare services are essential to an individual as nurses do the treatment in the comfort of their home, and it is also cheap.

Retirement communities

Most retired individuals are of an aging population. Most of them receive pensions; my advice is to ask them to get health insurance in case of any health emergency; there should not be an issue of raising some money for treatment. As Estes (2014) asserts, the aging population is prone to many diseases; just like infants, it is good to have health insurance coverage. Retired individuals should therefore sacrifice their little pension for the health insurance cover.

I also give some brief recommendations to adopt in the following areas.

  • Delivered services, aging group of people need not struggle too much, some of the services like delivery of drugs they need to seek them at the comfort of their compound, I recommend Hospice care deliver these needs to them.
  • Rehabilitation and therapy facilities: Some older people are addicted to drugs that are harmful to their health. I recommend that they come and seek the therapy and rehabilitation facilities from Hospice care because we care.
  • In memory care services, I direct home nursing care for people with memory issues because it is a long-term issue; there is no need for patients to overstay and cause congestion in the hospital.
  • In assisted living facilities, for patients who do not require home-care facilities, I advise them to visit the Hospice care so that we provide them with living facilities. The hospital has a plan to increase assisted living facilities.
  • Euthanasia, I discourage Euthanasia because that is not the only solution one can do to solve the problem they are going through. Hospice care has to employ guiding and canceling people in plenty to assist in this case.
  • In pain management, I direct the individuals who require pain management. Hospice care will give them pain medicines, physical therapies, and psychological therapies.
  • Withdrawing treatment, treatment shall be removed when the patient is dead. I recommend the discouragement of starting treatment when the patient is still alive, but when the situation comes, I will have to sign the agreement with the patient to avoid the blame from the hospital.
  • Withholding treatment, when the patient and the family have agreed to withhold treatments for their reasons, I will allow them to sign the agreement if there is evidence before the court.

In summary, people within the aging brackets are prone to death and need care. There are some ways to prevent them from the risk of death, and these ways are; to avoid abandoning these people since they sometimes fear to ask support from people they depend on to provide them with what they want. Aging people have access to high-quality health care; nurses need to watch analgesia keenly because it may result to end of life care. The older people must not be involved in a conflict of interest; I advise them not to disclose the details containing their preferred next of kin. I suggest this particular group of individuals write their living wills to help them get treated how they want. They have the rights of families; they also require nursing care and home health services. Retirement communities have to sacrifice their little pension for health insurance cover. Since older people cannot struggle too much, Hospice care provides them with delivered services such as drugs. Hospice care gives drug addicts rehabilitation and therapy facilities. Hospice care has to provide home care services for individuals with memory issues. Hospice care offers aging with assisted living facilities for those who do not require home care. I discourage Euthanasia because it is the solution to life. Pain management drugs and therapies are provided by the hospital as well. Withdrawing treatment and withholding treatment, I will ensure the victims sign the documents for terminating their treatment.

References

Yang, D., Timmermans, H., & Grigolon, A. (2013). Exploring heterogeneity in travel time expenditure of aging populations in the Netherlands: results of a CHAID analysis. Journal of Transport Geography33, 170-179.

Ruberton, P. M., Gladstone, J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2016). How your bank balance buys happiness: The importance of “cash on hand” to life satisfaction. Emotion16(5), 575.

Ogura, S., & Jakovljevic, M. M. (2018). Global population aging-health care, social and economic consequences. Frontiers in public health, 335.

Davis, K. G., & Kotowski, S. E. (2015). Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders for nurses in hospitals, long-term care facilities, and home health care: a comprehensive review. Human factors57(5), 754-792.

Estes, C. (2014). The future of aging services in a neoliberal political economy. Generations38(2), 94-100.