Essay On Health Policy Sample College Essay

Issues that Motivate Physicians to lobby Congress

There are a variety of reasons why physicians engage in elections and policymaking to some extent. Limited opportunities for participation, insufficient skills, and a lack of knowledge are just a few of the causes. Other important reasons that may limit nurses’ engagement or participation in politics are resources and time constraints. Furthermore, research shows that nurses are frequently under-supported in their efforts to generate the critical data needed to influence healthcare legislation.

Various policy issues may motivate nurses to participate in political campaigns or lobby Congress. Education is one of them. Nurses can advocate for legislation that will aid in the advancement of nursing education. Nurses may push for the establishment of appropriate institutions that will train the next generation of workers to care for a variety of communities and patients. It is now critical to address pay for nurse educators in four-year schools and universities, according to Aragon et al. (2020), to avoid disparities between these two systems. Increased retention and recruitment of students for healthcare professions in technical and community institutions, not for programs in four-year universities and colleges, is an unexpected effect of pay imbalance. According to Aragon et al. (2020), the achievement of Action Today! has sparked interest in two additional initiatives: academic advancement for LPNs pursuing a BSN and the retention and recruitment of diverse nursing faculty. Leaders in nursing education must be able to boost recruitment and retention of the next generation of professors as more professors approach retirement.

Availability of holistic care is another policy concern. Nurses may lobby for policies that enhance clinical services and caregivers by working with health centers, local communities, community clinics, and nurse-managed health clinics (Mason et al., 2020). They can demand that public education and health be promoted to address the difficulties of a new healthcare environment.

Certain regulations that govern nursing practice, particularly those developed or composed by persons with insufficient experience and knowledge in nursing, may frustrate some caregivers. Nurses frequently experience burnout, cynicism, disappointment, and negativity as a result of this dissatisfaction. As a result, disgruntled nurses may choose to channel their dissatisfaction into constructive change within their field by joining politics to influence change that affects the medical profession as a whole (Mason et al., 2020). It’s crucial to realize that nurses have the power to impact policymaking and politics at the local, federal, and state levels. As a result, when a nurse works to enhance healthcare delivery through legislation or politics, they are ultimately advocating for the clients.

They may also form partnerships with representatives of another healthcare field, such as physicians. This improves their abilities in inpatient care as well as other areas including quality improvement, technology and informatics, evidence-based treatment implementation, and multidisciplinary cooperation (Mason et al., 2020). Nurses can take on leadership roles in the medical system at the community scale, or get active in contacting political officials and legislators about legislation that impacts the sector.

Furthermore, diversity may cause nurses to become interested in political campaigns. Nurses should create laws that sustain and enrich culturally competent caregiving education to improve interdisciplinary patient care and reduce health inequities. It is critical because this method will aid in understanding the various requirements of individuals and communities across the country. Culture has become a more significant theme in caregiving in the globalized era, according to Tekkas et al. (2020). Nurses’ cultural prejudices and biases obstruct their ability to care for patients from other cultures.

Clinicians Can Use These Strategies to Make Their Opinion Heard

Nurses can utilize a variety of tactics to get their opinions heard. First and foremost, people can join political parties of their choosing and eventually vote. The American Nurses Association (ANA), according to Mason et al. (2020), can urge nurses to vote to improve their negotiating power. It will also assist in bringing their concerns to the surface.

First, caregivers may utilize lobbying to express their concerns regarding the scope of practice. Simply put, lobbying is the process of ensuring that important politicians are capable of understanding the issues of their constituency to change policy and influence government. As a result, nurses guarantee that issues impacting clinical practice are discussed and suitable choices are made. Physicians should not be afraid of lobbying, and it does not have to be a difficult task. It should, on the other hand, sprout from an enabling environment where people are eager to express themselves. Sometimes it’s just where you come from that matters. Average citizens can indeed have accountability from and access to elected leaders with the correct combination of enthusiasm, expertise, and dedication, and you don’t have to be a professional lobbyist to contribute to the betterment. People take part in lobbying for the most frequent reason: they perceive that which needs to be altered. Unless a nurse works as a paid lobbyist for their professional body or acts as an elected or appointed representative, they frequently lobby on behalf of their ideas and principles.

Effective lobbying is researching to learn as much as possible about the topic at hand. Second, find state legislatures or members of Congress who have taken the lead on the subject. Identifying policymakers is the final stage. The most successful method is usually thought to be face-to-face lobbying. If you’ve scheduled a meeting with a staff member or legislative assistant, or with a state or local figure or a member of Congress, or, you may use many of the same criteria for structuring your message that you’d use when sending a letter.

Second, caregivers may voice out in public on topics that influence nursing and healthcare practice, such as immunization policy or greater nutrition education for patients. Many people in the public are affected by this strategy, including government officials and lawmakers, as well as healthcare authorities and administrators. An emphasis on leadership behavior is appropriate, according to Castel et al. (2015), since leaders may establish a safe atmosphere that makes frontline caregivers feel either comfortable or fearful to report errors and speak out about safety concerns through their use of incentives and penalties, and their actions, and priorities. When a crucial avenue to lowering morbidity and death from medical mistakes fails, it’s time to disclose it. This captures the essence of caregivers speaking up in front of the public about concerns impacting professional nursing practice.

Nurses can also participate in voter mobilization initiatives. Throughout the campaign, various volunteers assist in a variety of tasks. Nurses can get active in the contact with competitors on the ground by participating in a campaign. As a result of this endeavor, they will be able to teach participants about topics that are important to the healthcare setting, such as patient safety handling, enough staffing, and long-lasting medical equipment.

In conclusion, nursing leaders at all levels and in all positions in the company, irrespective of their spheres of influence, have a responsibility to ensure patient safety. As a result, they must first comprehend the many rules and regulations that regulate their practice to be effective in communicating their concerns, difficulties, or obstacles. As a result, nurses can express their concerns by communicating directly with government officials, pushing for state practice interests, voicing out over public health.

References

Aragon, S., Babbo, G., Bear, S., & Schaffner, M. (2020). Nurses at the table: Action now! for nursing education. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing25(1). https://doi.org/10.3912/ojin.vol25no01man04

Castel, E. S., Ginsburg, L. R., Zaheer, S., & Tamim, H. (2015). Understanding nurses’ and physicians’ fear of repercussions for reporting errors: Clinician characteristics, organization demographics, or leadership factors? BMC Health Services Research15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0987-9

Mason, D. J., Perez, A., Dickson, E. L., & McLemore, M. R. (2020). Policy & politics in nursing and health care. Saunders.

Tekkas, K. K., Beser, A., & Park, S. (2020). Ambivalent sexism of nursing students in Turkey and South Korea: A cross‐cultural comparison study. Nursing & Health Sciences22(3), 612-619. https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12705

U.S. Healthcare Systems Vs. Canada Writing Sample

The United States healthcare system is among the most debated topic in the political and public space. Human health is among the fundamental things in life that most governments worldwide struggle to provide good healthcare for their citizens. The U.S. has a unique healthcare system compared to other developed countries. The country’s spending on healthcare has been continuously increasing in recent years. In 2013 United States used 17% of the gross domestic product on healthcare which is expected to grow to 20.1% in 2025 (Keehan et al., 2016). The Canadian healthcare system tops the international standards of medical provision and outcomes. The Organization for Economic operation and Development ranks the Canadian health system among the best in the world. However, the plan faces various challenges as it cannot manage multiple chronic diseases that people suffer from. With the increased number of service providers in Canada, the system has changed from the original objective (service delivery) to profit-making. This paper evaluates the healthcare system of the United States and Canada by looking at their structure and organization. Also, the paper investigates key pertinent issues and challenges faced by both countries toward healthcare and strategies on how to address those issues. Finally, the report recommends whether the United States should model its healthcare system to increase the quality of healthcare provision or remain with the existing healthcare structure.

The United States Healthcare

The U.S healthcare system comprises several hospitals, nursing homes, and exceptional healthcare facilities. It is considered a million-dollar industry as it accounts for over 18% of the gross domestic product. The sector grows years to deal with the ever-existing health problems. The U.S government has two major healthcare providers. First are the primary providers of organizations that offer health services while the second is secondary providers that provide the financial, technological, and financial resources. Two providers work together to provide quality healthcare services to citizens. The United States lacks recognized nationwide health insurance. The majority of the countries health insurance is acquired from the private sector. It can either be from profit-oriented commercial insurance. The majority of healthcare insurance targets the employment community due to getting the money from the employer directly. Some employers in the U.S voluntarily offer to provide health insurance to their employees. The insurance can be purchased from an external provider or organized internally through a mutual agreement between the employee and the employer. Some employers provide full insurance to their employees, while others agree on partial insurance. In the complete self-insured agreement, the employer caters to the employee’s health cost irrespective of the amount incurred. Partial self-insured has a stop loss where the firm can only cater to a certain amount of medical bills. Anything above the agreed-upon amount will have to be paid privately by the employee (Bichay,2020). Partial self-insurance aims to prevent firms from making losses.

The Private insurance system has been shifting, with people focusing on managed care. The country has a Health Managed Organization Act enacted into law in 1973. The act came into law due to the “Managed Care Movement” that championed managing the quality of healthcare and increased access to health services. Health Maintenance Organization (HMOs) and Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) are the two major types of managed care organizations. HMO can be prepaid and offers several services to its members. PPOs are third-party players in the field offering friendly and affordable incentives to people (Health Coverage Guide, 2016).

Besides private health insurance, the U.S government has a Medicare national insurance program. Medicare offers insurance for people living with disabilities and older people above 65 years (Department for Professional Employees, 2016). The insurance program consists of Hospital Insurance that offers inpatient hospital care and supplementary medical insurance that includes outpatient services and physician services. Medicare has covered over 52 million U.S citizens since signed into law in 2015. Also, the country has a welfare-based insurance program called Medicaid. Medicaid focuses on low-income people and those living with disabilities (Cohen et al., 2015). This program covers broader services that are not covered by other government programs as it operates as both federal and state-organized initiatives. The function of the federal government in the industry is to offer general guidelines. In contrast, the state government develops its policy on providing insurance cover to its citizens. The federal government provides a more significant percentage of funding the initiative, with the remaining amount financed through municipal taxes and state government.

Canada Healthcare System

The Canadian government has a well-structured national health insurance program that covers the entire population with several benefits. National health insurance is a general tax-oriented system with a single-player responsible for providing medical services. Health providers such as physicians receive payments after negotiations by the government, while hospitals are allocated funds annually. The Canadian healthcare system is called Medicare. Although the name is similar to that of the U.S, the Canadian system covers the entire population, unlike the one in the United States that only covers the elderly. The Canadian national health insurance system started in the 1940s when some provinces initiated compulsory health insurance programs.

The Canadian healthcare system consists of structured regional systems of health provision. The structure begins at the local stage, where they have the local hospitals that provide primary care to people and handle standard health-related cases. Above the local hospitals are the district hospitals that deal with more complex issues that could not be held in the local hospitals. The doctors in the district hospitals are more experienced than those at the local hospitals because of the nature of the health cases they need to handle. At the peak is the base hospitals. The base hospitals deal with more complex issues that require experts (Allin & Rudoler, 2015). The medical personnel at base hospitals specialize in specific fields that help come up with policies to make the healthcare system in Canada better.

Canada Health Act of 1984 outlies the health delivery services in the country. According to the act, each provincial health program is provided at the regional level and offers all necessary medical services. The health coverage is available to all people with nobody expected to pay directly for their pocket. Physicians in Canada are paid services with various benefits of practicing autonomy. Although private insurance is offered to people to supplement the national insurance program, the government has continuously limited direct monetary exchange between the patient and health care provider in the country. As a result, all medical costs are controlled by the ministry of health. After an extensive negotiation between the ministry and hospitals, annual hospitals receive annual budgets for planning and implementation. Since physician’s fee is controlled by the ministry of health in the country, it is easy to track yearly financial expenses.

Physicians’ prices are negotiated periodically between the provincial medical association of Canada and the ministry of health. No patient is expected to pay extra money from the agreed amount as extra billing was removed when the government of Canada passed the Health Act bill of 1984. Although many people argue that the Canadian health system is “single-payer” because of the variation in the provincial plans, each plan aims at serving a single buyer. The national health insurance program makes it easy to control spending in the health sector, which enhances decision-making, including capital investment.

Comparison between the U.S and Canadian Healthcare System

There exist several differences between the United States healthcare system and the Canadian healthcare system. First, the Canadian health care system is entirely run and organized by the government through the ministry of health (Pichler et at., 2019). Unlike the U.S, where the health care system is run by a multi-payer system and heavily privatized. The government of Canada controls everything in the health sector, including the amount of money paid to physicians. There is zero monetary transaction between the patient and the health service provider. Secondly, healthcare in the United States is more expensive compared to Canada. In Canada, all citizens have a right to good health care services irrespective of their income level (Smith et al., 2019). However, the country does not recognize and appreciate the importance of universal healthcare; private corporations have taken the provision of insurance to citizens at a very high cost making some people unable to afford good healthcare services. Also, the government of Canada spends much money on healthcare compared to the United States. Complete control of the healthcare sector makes it easier for the Canadian government to monitor how much money is being used and to what capacity. This prevents the loss of capital through corruption and bribery.

Challenges and Strategies

Healthcare is a complex sector that can not lack challenges. Both the U.S and Canada experience various challenges toward providing healthcare to their citizens. The lack of universal healthcare in the United States has led to an increased number of uninsured people, making it difficult to access health services. The problem of insurance in the U.S is associated with several issues. The primary element is the high cost of insurance. People prefer paying directly from their pockets to receive medical services instead of monthly subscriptions that are more expensive and difficult to cope with. Also, high administrative costs are another challenge facing healthcare in the United States. The U.S uses modern technology, including modern machines that are very expensive to purchase. To cater to the high cost of machines and administration, healthcare prices rise, making it difficult for low-income families to afford good healthcare services. The healthcare system in the United States is fragmented and unclear. The introduction of an affordable healthcare system failed as it did not clearly show any signs of reducing medical costs. The government should develop a universal healthcare system that appeals to all people irrespective of their financial status, age, color, and race.

One of the most significant challenges facing the Canadian healthcare system is the long waiting to see a health specialist. However, Canadian citizens enjoy universal healthcare with every right to healthcare services. It takes a lot of time for someone to see a specialist. Only patients under life-threatening conditions have priority when seeking medication. The long waiting time has resulted in many people dying without receiving treatment. Some people travel to the United States to seek medical attention quicker to save their lives (Sezer & Bauer, 2017). Lack of investment and research is another challenge facing the healthcare sector in Canada. Unlike the United States, recognized for its investment in research and technological change, Canada does not allocate enough funds for research and innovation to curb the rising challenges in the health sector. Increasing funding of the health sector help introduce new and better technology that can go a long way in reducing waiting time and delays when seeking medication. The government of Canada is increasing funding of the healthcare sector to develop mechanisms to reduce the waiting time and better the health services in the country.

In conclusion, the United States should model its healthcare system after Canada’s healthcare system. Healthcare is a fundamental need for citizens irrespective of how much money they have or their social status. Having a national health service delivered by the government creates equitable healthcare that can control the cost of receiving health services and protect the vulnerable population. Also, the system allows for price negotiation between the government and medical practitioners, which reduces the amount of spending toward healthcare. Compared to the United States, the Canadian system is more affordable with minimal financial barriers, which may be why Canada has a high life expectancy compared to the United States.

References

Allin, S., & Rudoler, D. (2015). The Canadian health care system. 2017. Int Prof Health Care Syst, 21(3), 36-51.

Bichay, N. (2020). Health insurance as a state institution: The effect of single-payer insurance on expenditures in OECD countries. Social Science & Medicine, 265, 113454.

Department for Professional Employees [Internet]. (2016). The U.S. health care system: An international perspective.

Health Coverage Guide (2016), Point-Of-Service Plan [Online], Health Coverage Guide. Available at: http://healthcoverageguide.org/reference-guide/coverage-types/ point-of-service-plan-pos

Keehan, S. P., Poisal, J. A., Cuckler, G. A., Sisko, A. M., Smith, S. D., Madison, A. J., … & Lizonitz, J. M. (2016). National health expenditure projections, 2015–25: economy, prices, and aging expected to shape spending and enrollment. Health Affairs, 35(8), 1522-1531.

Pichler, P. P., Jaccard, I. S., Weisz, U., & Weisz, H. (2019). International comparison of health care carbon footprints. Environmental research letters, 14(6), 064004.

Sezer, M., & Bauer, F. (2017). Introduction to the U.S. Health care system (Vol. 84, pp. 11-28). PCO.

Smith-Bindman, R., Kwan, M. L., Marlow, E. C., Theis, M. K., Bolch, W., Cheng, S. Y., … & Miglioretti, D. L. (2019). Trends in use of medical imaging in U.S. health care systems and in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2016. Jama, 322(9), 843-856.

Health Care In Spirituality Essay Example

The definition of spirituality, apart from being worldly or worldly-minded, is thinking and behaving in a more spiritual way than mundane in nature. The battle between the body and the intellect is still going on today. Another way of putting it is that being spiritual implies being fulfilled with your spiritual wants rather than your bodily needs. It is important to have a spiritual viewpoint when coping with physical problems. According to Molloy (2020), providing health care without considering the core of spirituality might be counterproductive, particularly during a pandemic when mental health concerns are a significant source of anxiety.

It is taught by the teaching of the Trinity that there is a single God who is manifested in three people – the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit – and that these three individuals are distinct from one another. Even humans, let alone God, cannot comprehend the notion of the Trinity. God made us in His own image and likeness so that we would have the ability to make our own choices. It is true, however, that man fell into sin as a result of his own volitional decisions.

Because death is unable to pay the penalty for sin, a perfect sacrifice had to be offered in the person of Jesus Christ, who gave up his human body in order to qualify for that offering of redemption. Those who trust in Jesus Christ will never face spiritual death since they are united with him. Overall, salvation is God’s love shown through Jesus’ death and suffering on the cross to pay the penalty for our sins, and our trust in Jesus Christ leads to our salvation, which permits us to participate in spiritual activities that are beneficial to us.

When spirituality is included and practiced in health care, it has the potential to relieve suffering in the sense that giving health care with love, compassion, patience, and joy may increase health and well-being and reduce suffering (Damiano, Lucchetti & Peres, 2021). Although health experts play a critical role in inner healing (emotional and mental), physical healing is just a few seconds away. Within every one of us is the ability to heal ourselves.

A majority of the diseases and disorders we experience are caused by internal causes such as stress, anxiety, or worry. Putting our efforts into fixing these people’s inner difficulties will increase our chances of successfully assisting them in recovering from their physical illnesses. That we are spiritual creatures is shown by this. Rather than our bodily constraints, our spiritual issues drag us down far more. The incorporation of spirituality into health treatments is thus very vital since this is the only method actually to aid in the process of healing and recuperation.

From the film, I have learnt that spirituality in the nursing profession is inevitable. In the spiritual realm, believers believe in a supreme being ho created the heaven and earth including humans. Spirituality advocates for the love for one another as we love ourselves. This underscores caring for human who are in need in the nursing profession. Providing quality care professionally is regarded as love for the sick and this doing is in line with spiritual deeds. Notable, being spiritual motivates nurses to give their best to patients with the aim of elongating their lives on earth before they fade away. This has been regarded as a calling to serve people which is also embodied in spirituality.

References

Damiano, R. F., Lucchetti, G., & Peres, M. F. P. (2021). Defining Spirituality in Healthcare: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 756080-756080.

Molloy, M. (2020). Experiencing the world’s religions: Tradition, challenge, and change (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill.