Essay On Hate Crime Free Writing Sample

Hate crimes are violations in which the victim is persecuted due to his or her demographic status; whether perceived or real. Demographic status compromises an individual’s race, sexual orientation, ethnic background, nationality of origin, et al. Different from other crimes, hate crimes have an immediate impact on the victim and the community at large where an individual stems from. According to a research study by Herek, Gillis, etc. (2001), it was established that hate crimes have the effect of causing psychological distress such as depression, anger, and anxiety, among others. This paper aims to offer an insight into the least focused part of crimes, that is, hate crimes. This paper will ensure details of the effects of hate crimes on individual victims and the community.

Revel and Riot established that, in law, a hate crime is directed toward a particular individual because of their association with a specific religion, race, sexual orientation, ethnicity, etc. The idea of hate crime emerged in the United States in the 1970s. Since then, hate crime has continued due to biased individuals and laws that have failed to deal with this crime. Most citizens have called for strict regulations and heavy punishment for hate crime perpetrators. Others have argued that hate crimes befit a minority of people who are not affected nor related to the groups that experience hate crime in society. However, the basis of these differences makes a nation.

In the declaration of independence, it was spectacularly mentioned that “we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” It implies that every human being is born with equal rights and freedom. The phrase sounds good, but there is a wide bath. Everyone is free but cannot leave free because of association with factors such as ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Recent research studies have indicated that race is the most prevalent form of hate crime. According to American Heritage College Dictionary, racism is the “belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others.” This type of hate crime revolved around the era of slavery in the United States of America. The black race was considered inferior to whites.

Historical research by the National Museum of Crime indicates that the Roman Empire marked the first example of a hate crime. In the era of the Roman Empire, Christina believers were persecuted and hanged on wooden crosses. Clearly, victims of hate during the Roman Empire were persecuted due to their Christian faith. It marked one of the earliest examples of hate crime. Hate crime stems from a wide variety of how humans treat each other. Others judge their fellow humans based on differences in sex, religion, race, or ethnicity. Failure to tolerate one another resulted in atrocities against one another, i.e., in the case of Jesus Christ in Rome, Martin Luther King Jr (subjected to inequality), and Anne Frank during the holocaust.

Sociologists argue that simple hate crimes commence from little misunderstandings that stem from discrimination, bias, and ethnocentrism. Misunderstanding between individuals results in full-scale acts of violence grounded on prejudice and intolerance. In the new era, hate crimes continue taking new shapes and forms. The growing number of hate crimes in today’s generation is owed to stereotypes that propel distrust among different cultures. According to a recent study concerning human tendency to interact with one another, it was established that humans tend to stick to clicks and judge others who do not resemble or support their stereotypes. A research study by Edward Dubar interviewed offenders and came out with a similar conclusion.

In today’s era, studies have indicated that hate crimes have not been recognized as real threats or murder. When individual bullies or targets another individual based on differences in ethnicity, sex, orientation, race, etc., make up a hate crime, it is clear that hate crimes are likely to get out of hand. Individual differences have amounted to several atrocities against others and have even claimed lives. The people and leaders have constantly sent their voices out; however, this is not enough to curtail this kind of violence. Hate crimes and groups are likely to get out of hand. It is, therefore, necessary to alleviate this problem. We as human beings do find different cultures to be expected. If we had little tolerance for others’ religion, race, sexual orientation, etc., hate crimes could be non-existential right now.

Hate crime was worse in the past than it is today. Prevalent hate crimes in history include the Ku Klux Klan. The Ku Klux Klan was an organization, predominantly white, that targeted Black Americans, according to the Tanenbaum organization. They tortured homosexuals, people who cooperated with the black Americans, and most Catholics. Tanenbaum is an example of a popular extremist group that perpetuated hate crimes on individuals. They treated individuals as if they were not equal. Hate crimes vary from simple hateful messages to kidnaps and murdering of individuals. The holocaust in Europe is considered a hate crime. Groups like the Jews were targeted because of differences in faith. The Human Rights campaign discovered that, since 1998, federal laws have not been able to deal with hate crimes effectively. Aspects like voting have been improved, but hate crimes against gay and lesbians have not been alleviated.

The bombing of the Twin Towers in America resulted in Muslims being hated. The atomic bombing of the Twin Towers united Americans; however, the downfall of the incident attracted significant hatred for Muslims. The Muslims were targeted with hatred because they were allegedly accused of being the attackers. “The Americans had hatred growing on Muslims even if they were believed not to be the attackers” (Hrc. Org). The past hundred years marked the climax of hate crimes. In the era of today, hate crime is lingering beneath the surface. Compared to the past, hate crime is not more pronounced today than it was in the past. However, cases of hate crime still exist today.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), hate crime is a violation of the law that is motivated by the biases of the offender towards a disability, ethnicity, religion et al.(FBI, 2004, P. iv) (Stacey 3). Although this is a standard definition of hate crime, it remains a puzzle for scholars to incorporate the aspect of gender into hate crime. Characteristics of sexual-based hate crimes are controversial and unique to their own. However, in most cases, sexual-based hate crimes are depended on gender roles and the relationship between the perpetrator and the offender. According to a research study by the FBI, it was discovered that 15 % of hate crimes in the United States are motivated by sexual orientation biases.

Overall, hate crimes are violations in which the victim is persecuted because of their demographic status, whether perceived or actual. The basis of hate crimes is differences in religion, sexual orientation, race, etc. Humans are intolerant to cultures that differ from their own. They do not treat them as usual. This logic applies to the majority of people. If we learn to tolerate each other regarding differences in religion, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, etc., we could alleviate the challenge of hate crimes. However, this is easier said than done. Hate crimes may continue to grow into the future. However, hate crime is lingering on the surface today and is not more pronounced than it was in the past. If we choose not to act or do anything, the challenge of hate crime might be here to stay. Hate crimes have the potential to grow into something more extensive, like a war. With the support of everyone and mass sensitization throughout our communities, we can turn everything around. We can educate others not to hate but instead love others irrespective of religious differences, sexual orientation, etc.


Dixon, T., & Wintz, T. (2015). The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan. Routledge.

Sutton, H. (2019). FBI reports an increase in hate crimes nationwide for a third consecutive year. Campus Security Report15(9), 9-9.

Tada, I. (2021). The Relationship Between Bullying and Fire Setting in Juveniles and Young Adults.

Hate Crimes In The U.S. Essay Example


A report released by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) in 2021 revealed that there were 11,129 related offenses motivated by bias toward gender identity, gender, disability, disability, sexual orientation, religion, ancestry, ethnicity and race in 2020 (FBI, 2021). The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines a hate crime as “any criminal offer against property or person motivated in whole or part by the offender’s bias against gender identity, sexual orientation, disability, religion, race, religion or gender” (FBI, 2021). However, hate itself is not a crime. It means that a crime can only be termed a hate crime when motivated by bias. In addition, the FBI states that the number of hate crimes has shown an increasing trend across the United States, with more than 10,000 in 2021 reporting to law enforcement that they were victims of the crime because of their disability, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity or race (Carrega & Krishnakumar, 2021). Out of these statistics, the attacks targeting Black people increased from 1972 to 2871, while those targeting Asians rose from 161 to 279 in 2021. However, there was a drop in the number of anti-Jewish attacks from 963 to 683. The data from the FBI may not reveal the real figure of hate crimes because, in some states, it is local prosecutors who have the final say on what is to be termed a hate crime, not the police (Carrega & Krishnakumar, 2021). Also, hate crime statistics are not gathered from courts by the federal government. This means that the number could be higher than the Federal Bureau of Investigations published. The increase in these cases calls for the need to study what fuels their increase and how they have impacted different spheres of people’s lives. In addition, it is important to study how hate crimes are distributed across the 50 states in the U.S. Therefore, this research paper discusses hate crimes in the U.S in terms of their history, causes, and types by applying various methodologies and statistical tools.

History of Hate Crime Laws in the United States

The history of hate crime laws dates back to the Civil Rights Act of 1968, enacted to protect the minorities from being discriminated against rental or sale of housing based on their sex, national origin, religion and race (Grattet & Jenness, 2012). If an individual breaches this law, they can be fined or imprisoned for up to one year or both. However, if the hate crime results in bodily injuries or there is the use of fire, explosives or firearms, the offender can get up to ten terms in prison. In contrast, crimes involving murder, sexual assault or kidnapping can lead to the death penalty or life imprisonment (Grattet & Jenness, 2012).

Furthermore, hate crimes started as race and gender issues. Still, as society evolved, the laws expanded to protect people from bias based on other forms of discrimination, such as religion and country of origin. In 1989, the Hate Crime Statistics Act was passed (Perry, 2012). It required the Attorney General to gather crime data fueled by the sexual orientation, ethnicity, disability, religion or race of the victim. The bill was signed into law by President H.W. Bush in the early spring of 1990 after it won by a landslide of 368-47 votes.

The Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act of 1993 was introduced in the House of Representatives in 1993. Its objective was to allow judges to impose harsher penalties for hate crimes (Perry, 2012). As a result, three months later, the act was added to the Violent Crime and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 as an amendment. President Bill Clinton is one of the key supporters of Hate crime protection laws. In 1997, President Clinton stated that hate crimes committed because of the difference in skin color, religious faith or because the person is a lesbian or gay affect not only the individual but also the larger community (Grattet & Jenness, 2012).

Consequently, the president committed much of his time to hate crimes and discouraged Americans from discriminating against fellow citizens, especially the LGBT people (Perry, 2012). Over the years, different hate crime laws have been passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and signed into law by different presidents.

Reasons People Commit Hate Crimes

There have been serious hate crimes in the history of the United States. One would ask about the motivation of a man who sprayed bullets on two Muslims on a Portland train after shouting Muslim slurs (Burke, 2017). In this error of intense fear and rancor, besieged minorities like transgender people and Muslims often feel that when one of their members is assaulted, it is equivalent to attacking their whole community. The types of hates crimes and their causes are discussed below:

Illegal Thrill-Seekers

Thrill-seekers do not have a specific motive for committing hate crimes since they are motivated by excitement and drama. A good example is when young drunk men are marauding in their areas, thinking of doing mayhem (Perry et al., 2020). Experts say there is no tangible reason why thrill seekers commit such crimes. Worse still, they think that they will be applauded by society for their actions or that society does not care about the victims they target. The victims are attacked because of their difference from the attackers regarding their gender, ethnicity, religion, and sexual or racial background (Perry et al., 2020). Walters et al. (2016) add that the attackers are very dangerous despite, in some circumstances, being young. Although the victims may not be killed in some circumstances, the vicious beating put them in hospitals.


The offenders target certain victims and keep any threats at bay by justifying their actions (Burke, 2017). This hate crime is triggered by events such as a family of Blacks or Muslims moving into a new neighborhood. In some scenarios, these crimes could happen without warning, although the perpetrators believe their actions are justified. The attackers do not display remorse because they feel that they are supported by some members of society, even if not all. In addition, the attackers view their actions as an act of defending their turf, such as the workplace, country or religion (Walters et al., 2016).


It is a revenge-fueled attack and could be in response to terrorism, other hate crimes or personal slights (Perry et al., 2020). This hate crime is typically committed by individuals and could occur between members of the same religion or racial groups. The ‘avenger’ care about nothing more than revenge. The attackers are determined to commit the crime to the extent that they can travel to the victim’s territory. Retaliatory can also be termed an ‘eye-for-an-eye’ attack since the perpetrators target any person they feel might have committed the original crime (Perry et al., 2020). After the 9/11 attacks, hate crimes against Arabs and Muslims rose. For instance, members of a breakaway Amish sect were charged by Ohio prosecutors after they cut off the beards of their rival sect. However, the hate crimes conviction was overturned by an appeals court that ruled that religion might not have been the motivation for those assaults (Burke, 2017).


Although it is a rare hate crime, experts argue it is the deadliest (Walters et al., 2016). Crusaders commit these crimes for racial or religious causes. It is linked to groups with similar views, and the mission of the attackers is to fight against all those of rival races or religions. Burke (2017) adds that crusaders have lengthy manifestos that explain their ideas and have websites that publish violent images and hate speech messages.

Hate Crimes against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT)

Violence against the LGBT community is made up of assaults on transgender, bisexual, gay men and bisexual people (Herek, 2017). Most of those targeted by such violence are accused of contravening the perceived protocols of sexual and gender roles and violating heteronormative rules. Also, the individuals perceived to be LGBT are targeted. Additionally, there is violence between couples of the same sex, with statistics revealing that violence among same-sex couples is more common than among the opposite sex (Herek, 2017).

The hate crimes against LGBT can be traced back to 1969 during the stonewall riots against one of the several police raids on gay bars, and over the years, it has escalated to involve many cases (Walters et al., 2020). As a result, dozens of transgender; people who do not conform to their gender are killed annually in the United States. However, the majority of the murdered are black transgender women (Fischer, 2019). These attacks revolve around society’s belief that each person should behave according to the roles, behaviors, desires and expressions associated with the gender he was assigned at birth. Some factors fueling hate crimes against LGBT include political and religious views. These hate crimes result in psychological and physical harm to the victims and, in most circumstances, lead to death. The actions could be caused by political, religious or cultural biases and mores (Walters et al., 2020). When violence is meted out on LGBT people of color, it becomes difficult to distinguish whether it is due to their gender/sexuality identity or racism.

Hate Crimes against Races

The statistics released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 2020 revealed that out of the 11,126 victims of hate crimes, 62% of the victims were targeted because of the offenders’ bias toward ancestry, ethnicity or race (Tessler et al., 2020). It means that 5,227 were victims of hate crimes because of their race in 2020 compared to 32% in 2019. In addition, African-Americans continue to record the highest number of hate crimes, with 2020 reporting 2871 incidents which is a 49% increase from 2019 (Tessler et al., 2020). Also, the number of anti-Asian Incidents increased by 77% since 2019. Other high categories of hate crimes include Latino incidents or anti-Hispanic. These statistics are shown in the figure below.

Hate crimes against race in the U.S. between 2019 and 2020

Figure 1 Hate crimes against race in the U.S. between 2019 and 2020

Source: (The United States Department of Justice, n.d)

Hate crimes against race is the bias because of the color of an individual. African-Americans have been on the receiving end of these hate crimes because of their skin color (Cheng et al., 2013). Throughout American history, white Americans have enjoyed socially sanctioned privileged compared to other races and rarely do they suffer from hate crimes because of their color. Hate crimes against race have existed in America since the early colonial era. Most African-Americans were enslaved before 1865 and had to suffer a lot from being beaten, lynched and murdered (Cheng et al., 2013). Also, Hispanics, Middle Eastern and Asian Americans have suffered massacres, forced removals and genocide in the United States. The hate crimes were prevalent and manifested in ways such as segregation, reservations of Native Americans, genocide and racist immigration and naturalization laws. Although the incidences of hate crimes against race have gone down, they are still rife in some parts of the United States. They are still common in some sectors of the modern United States, such as politics, health care, housing, business and the criminal justice system (Cheng et al., 2013). Martin Luther King Jr. was at the forefront of ending racial hate crimes and other social movements that advocated for equal treatment of all Americans irrespective of their race.

Throughout American history, there are some cases of racial hate crimes that have stood out. One such case is the shooting in Charleston, South Carolina (Cheng et al., 2013). It occurred on 17 June 2015 in a church based in Carolina, where nine members of the congregation were killed during a prayer service. The killing of the African-Americans was perpetrated by Dylan Roof, who believed in white supremacy (Cheng et al., 2013). The Justice System of the United States determined that the shooting was a hate crime against race. As a result, Dylan Roof was charged with 33 federal hate crime charges. This was a horrible incident. Dylan went to church with the other congregants but intended to kill them all. It was not because they committed a crime but due to their skin color. He also wanted to ignite a race war because he believed that white were superior (Cheng et al., 2013). He hated blacks hence the reason for planning the attack. Dylan did not care about the age of the members because his intention was to kill everyone.

Hate Crimes against Religion

In 2020, incidents related to hate crimes against religion decreased to 1244, an 18% drop from 2019. Of this number, 683 were anti-Jewish incidents, 110 anti-Muslim, 15 anti-Buddhist and 89 anti-Sikh incidents (The United States Department of Justice, n.d). Since September 2001, the hate crimes against Muslims have increased, with one of the recent murders being of three Muslims in North Carolina (Considine, 2017). The most prevalent cases feature Jews and Muslims, which is attributed to the rise of ISIS and the war in Gaza.

One of the latest cases of anti-religious hate crimes was in 2018 when a man rushed into the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh and began shooting, injuring more than six people and killing (Tessler et al., 2020). The deadliest attack against the Jewish community happened when worshippers celebrated their faith in different rooms. Also, in April 2019, a shooter appeared at a synagogue in Poway, California, injuring three and killing one woman (Tessler et al., 2020). The rise in hate crimes against religious groups spells doom for millions of Americans who attend different places of worship.

Hate Crimes against Gender

The United States Department of Justice data indicates that there has been an increase in incidents related to gender since 2019. In 2019, there were 25 anti-male and 50 anti-female incidents (The United States Department of Justice, n.d). Some laws that have been enacted to protect women against hate crimes include The Violence Against Women Act. These crimes are committed because of the defendants’ bias against men or women. Such hate crimes could take different forms, such as assault. However, most crimes against women include domestic violence, sexual assault and rape (Herek, 2017). The advocates of women’s rights claim that most violent crimes against women result from misogyny and thus qualify to be categorized as hate crimes. However, opponents argue that crimes against women, like crimes against men, are motivated by different personal reasons; hence they do not emanate from bias. Proponents claim that it is important to reexamine whether the increase in domestic violence and sexual assault cases is due to bias against a specific gender. As a result, The Violence Against Women Act was enacted by Congress to allow victims of gender-based violence to sue for damages in a federal court (Modi et al., 2014). Figure 2 below shows statistics of different types of hate crimes in the U.S between 2019 and 2020 as published by The United States Department of Justice.

Different types of hate crimes in the U.S

Figure 2 Different types of hate crimes in the U.S

Source: (The United States Department of Justice, n.d)


This research paper has revealed that different forms of hate crimes are rampant in the United States of America. Although legislations have been enacted to curb these crimes, the cases continue to be witnessed in different areas of the country. The crimes have resulted in the loss of life and physical injuries. As discussed in the paper, the history of hate crime laws can be traced back to the Civil Rights Act of 1968. Also, it has provided the reasons why people commit hate crimes by highlighting the various types of people who engage in these crimes: thrill-seeking, defensive, retaliatory and mission offenders. Also outlined in the paper are the types of hate crimes, including those against races, religion, gender and the LGBT community. To prevent these types of crimes, the law enforcement agencies should enforce the existing legislation to ensure peaceful coexistence among people of different gender, race, religion and ethnicity. All Americans should feel safe in their country, and at no given time should their lives be put at stake because of their differences.


Burke, D. (2017, June 12). The four reasons people commit hate crimes. Retrieved from

Carrega, C., & Krishnakumar, P. (2021). Hate crime reports in U.S. surge to the highest level in 12 years, FBI says. CNN. Retrieved from

Cheng, W., Ickes, W., & Kenworthy, J. B. (2013). The phenomenon of hate crimes in the U nited S tates. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(4), 761-794.

Considine, C. (2017). The racialization of Islam in the United States: Islamophobia, hate crimes, and “flying while brown”. Religions, 8(9), 165.

FBI. (2021, October 25). FBI Releases Updated 2020 Hate Crime Statistics. Retrieved from

Fischer, M. (2019). Terrorizing gender: Transgender visibility and the surveillance practices of the U.S. security state. U of Nebraska Press.

Grattet, R., & Jenness, V. (2012). Examining the boundaries of hate crime law: Disabilities and the “dilemma of difference”. In Hate and Bias Crime (pp. 299-312). Routledge.

Herek, G. M. (2017). Documenting hate crimes in the United States: Some considerations on data sources. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 4(2), 143.

Modi, M. N., Palmer, S., & Armstrong, A. (2014). The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: A public health issue. Journal of women’s health, 23(3), 253-259.

Perry, B. (2012). Hate and bias crime: A reader. Routledge.

Perry, B., Akca, D., Karakus, F., & Bastug, M. F. (2020). Planting hate speech to harvest hatred: How does political hate speech fuel hate crimes in Turkey? International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 9(4), 195-211.

Tessler, H., Choi, M., & Kao, G. (2020). The anxiety of being Asian American: Hate crimes and negative biases during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 45(4), 636-646.

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Walters, M., Brown, R., & Wiedlitzka, S. (2016). Causes and motivations of hate crime. Equality and Human Rights Commission research report, 102.

Walters, M. A., Paterson, J., Brown, R., & McDonnell, L. (2020). Hate crimes against trans people: assessing emotions, behaviors, and attitudes toward criminal justice agencies. Journal of interpersonal violence, 35(21-22), 4583-4613.

Health Care Interview Free Writing Sample

The United States scores dead last not just on metrics that evaluate the care delivery process but also on metrics that evaluate administrative efficiency, equality, and access to care. In the United States, neither comprehensive medical insurance nor a centralized healthcare delivery system exists. Inequalities in health care provision are the primary cause of the United States’ health disadvantage compared to other countries with high incomes. In the United States, neither comprehensive medical insurance nor a centralized healthcare delivery system exists. To achieve this objective, the focus of this essay will be on the development of medical treatment throughout history. The post incorporates the thoughts of three separate individuals that I had conversations with, all of whom are of different ages. The examples in this article demonstrate how our parents, grandparents, and even ourselves have obtained medical treatment, paid for medical care, received medical care in various settings, evaluated medical care and healthcare providers, and tracked changes to the healthcare system over time.

I learned through talking to my parents and grandparents that the health outcomes in the United States have greatly improved over the previous 25 years in terms of life expectancy and the occurrence of diseases. I learned this information because I was born and raised in the United States. When they were younger, healthcare quality in the United States was not nearly as good as it is now. They continued to see their family physicians guarantee that they would always have access to medical treatment in the future. This condition has worsened over time. By deploying bigger groups of paid physicians as family doctors, the HMO could lower its administrative expenses, but the level of individualized care provided to patients suffered as a result (Scheinker et al., 2021). Implementing cost-cutting strategies by HMOs did not halt the upward trend of rising healthcare expenses and insurance premiums. Suppose you had not had health insurance and suffered a serious accident or illness that required expensive emergency care and a protracted treatment plan. In that case, it is possible that you would have filed for bankruptcy or had poor credit. This would have resulted in paying for these expenses out of pocket.

According to my grandmother, the cost of receiving medical treatment in hospitals skyrocketed throughout the 1950s, even though scientific advancements were being made at an accelerated rate. In addition to developing new vaccinations to protect against illnesses such as polio, medications for treating infections and conditions such as glaucoma and arthritis were easily accessible to the general public. The government set as one of its priorities early on in its first term the development of a comprehensive strategy for universal health care throughout the whole nation (Williams & Colomb, 2020). This failure was caused by all of these factors: low levels of entitlements, huge inequities in healthcare, poor financial protection, and limited mobility. One of the most important arguments in favor of universal healthcare is the possibility of system inefficiencies. These inefficiencies might result in extended patient wait times and could stifle medical innovation and entrepreneurial spirit. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act was proposed during this period (Gaia, et al., 2020). The aspects were health insurance reform, regional alliances for fostering competition among health insurance corporations, consumer choice of health plans, and provisions for Medicaid recipients. These elements were included in addition to universal coverage and a baseline benefit package. The Act reduced the severity of the issue, but it did not eliminate it.

Because of my age, the idea of health has shifted away from an emphasis on the absence of sickness to an emphasis on physical fitness, which has resulted in a change in the meaning of the word. When we talk about being in good health, we refer to a condition in which our physical, mental, and social well-being are at their very best. The absence of sickness and the capacity to bounce back from illness and other difficulties are both components of what constitutes health. A healthy idea should strongly emphasize the individual’s personal, social, and physical resources. A person is considered “healthy” when there are no obvious indicators of illness, such as symptoms, challenges, or warning signals. A sizeable section of the population comprises younger individuals, and studies have shown that this age group has a higher rate of overall satisfaction with their country’s healthcare system than older people.

In conclusion, traditional remedies and itinerant doctors with minimal training gave way in the United States to a more advanced, scientific, technological, and bureaucratic system known as the “medical industrial complex” between 1750 and 2000. This “medical industrial complex” was called “the medical establishment.” According to what I picked up from the interviews, the participants in my study have never had a more pessimistic opinion of medical professionals than they do right now. No correlation was found between the physician’s age and the 30-day death rates of patients seen by physicians in this study who treated more than 200 patients annually. This lends credence to the notion that the standard of care delivered by senior physicians is comparable to that of their more junior colleagues. The increasing reliance on various forms of technology in recent years was a topic that was brought up several times. No matter when or where in history or in the present they lived, people have always had a lot of respect for those who specialize in medicine.


Gaia, J., Wang, X., Yoo, C. W., & Sanders, G. L. (2020). Good News and Bad News About Incentives to Violate the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): Scenario-Based Questionnaire Study. JMIR medical informatics8(7), e15880.

Scheinker, D., Richman, B. D., Milstein, A., & Schulman, K. A. (2021). Reducing administrative costs in US health care: Assessing single payer and its alternatives. Health Services Research56(4), 615-625.

Williams, K., & Colomb, P. (2020). Important considerations for the institutional review board when granting health insurance portability and accountability act authorization waivers. Ochsner Journal20(1), 95-97.