Since the emergence of industrialization, there has been an increased demand for workers to work in the different industries being set up. Abolishment of slavery was gradually taking place; therefore, industries competed to acquire laborers, which prompted the establishment of labor unions that would help the workers fight for their rights and help stop over-exploitation by employers. The responsibilities of the labor movements included fighting for higher salaries, good working conditions, and good working hours, among others. Labor movements were not formed instantly throughout American history but through a gradual process; however, in this essay, labor movements will be discussed from the period between 1880 and 1945.
Labor movements between the pre-1930s period and the period of the mid-1930s differed in various ways. Labor movements pre-1930s organized strikes among workers in all industries, including steel and coal. Still, they ended up unsuccessful because the government interfered with the decisions of these labor movements and failed to support them, accusing them of being associates of the communists. For instance, the united mine workers labor movement, which John Lewis led, failed after he was arrested, forcing him to promptly end the strike after the movement was accused of being funded by communist Vladimir Lenin. Nonetheless, the labor movements in the mid-1930s supported the courses of labor unions. They allowed them to engage in collective bargaining with employers on behalf of their parties through strikes and other means deemed appropriate by the workers. John Lewis practically requested workers in coal mines to join the union because the president had told the workers to join labor unions. While doing this, he did not receive any criticism.
Another difference between the labor movements within those two periods was that during the pre-1930 period, they faced a depreciation whereby they needed proper leadership to steer them toward gaining effective collective bargaining agreements. For instance, the death of Samuel Gompers weakened the American Federation’s labor since people believed that his successor did not have the zeal and the courage to organize intense strikes. Lack of proper leadership crippled the movement’s ability to organize strikes, thus weakening their fighting spirits and allowing employers to exploit workers further. Contrary to this period, the mid-1930s period was characterized by strong leadership with the like of John Lewis and Phillip Murray. During this period, Lewis recorded more success in the labor movements, unlike previously, and was involved in forming more labor unions like the Congress of industrial organizations and the united steelworkers of America, giving workers opportunities to join more trade unions.
The third major difference was that the pre-period of 1930 needed more support from the judicial system. The legalities of the strikes organized by labor movements were questioned by the courts within the different states in the United States. Due to a lack of proper leadership in the labor movements, the employers were vocally against strikes by the employers. They, therefore, used the court systems to stop workers’ strikes through injunctions. Workers during this period barely benefited from the labor movements and did not make any gains, least of all, any progress. The period in the mid-1930s was different because though the Supreme Court was not in total agreement with some of the policies implemented by President Roosevelt, they upheld the Wagner Act, which played a crucial role in allowing the workers their rights to be members of labor unions and legally bargain with their employers.
Significant changes within the labor movement were recorded in the mid-1930sa and beyond compared to earlier periods. The external factors that influenced these changes included economic changes and government intercessions. One of the first significant external factors that contributed to changes within the labor movement was the economic changes caused by the great depression. The great depression is commonly known as the period in which the United States stock market significantly dropped due to severe economic constraints, which led to high levels of unemployment in the various sectors of the economy. These changes prompted the unemployed workers to re-organize and appreciate the role of the labor movements in fighting for their rights. For example, the American Federation of Labor, which was almost collapsing since the death of Samuel, registered 1.3 million members within three years. This economic crisis prompted sympathy for the unemployed workers and the need to support them through labor unions.
The second external factor that favored changes within the labor movement was the election of President Roosevelt as the new president of the United States of America. In solving the economic constraints brought about by the great depression, the president ordered the enactment of several policies and programs to help mitigate the crisis. Among the immediate major policy enacted was the National Industrial Recovery Act, which allowed workers to join labor unions without fear of intercession from employers lawfully. Despite the dismissal of the national industrial discovery act by the Supreme Court in 1935, workers were ready to fight for their rights since they had support from the government to engage in collective bargaining with employers without fear of coercions.
Elsewhere the internal factors that facilitated the changes in the 1930s and beyond for the labor movements were proper leadership and tactics. Aggressive and rigorous leaders such as Lewis played a significant role in the changes the in the labor movement whereby he fought for the rights of all workers, particularly those who had been unrepresented in the previous eras, such as workers employed in the steel industries by creating the union of steel workers in America. The change in tactics in the labor movement also contributed heavily to the further developing of labor unions. For instance, the dissociation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) from the American labor federation prompted better management in the labor unions giving workers a chance to belong to unions that represented their grievances better. This separation also helped leaders focus better on all their workers.
The internal factors began earlier than the external factors. They helped lay the groundwork for the changes that took place because the labor unions had already existed, and throughout the different periods, they had been successful. Nonetheless, their challenges influenced their success and failures; therefore, the favorable external factors during the mid-1930s facilitated their success. The new developments in the 1930s were the implementation of policies favorable to workers across the various job sectors by President Roosevelt, the legislation of the new deal in Congress, and the support of the Wagner Act by the Supreme Court despite its rejection of the national industrial discovery act.
All of these factors discussed above are useful in understanding the condition of the labor movement in recent years because they help us understand the role of the government in defending the rights of workers from exploiting employers, how economic situations directly affect employees and workers within the different employment sectors and the indirect effects of these constraints affect the trade unions. Proper leadership in tare unions gives us insights into how leaders can propagate labors unions towards achieving their goals and objectives for their members and, lastly, how tactic approaches in labor unions help in creating various labor unions that fight for different workers since not all employees work within the same field of work neither are their demands similar.
The labor unions in the past and those in the present are significantly comparable in various ways, as discussed below. The labor unions are similar in both time frames because they advocate for the same issues dealing with employees within the different labor pools. Among the issues advocated for then and currently by the unions are reasonable working hours for all employees and good compensations for overtime hours, high salaries and retirement benefits, health for sick employees, and favorable working conditions for all employees despite their backgrounds. Another similarity is that for employees to benefit from these labor unions, they must be registered with the unions and make their contributions as per their agreement with the unions.
Labor unions were relevant back then and are still relevant today because they help employees earn accordingly. Union members in the United States are estimated to earn higher monthly salaries compared to no union members. This is because the unions play a role in negotiating higher wage premiums for their members. The unions are also relevant because they have helped promote workplace equality by preventing the exploitation of workers by employers, specifically those of color. Therefore labor unions contribute heavily to the growth United States economy. ( 1460)
“Proclamation of the Striking Textile Workers of Lawrence.” Voices of a People’s History of the United States (2014), chapter 13.
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Howard Zinn and Anthony Arnove, eds. Seven Stories Press. “Arturo Giovanitti’s Address to the Jury.” Voices of a People’s History of the United States (2014), chapter 13.
Jacobin. 25 Aug 2017. PBS American Experience Films. (2011).
McConnell-Sidorick, Sharon. “Silk Stockings and Socialism.”
Rosenzweig, Roy et al. (2008). Who Built America? Working People and the Nation’s History, Volume Two: 1877 to the Present. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s the “Girl Army” article is at the beginning of the article.
Are You Disaster Ready? Sample Paper
Disaster preparedness is critical in healthcare organizations as it facilitates patient and staff safety during emergencies. The adversities may be natural or artificial, including floods, hurricanes, disease outbreaks, terror attacks, and fire eruptions. New York City is prone to most of the mentioned catastrophes, making it necessary for hospitals such as the Mid-Hudson Forensic Psychiatric Center (MHFPC) to have well-crafted disaster preparedness plans. The procedures prioritize evacuation and sheltering mechanisms and should align with the local Emergency Management System’s Plan (EMSP) to ensure effective communication among all involved agencies. Hence, the MHFPC has a clear disaster preparedness plan prioritizing various upheavals that jeopardize the well-being of patients, practitioners, and other crucial stakeholders.
Disasters in which MHFPC has an Emergency Plan
MHFPC has disaster preparedness plans to curtail emergencies such as fire eruptions, disease outbreaks, and hurricanes. The campaign is spearheaded by a task force involving nurses, physicians, and representatives from the hospital management and provides regular staff training and drills to ensure effective execution. There are specific fire assembly points as the catastrophe is usually spontaneous, unlike the National Hurricane Center forecasted hurricanes. Therefore, MHFPC has an emergency preparedness plan that prioritizes stakeholder well-being, securing the hospital’s critical infrastructure to prevent the disruption of healthcare services.
MHFPC’s Plan Interface with the Local EMSP
New York State has precise occupational safety requirements that corporate players must fulfill before they are allowed to operate. Consequently, MHFPC’s disaster management strategy aligns with the state emergency management agency’s (EMA) plan. It leverages an incident command system (ICS), providing a communication and resource allocation structure (Public Health Emergency, n.d.). Firstly, the organization follows New York EMA’s emergency response protocols and procedures, which require immediate reporting of disasters such as fire outbreaks to facilitate an appropriate Emergency Operations Plan. MHFPC also understands its role in the local EMSP, primarily on communication, evacuation, and resource management protocols, and prioritizes workforce training to boost execution effectiveness (Farra et al., 2017). The hospital also participates in local disaster management drills and exercises to assess its emergency response plan, helping familiarize its task force with natural incidents such as hurricanes and disease outbreaks. Thus, MHFPC observes the state’s occupational safety rules and ensures its emergency preparedness plan matches the local EMSP.
Management of Communication in Disaster Response
Proper communication structures are vital in disaster/emergency response management. Consequently, MHFPC’s disaster preparedness plan entails an ICS with clear roles and guidelines for disseminating information during an emergency. For instance, the organization’s emergency response task force’s head oversees internal and external communication, instructing unit leaders to initiate evacuation processes whenever necessary. During instances such as fire outbreaks, the local EMA is contacted immediately, mainly after leaders ascertain that organization-level resources are inadequate and may, in turn, solicit support from charitable firms such as Red Cross. Hence, communication is facilitated through a standard ICS integrating the MHFPC’s plan and New York state’s EMSP.
Criteria For Initiating an Official ICS
The ICS is effective in emergency response when multiple agencies are involved. The criteria for initiating an official ICS considers the emergency incident’s size, complexity, and legal requirements (Kaye et al., 2021). Firstly, substantial fire outbreaks require ICS as their scope may exceed an organization’s response capability. On the other hand, disease outbreaks, including COVID-19, are complex, and hospitals may be required by law to communicate as they are federally classified as disasters. Further, the Federal Emergency Management Agency directs using ICS when handling large-scale adversities (Farcas et al., 2020). Another criterion that may be considered is incident duration, as emergencies that last long may require several agencies to manage. Thus, disaster magnitude, length, and threat may force organizations to initiate an official ICS.
Overall, disaster preparedness is vital in protecting lives and infrastructures during catastrophes. MHFPC’s emergency plan prioritizes hurricanes and fire disease outbreaks and aligns with New York state’s EMSP. The organization initiates an official ISP, per the local EMA protocols, whenever emergencies are complex and large-scale. Therefore, disaster preparedness plans are practical occupational safety tools.
Farcas, A., Ko, J., Chan, J., Malik, S., Nono, L., & Chiampas, G. (2021). Use of incident command system for disaster preparedness: A model for an emergency department COVID-19 response. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 15(3), e31-e36.
Farra, S. L., Miller, E. T., Gneuhs, M., Brady, W., Cosgrove, E., Simon, A., … & Hausfeld, J. (2017). Disaster management: Communication up, across, and down. Nursing Management, 48(7), 51.
Kaye, A. D., Cornett, E. M., Kallurkar, A., Colontonio, M. M., Chandler, D., Mosieri, C., … & Fox, C. J. (2021). Framework for creating an incident command center during crises. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, 35(3), 377–388.
Public Health Emergency. (n.d.). Emergency management and the incident command system. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/mscc/handbook/chapter1/Pages/emergencymanagement.aspx
Leininger’s Transcultural Theory Sample College Essay
Leininger’s Transcultural Theory focuses on how nurses adjust their patterns to accommodate the different cultural beliefs of their patients. Patients are entitled to the task of providing services to different people. Leininger’s theory suggests that nurses should be transcultural, such that they can accommodate and appreciate different people’s different beliefs. HCR Home Care (2012) explores two cultures, Puerto Rican and Caribbean Hispanic, and the care the caregivers should provide such people. Among various important issues discussed, there is acknowledging and respecting the unique values of people, even if you do not understand or agree with them,
One may encounter unique customs, beliefs, and perspectives when dealing with patients from different cultures. These customs may include religious traditions, food traditions, herbal usage, family involvement in treatment, language barriers and home remedies, and others. Some customs may find it disrespectful if one rejects food. Therefore, a transcultural nurse must be dynamic enough to integrate all these cultural customs, norms, and patterns in their treatment to make it effective. To manage all these cultural patterns, a nurse should best acknowledge and respect their unique values, even if they don’t understand or agree with them (HCR Home Care, 2012). Therefore, one key thing is that culture is a central concept in nursing, and transcultural nurses should ensure they adjust and incorporate these customs, beliefs, and patterns in their treatments. Some esteem religion and believe it can accelerate their healing; others believe in herbal and home remedies; others believe in the involvement of family or priests in treatment; and other beliefs. Respect for traditional cultural values is one of the key components of a successful relationship when providing care. Nurses should learn to respect cultures while providing care services, necessitating good patient relationships.
Another transcultural approach and a key point that a nurse can apply is maintaining, negotiating, and restructuring techniques (HCR Home Care, 2012). These techniques are applicable in almost all cultural setups. Maintenance involves celebrating and supporting various cultural behaviors that benefit the patients. For example, allowing patients to continue praying as they take medication is part of their belief. Negotiation includes helping your patient to adapt their behavior without interfering or compromising their cultural values (HCR Home Care, 2012). For example, some patients might be offended if they are required to stop using certain foods. In such a case, the nurse negotiates with the patient to use a certain approach that does not necessarily eliminate what they adore but preserves it in a controlled manner that reaps back the desired results. Restructuring involves acknowledging cultural practices that may be harmful and need to be halted. For example, a nurse may show the patient ways of using something very professionally, helping them to stop their initial pattern and adapt what they have been shown in a friendly manner. A nurse can help patients restructure their behavior and stop them from continuing to do them.
Transcultural nursing applies to all cultures. Therefore, since it is hard to understand all cultures, a nurse should consider identifying a widespread population in their area and develop a primary understanding of their health behaviors (HCR Home Care, 2012). It is proven that preserving cultural values positively impacts patients’ healing success. Therefore, the more culturally aware a nurse becomes, the more successful they become in helping patients. Nurses need to be open to cultural and ethnic diversity to effectively provide healthcare to all people from diverse cultures. Nurses should always focus on providing culturally congruent care that fits the culture and different patients they serve.
HCR Home Care, (2012). The power of transcultural nursing. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6U3n4UF_XGg