Essay On HIV/AIDS Free Essay

What do you think the experience of having a loved one diagnosed with AIDS is like?

Having a loved one diagnosed with AIDS is quite aggravating since the disease can only be treated but cannot be cured. This means that the person’s family will always watch out for the individual to take their drugs as prescribed. The experience is also complex as the loved one needs to be shown love and talked to openly about the disease to ensure they feel the warmth of the family members and reduce any negative thoughts they could have. The loved one also needs to be listened to and encouraged to continue treatment, making the family members do little of their work. Also, the experience is horrific, as the person will require to be connected to friends. It is the duty of the person caring for the loved one with AIDS to invite family and friends to pay a visit to the patient as frequently as possible. The individual will also want to be assigned household chores to feel useful like everyone else in the family. This can, however, be impossible when they are bed-bound and want to do the tasks. The experience can be pretty hoodwinking.

What Do You Think the Experience of Getting an HIV Positive Test Result Is Like?

Finding that one is HIV positive is the most harrowing experience one can go through in life. I think the experience of getting HIV-positive test results is scary. It can lead to a broad range of feelings such as worry, uncertainty, fear, and even concern about how other persons will think. Furthermore, getting HIV-positive test results can make one feel guilt, anger, annoyance, hopelessness, sadness, embarrassment, and shame. One will always think like they are being discriminated against or avoided, making them difficult to accept the new normal and commit suicide. I think the experience is just so worse because probably, a person did not imagine they could be HIV positive. The experience can also extend to low self-esteem, reduced confidence, and frustration. When one imagines that HIV has no cure and that they will have to take drugs daily for the rest of their lives, they think their dreams are no longer valid.

Again, I think the experience of getting HIV-positive test results can make someone hate themselves and even damage or hurt their body due to the shock of the results and fear of being humiliated. This disease is a nightmare, especially when one does not immediately cope with the positive results. Moreover, an individual may experience a sense of being overwhelmed despite knowing that the disease can be managed.

How Do You Think People Manage Their Lives After Positive Test Results or Diagnosis?

People who test positive for HIV manage their lives by beginning antiretroviral treatment immediately and sustaining it as part of their everyday routine. This ensures that their immune system remains strong. Even though this treatment does not cure HIV, it ensures that the virus is kept under control. Another way I think these people manage their lives is by exercising regularly. Being physically active helps maintain their health as it keeps their bones strong their heart-healthy, builds their muscle, and burns fat. This also reduces symptoms of depression and stress. Additionally, eating healthy helps manage their lives after positive test results. Eating a balanced diet with a bit of salt, sugar, or processed fat aids their body in absorbing the medication and fighting off infections.

Another way I think people manage their lives after positive tests of HIV is by avoiding excessive drug use or alcohol. Since the liver, which the body utilizes to absorb anti-HIV medications, may be damaged by alcohol, these people stay under the prescribed alcohol limits for alcohol intake. Infections are more challenging to treat if one has a weak immune system due to recreational drug use or heavy drinking. I think these people do limit their drug use since some anti-HIV medications may interact with alcohol or recreational drugs, resulting in undesired side effects such as feeling dizzy or faint, making them potentially susceptible. I also think limiting their alcohol use helps them manage their lives well, as they do not forget to take the drugs.

Additionally, I think these people manage their lives by getting support. After positive test results of HIV, this may be a great shock and can take one quite longer to adjust. As a result, these people talk to their family and friends and other persons living with the virus to help them cope with the situation and relieve stress. I also think these people look for a buddying or a peer mentoring service to motivate them to accept and love themselves the way they are and move on to accomplish their goals.

After one is diagnosed with HIV, I think they manage their lives by regularly seeing their healthcare provider to monitor any other health conditions they might experience as they grow older and adjust their treatment as required. These people also get enough sleep and rest to ensure their body is relaxed. This helps them always to feel okay and avoid body pains which can come as a result of working for long hours without a rest.

These people also practice safe sex in managing their lives. This protects them from contracting other common STIs that may be transmitted during intercourse, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. This prevents people infected with one strain from becoming infected with a second strain.

What services do you think are needed or are most helpful to people who are HIV positive or who have AIDS?

One of the services that I think are helpful to persons living with HIV includes counseling services (Moradi et al., 2014). These people need psychological and emotional therapy to continue living comfortably with the virus. Most people who are HIV positive fail to manage their emotional responses such as anxiety, depression, and stress. As a result, these people may start hating on themselves, making them commit suicide. Counseling services are essential to people since they will be encouraged to live with the virus positively by avoiding smoking and abusing drugs or alcohol. The counseling would also help the people know how to manage their emotions and improve their mood—for example, quitting caffeinated drinking beverages.

The counseling services would help HIV-positive people improve their relationships and communication and promote resilience and self-esteem (Moradi et al., 2014). It is also helpful to foster hope, encouragement, and motivation, generally improving their overall health. The counseling services would also help the people prevent the transmission of HIV by changing their dishonest and immoral behaviors.

Another service needed most by people having HIV is home-based care services. The activities that HIV patients need in home-based care include keeping them clean, averting bedsores, precluding malaria, treating symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and weight loss. Other activities in this service include managing symptoms and pain, assisting patients in dealing with worries, and preparing meals for them whenever they are unwell. Another action needed in this service is administering opportunistic infection treatment for them.

References

Moradi, G., Mohraz, M., Gouya, M. M., Dejman, M., Seyedalinaghi, S., Khoshravesh, S., & Ardakani, H. M. (2014). Health needs of people living with HIV/AIDS: from the perspective of policy makers, physicians and consultants, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Iranian journal of public health43(10), 1424.

Homeland Security Terrorism Free Sample

The Irish Republican Army was established in 1919 as a replacement to the Irish Volunteers and a militant republican group created in 1913. Its goal was to employ military pressure to ensure British control in Ireland ineffective while also assisting in the larger purpose of obtaining an independent state. Michael Collins Bowden led the Irish Republican Army (I.R.A.) during the Anglo-Irish struggle for independence (1919-21). The key objective of the I.R.A. was to no longer be a member of The European union. The I.R.A. has murdered over 1,800 people since the 1990s, along with about 650 citizens. British troops, law enforcement officers, jail officers, and magistrates were the primary targets, most of whom were defenceless or even off work, opposing militia terrorists, drug traffickers, and intelligence officers on Ulster.

The I.R.A. has been responsible for several acts of aggression, including the Bloody Friday bomb rampage in July 1972, which saw twenty-two explosives detonated in downtown Belfast within seventy minutes, killing nine people and injuring 130 others. Lord Mountbatten, India’s last viceroy, was assassinated in 1979 and queen Elizabeth’s uncle. (Bowden, 2022). They too were involved in the explosion of a Hotel in London wherein British Prime Minister Lady Thatcher and her congress were meeting in 1984, that injured numerous British bureaucrats and murdered four additional Britons’.

A 1993 car explosion in London’s financial hub, Canary Wharf, murdered one victim and inflicted I billion in economic ruin, becomes an example of continuous violent acts. In the 1990s, they carried out a horrific attack upon the British Prime Minister’s abode and London’s Heathrow Airport (Bowden, 2022). During the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, they too were implicated in the attacks on civilian facilities in Northern Ireland and the Uk, notably bars, stores, and metro stations. they were involved in Extortion, financial fraud, trafficking, and forgery were among the coordinated unlawful conduct

The official and transitory factions of the I.R.A. are now severely divided. Despite the official desire to take Northern Ireland to destabilize both Belfast and Dublin administrations, they oppose the temporary policy and techniques of random explosions and religious killing since it supports and promotes hostility (“The New York Times,” 2022). Similar to the Palestinian, the I.R.A. S, who was legally established in 1970, consider themselves engaged in a national war for independence. Their warfare is abrasive and non-convectional.

It appears that violent action is hardly an integral part of Irish politics and a separate culture that uses bombs and terrorism. In the 1880s, the guerrilla strategy shifted from front-line attacks on English targets to targeted killings of British government officers in Ireland, notably by Irish nationalists invincible. Unlike later groups, such as the provisionals, the I.R.A. from 1919 to 1921 was an authentic revolutionary movement that actively courted and obtained support from the public (Bowden, 2022). However, Factionalism became a big issue inside the I.R.A. after the 1921 peace treaty with London. The I.R.A.’s uncontrollable bombing of civilians in 1938 triggered a prevalent public response that supported the British police in an effective refute.

In conclusion, the I.R.A. is a threat to the people’s residents. It will keep going to be a danger as long as Irish people genuinely think it needs a self-governing republic Ireland, free from British governance. The Northern Ireland officers and the U.k security services are actively involved in arresting and preventing I.R.A. strikes. They have many such officers and intelligence officers to keep the masses informed.

References

Bowden, T. (2022). I.R.A. (IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY) AND THE CHANGING TACTICS OF TERRORISM | Office of Justice Programs. Ojp.gov. Retrieved 25 February 2022, from https://www.ojp.gov/ncjrs/virtual-library/abstracts/ira-irish-republican-army-and-changing-tactics-terrorism.

How the I.R.A. Evolved (Published 1976). Nytimes.com. (2022). Retrieved 25 February 2022, from https://www.nytimes.com/1976/09/01/archives/how-the-ira-evolved.html?auth=linked-google1tap.

Annotated Bibliography: How Can Policing Community Prevent Excessive Use Of Force By The Police During Arrest? Sample Assignment

Abrams, Z. (2020). What works to reduce police brutality. https://www.apa.org. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/10/cover-police-brutality.

The article elaborates data on psychological research, which indicates that the community members are only interested in the best treatment by the police, which should respect them and give them a voice to explain their situation before the police take any action. People are interested in knowing that the police are sincere and care about the community’s well-being. The police should also act consistently when explaining the rules they are using and how they plan to apply them. Psychologist Philip led a program known as the center for policing equity which has contributed to the implementation of various psychology-driven policies to minimize the cases of excessive use of force by police officers. Other intervention to reduce excessive use of force by police officers is peer intervention and the screening of officers. The article will be helpful in the research because it will provide information on what effective implementations the policing community should consider minimizing excessive use of police force.

Adams, K. (1999). Use of force by police: Overview of national and local data.

The author talks about the recent developments that have shown concern about the use of force by police officers. The incidences range from publicized incidents that involve the use of aggressive force by police officers. The article highlights three categories that indicate why police use force: the knowledge perceived as fact, utilization of force knowledge, and knowledge that has not yet been developed by research. The author also provides updates on two national projects, which provide more evidence on why the police use force when arresting individuals. The article also proposes the research agendas that should be implemented when investigating why police officers use excessive force on certain individuals. The author stated that the research should provide the required knowledge, it should be relevant, and the activities taken should be comprehensive and systemic. The article will be utilized in the project to identify the various factors that push police to use excessive force and what is already known about the use of force by police officers.

Ariel, B., Farrar, W. A., & Sutherland, A. (2015). The effect of police body-worn cameras on use of force and citizens’ complaints against the police: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of quantitative criminology, 31(3), 509-535.

The journal’s main objective is on how the use of force by police officers has continued to be a major international concern and has invited interests from different academics and practitioners. The author elaborates how the use of power by the police has negatively affected their relationship with civilians. The misconducts practiced by the police can be translated into complaints against the police, which cost them economically and socially. The journal elaborates on whether worn-out cameras minimize the utilization of force and citizens’ complaints against police. Recently the use of the body-worn out camera to reduce the use of force by police and the complaints against the officers have been implemented. Thus, this improves evidence capture. The journal will be used in the project to determine how the use of force by police creates a negative relationship between them and the civilians and how effective is the use of worn-out body cameras for enhancing transparency.

Ariel, B., Sutherland, A., Henstock, D., Young, J., Drover, P., Sykes, J., … & Henderson, R. (2016). Wearing body cameras increases assaults against officers and does not reduce police use of force: Results from a global multi-site experiment. European journal of criminology13(6), 744-755.

The article provides relevant on how the utilization of body-worn out cameras by the police to increase procedural compliance has been ineffective; the body-worn out cameras do not affect the utilization of force by police officers, but it led to an increased rate of assaults against the police officers that wear the body-worn out cameras. The author provides evidence that using cameras might increase the rate of assaults against police officers; thus, more attention should be made to determine how the devices should be implemented. The information from this article will be utilized in the project to evaluate the effectiveness of body-worn out cameras in the monitoring of police officers and the minimization of excessive use of force. The article will also the risks associated with body-worn out cameras.

Atherley, L. T., & Hickman, M. J. (2014). Controlling use of force: Identifying police use of excessive force through analysis of administrative records. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 8(2), 123-134.

The journal evaluates how the law enforcement agencies are responsible for controlling the use of force by the police while arresting individuals so that they can have minimal impact on the civilians and ensure that both the public safety and the officer’s safety are maintained. The author indicates a disconnection between how the use of force is being viewed by the public, the police, and the courts. It also evaluates how police administrators can distinguish between unnecessary forces and justifiable application of force. They can do so to balance the different views while adhering to the legal rules. The use of force begins with the officer’s objective to reasonably assess justice when they are applying force. The author state that the various ways to address the use of force by the police have contradicted. The journal will be used in the project to determine how the law enforcement agencies have the responsibility to control the use of force by the police officers during the arrest.

Bennell, C., Alpert, G., Andersen, J. P., Arpaia, J., Huhta, J. M., Kahn, K. B., … & White, M. D. (2021). Advancing police use of force research and practice: urgent issues and prospects. Legal and Criminological Psychology26(2), 121-144.

The article evaluates the four ways in which the police scholars identified excessive use of force by the police officers. The themes include; new ways of determining the use of force and proper use of force models that need to be developed, the unfair force application practices, and the misconceptions about the use of force by the police officers that need to be corrected. The research on the topic provides greater insight on why, when, and where force is utilized by police officers and how its application can be appropriate. If the practical recommendations are implemented, they should positively impact the performance of the police, public trust and confidence, and the safety of both the police officers and the citizens. The article will be utilized to identify how the policing community can implement these strategies to create a positive impact on the performance of the police to both the citizens and the officers.

Boxer, P., Brunson, R. K., Gaylord-Harden, N., Kahn, K., Patton, D. U., Richardson, J., … & Algrim, K. (2021). Addressing the inappropriate use of force by police in the United States and beyond: A behavioral and social science perspective. Aggressive behavior47(5), 502-512.

The author evaluates the recent incidents in the United States that involve the deadly application of forces to the civilians by the police officers, which has undermined the relationship between the police officers and the minority community. The author examines the inappropriate use of force by police officers from social science and behavioral perspective related to aggression and violence. It examines the inappropriate use of force in the modern policing context and provides recommendations suggested by the theory and the research. The author recommends that the policing community should implement public policies that reduce the inappropriate use of force by the officers, to ensure that evidence-based treatments are available for the police officers who frequently use force, provide alternative measures to use of force, and expand research on how to manage the excessive force used by the police officers and decrease the disproportionate impact on the minority community. The article will be utilized to elaborate on the practices that the policing communities should implement to reduce the excessive use of force by police officers.

Clancy, T. K. (2004). The Fourth Amendment’s Concept of Reasonableness. Utah L. Rev., 977.

The article examines the five principle models of reasonableness and the various situations that hardly fit within the models. It asserts that there is a need for objective criteria to determine the reasonableness of seizure and search. It also indicates that the framers’ value examination combined with other tools used for interpretation provide the required model of reasonableness and implement hierarchy among the models. The activities that led to the implementation of the fourth amendment provide a clear meaning of the reasonableness model. Thus, the lesson of history should be significantly utilized in providing a proper meaning of reasonableness. The search and seizure issues contribute to law enforcement and other activities in the government. The application of the fourth amendment challenges the traditional notion of reasonableness. The article will be utilized in the project to evaluate how the fourth amendment is used in law enforcement by the police to measure reasonableness.

Cooper, H. L., & Fullilove, M. (2016). Excessive police violence as a public health issue. Journal of urban health, 93(1), 1-7.

The journal evaluates how different researchers have started to sketch the health complications caused by excessive use of force by the police officers to the citizens. The journal creates a foundation to answer the question of terminating the increased use of force by police officers. It provides an insight on how to engage public health theories constructively and the interventions. The journal recommends that a public health push is required to decrease the excessive use of force by police officers. The recommendation is that excessive force by police officers has greatly contributed to the increased level of mortality among individuals. Many epidemics are redlined because they affect most individuals; thus, public health that fights for the rights of all individuals should be implemented. The journal will be useful in the project because it will evaluate how the excessive use of police force can contribute to negative health issues of the affected individuals.

Cover, A. Y. (2016). Reconstructing the Right Against Excessive Force. Fla. L. Rev.68, 1773.

The article makes a relevant contribution to the current literature by stating that the current condition of the law cannot be reconciled with the reconstruction of the civil rights origins in the legislation. It proposes that the court reconstruct a qualified immunity doctrine by determining more generalized rights about the excessive use of force by the police officers, which is an approach rejected by the court previously in favor of the fourth amendment protective right that recognizes the intent of the officer. The article proposes that the court utilizes the statutes, regulations by the government, and the policies for the use of force in determining if the officers knew or should have been aware of the actions they make, which violates the rights of the citizens by the use of excessive force. The article will provide information on how the policing community can reconstruct the rights against excessive use of force.

Craig, J. (2020, June 10). Excessive force: Causes, solutions & victims’ rights. DC Law. https://texasjustice.com/blog/excessive-force/.

Craig provides different reasons why police officers use excessive force and the measures that the policing community can take to prevent excessive force. Officers might fear their lives which makes them use excessive force. The lack of punishment when the officers excessively utilize force can make them engage more in violence. The proposed solution to prevent the excessive use of force by police officers is having additional education for the officers and training requirements, having additional mental health resources, demilitarizing the police, and updating the department policies. The article will be essential in providing the necessary data required by the policing community to implement preventive measures to the civilians against harm caused by excessive use of force. Also, the article will provide data about the available solutions for preventing the excessive use of force by the police and the different ways in which the solutions can be implemented.

Fryer, R. G. (2016). An empirical analysis of racial differences in police use of force (No.w22399). National Bureau of Economic Research.

The author provides an exploration of the racial differences that the police use to apply force. Black individuals are more likely to experience some form of force when interacting with police officers. The accounts for important context and the civilians’ behavior decreases, but it is difficult to explain such disparities. The most extreme use of force which might involve shootings, there has been incidences of racial differences either in the raw data or when taking the contextual factors into account. Many individuals in the minority group are discriminated against and are likely to have shooting experiences when interacting with the police. The article will evaluate how the disparities associated with the use of force by the police are yet to be addressed and the various ways that can be implemented to tackle such factors without compromising the safety and rights, and rights of the individuals involved.

Henriksen, S. V., & Kruke, B. I. (2020). The Force Continuum: Prevalence and Characteristics of Police Use of Coercive Force. Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing,7(01), 5-22.

The journal includes a study that aims to investigate the use of coercive force by the police. It provides an overview of the prevalence and characteristics of police officers’ emergency responses. The data collected, which was self-reported, indicated that the police emergency responses had included the use of force equal to once per month in various situations. The use of forces in most situations is associated with the lower end, and there is minimal use of firearms. The current law and instructions have included an inadequate formal definition of what is made by the use of force by the police. Therefore, there is a requirement for a more specific and agreed definition which is the origin for reporting. The police are provided with rights and occasional duties to utilize coercive force against the citizens, but they misuse them in most cases. The journal will be utilized in the report to evaluate the current laws and instructions by the policing community that addresses the excessive use of force by the police officers to the citizens.

Klahm, C. F., & Tillyer, R. (2010). Understanding police use of force: A review of the evidence. Southwest Journal of criminal justice, 7(2), 214-239.

The author provides a study that analyzes content thoroughly about the use of force studies published by peer-reviewed journals from 1995 to 2008. The most common explanatory factors are evaluated regarding their influence on the decisions of police officers when they encounter suspects. The summarized evidence indicated that only a few suspects and characteristics of encounters are influential in determining the utilization of force by the police officer. The variables used in the literature are poor predictors of the utilization of force by police officers. The journal will be used in the project to evaluate the use of force by the police and the factors that influence police officers to use force, and whether the variable utilized to determine the use of force by the police provides consistent findings.

Lawson, T. F. (2021). Awakening the American Jury: Did the Killing of George Floyd Alter Juror Deliberations Forever? Houston Law Review, 58(4), 22271.

The article talks about the death of George Florida, which was contributed by public experiences that are beyond other cases in modern times. The experience made the advocates participate in rallies advocating for antiracism. It also forced many individuals into an internal reflection of awareness to the knowledge of the experience of police that is different from their own. The realities of the video did not conform to any legal standards of dignity. Before the incident, most individuals believed that the police officers couldn’t do such things. Many advocates and law implementers have used consistent belief to demonstrate the brutality and excessive use of force. The article will be utilized to evaluate how individuals view police brutality and the existing beliefs about police brutality and excessive use of force.

Lyle, P., & Esmail, A. M. (2016). Sworn to protect: Police brutality–a dilemma for America’s police. Race, Gender & Class, 23(3-4), 155-185.

The author talks about the unwarranted intimidation by police which is frequently done through verbal assaults and official misconduct. The brutality practiced by police officers is a grievous form of crime practiced by the police officers who are hired to prevent the crime. The utilization of force might be judged excessive depending on whether it was aimed to be legitimate under the circumference to fulfill the duty of the police officers. The media has minimal focus on the brutality caused by the police officers, which sometimes contributes to the death of the victims. The public is aware that the police can use force, but it is against the authority to use non-negotiable force. The article will be used to determine how the media and the police community respond to the incidences of police brutality. It will also be utilized to determine the types of unwarranted intimidations that the police officers practice and are harmful to the victims.

Obasogie, O. K., & Newman, Z. (2017). Police violence, use of force policies, and public health. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 43(2-3), 279-295.

The journal addresses the issue of recurring police violence, which is a subject of public discourse. There has been minimal progress in minimizing the number of individuals killed by police officers. The author suggests that interventions need to be implemented that destroy the recent policing that determines which lives are physically and discursively valued, which can be lost in the incidences of police violence. While the policing community has implemented many strategies to address the situation of police violence, the discussions that exist do not engage the primary factor fully in the excessive use of force and barriers to accountability. Thus there is a needs to implement rules. The journal will be used in the project to identify the gap in the implementation of policies by the policing community and the importance of implementing rules that govern the level of force the police officers use against the citizens.

Patton, C. L., Asken, M., Fremouw, W. J., & Bemis, R. (2017). The influence of police profanity on public perception of excessive force. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32(4), 340-357.

The journal talks about the influence of police brutality, the elements of police performance that impact policing in the communities, and the relationship between the police and citizens. The police officers might negatively impact force during arrests which interferes with their interactions with the community. The author aimed to determine if the use of profanity by the police officers during arrest contributes to a public perception of excessive force and the individuals affected by these actions. The study evaluated force to be more excessive when there was the use of profanity. The individuals who rated the force excessive have a more negative attitude towards the police and the police force generally. The findings have implications for the training of the police officers, which will contribute to fewer allegations on the use of excessive force. The journal will be utilized in the project to determine how different individuals view the excessive use of force by police and how the policing community can implement effective training for the officers that prevent excessive force.

Prenzler, T., Porter, L., & Alpert, G. P. (2013). Reducing police use of force: Case studies and prospects. Aggression and Violent Behavior18(2), 343-356.

The article evaluates codes of conduct that require the police officers to use less force when implementing laws and maintaining order. The author explains how the use of excessive force is an international problem. The main purpose of the article is to address the possible ways of minimizing violence in the encounter between the police and the citizens and how to control the use of force by the police officers, especially in levels that contribute to injuries and threaten the trust of the public and the confidence of the police. The research results indicated that the police department was capable of minimizing the level of force used in maintaining law and order by the police officers. The strategies identified include equipping the officers with the necessary skills and issuing frameworks for internal and external accountability. The article will be used in the project to identify how the policing authorities can minimize the use of excessive force by the police by providing the appropriate skills to the officers and providing an internal and external framework for accountability.

Ray, R. (2020). How can we enhance police accountability in the United States? The Vitals: Policy.

Ray provides research on the different reforms that could be applied to change police accountability. He states that there are two major changes to the law and practice aimed at reducing police brutality. First, the policing community should prohibit police officers who have been involved in a crime and misconduct from working in law enforcement. The recommendation has been receiving great support at the federal level. The second change is the need to restructure the civilian payouts by transferring them from taxpayer money to the department of police in the insurance policies, which is starting to occur at the local level. The article’s information will be utilized in the project to provide different ways that the policing community can enhance police accountability and how the community will take them, that is, negatively or positively.

Sandoiu, A. (2020, June 22). Police violence: Physical and mental health impacts on Black Americans. MedicalNewsToday. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/police-violence-physical-and-mental-health-impacts-on-black-americans#Black-men-2.5-times-more-likely-to-be-killed-by-police.

The article evaluates how the police use force against some individuals, which contributes to mental and physical health effects for such individuals. The authorities should regard excessive force by police officers as a public health matter. Exposure to violence has various consequences that are a public health issue that causes dissatisfaction to the affected individuals. Excessive force maximizes the years of life lost; it reduces the number of years an individual could have lived because they die prematurely due to the police officers’ cause to their lives. The fear of getting violated by the police causes stress to the affected individuals, which contributes to negative physical and mental health effects to the affected individuals. The reports of police killings in the residential environment can cause stress to the individuals in the residents. The article will be utilized to identify the negative public health effects associated with excessive use of force by the police officers and how the policing community can collaborate with the public health department to set the issue of violence by police officers a public health issue.

Schatmeier, E. H. (2012). Reforming police use-of-force practices: A case study of the Cincinnati police department. Colum. JL & Soc. Probs.46, 539.

Schatmeier provides relevant information on how congress enacted the act of violent crime control and law enforcement which enables the department of justice to utilize a powerful tool to correct unconstitutional practices in the local police agencies and the states. The department of justice has been using these powers to reform unconstitutional police practices such as the excessive use of force. The author elaborates how these practices fail to achieve the set goals because they lack the necessary enforcement mechanism. Contrary, the Cincinnati police department has achieved the necessary progress in reducing the utilization of force by police officers and increased civilian satisfaction while under the department of justice agreement. Thus, the Cincinnati police department has demonstrated democratic experimentation, including a flexible and goal-oriented approach. The article will be utilized in the project to determine how the community of policing can emulate the Cincinnati police department approach to tackle the issue of excessive use of force by police officers.

Sinyangwe, S. (2020, August 27). Police Are Killing Fewer People In Big Cities, But More In Suburban And Rural America. FiveThirtyEight. -in-suburban-and-rural-America/ https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/police-are-killing-fewer-people-in-big-cities-but-more.

The article evaluates how the police in the United States have been using deadly force, which is a high-profile issue. The lack of reliable data has made policing difficult. Several non-governmental organizations have been implemented to solve the problem of unreliable data. The author provides relevant data about how the crowd-sourced projects are essential for collecting data related to police killings after the publication of different cases. Several projects have been implemented to source data on the events of excessive use of force by police officers after the publication of different cases associated with police killings associated with excessive utilization of force. The article will be essential in the project because it will provide data on the various projects the policing community has implemented to curb the problems related to excessive use of police force, such as killings and physical harm of the civilians.

US Dept of Justice, Community Relations Service, & United States of America. (2003). Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding Violence Between Police and Citizens (Revised September 2018).

The article talks about community relation services (CRS) and how they can be implemented in the department of justice in the United States to minimize the excessive use of force by police officers in the United States. It seeks to prevent community tension that emerges from the policies, actions, and practices perceived by the excessive use of force by police officers. CRS avails different services such as conciliation, technical assistance, and mediation directly to the individuals in the community, which helps them resolve the conflicts between them and the police officers. The author further explains how CRS does not discriminate against any party and deploys high skilled professional conduct. The agency provides a range of technical and conciliation assistance that helps resolve and control disagreements caused by the excessive use of police force. The article will be utilized in the project to give information on how the policing community can emphasize the CRS for solving conflict related to the excessive use of force by police officers.

Wood, G., Tyler, T. R., & Papachristos, A. V. (2020). Procedural justice training reduces police use of force and complaints against officers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(18), 9815-9821.

The author talks about the procedural justice model for policing that has emerged due to the increasing misconduct and use of force by police officers, which has contributed to scrutiny and has become public attention. The model emphasizes transparency, expounds the policing actions, and responds to the community’s concerns. The model has been found to minimize the number of interactions in which the civilians experience the excessive use of force by the police officers. The article determines whether implementing procedural justice training on a large scale in the police training minimized the complaints against police and the excessive use of force against civilians. The research indicated that training reduces the number of complaints and indicates that retraining in procedural justice is a good strategy to decrease harmful policing practices and create popular legitimacy. The article will be used in the project to explain how the reimplementation of procedural training by the policing community can prevent the harmful effects caused by excessive use of force by police officers.