Essay On Psychological Disorders Sample Essay


Acknowledging the psyche is a difficult task in and of itself. In most cases, professionals determine psychological diagnosis by collecting and examining the records of a patients’ symptoms history. When you combine mental diseases, chemical imbalances, and other factors, you have a riddle that many people want to solve. This work seeks to comprehend the strange actions of an individual with mental problems by relating them to the many diagnostic criteria, cultural and social consequences, and paradigms employed in the instance of Disco Di. The audience should comprehend what Disco Di was identified with, the therapies she attended, her narrative, and the circumstances in her life that led to her being treated.

I agree with the diagnosis given to Disco Di because the symptoms described matches the diagnosis mentioned. However, there seems to be another possible diagnosis for Diana. The patient was admitted to the hospital after drinking fatal doses of diazepam and liquor during a suicide attempt. On all counts, the therapist’s judgment is proper. Diana displayed the usual symptoms of both BPD and MDD. Her MDD appeared considerably sooner than her BPD, joint in psychiatric diseases. In truth, her BPD was most likely the outcome of the start of her long-term MDD, which was caused by her sister’s death while she was 11 years old. Irritability, weight loss or increase, lethargy, suicidal thoughts, withdrawal from regular daily activities, restlessness, agitation, and negative thinking are the most common symptoms of MDD (Chichi et al., 2015). In most situations, psychological problems exhibit symptoms that are similar to one another. This was likewise true of Diana’s situation. The more unique and severe symptoms, on the other hand, were most likely caused by her BPD. Diana also displayed BPD characteristics, such as excessive emotional outbursts, unstable relationships, and impulsive conduct (Yang et al., 2019). Diana, in particular, expressed feeling bored, alienated, and nervous on multiple occasions. She could not develop a stable and healthy relationship, as seen by her frequent partner changes and reliance on her dog. Diana was also impetuous, engaging in risky and careless behaviours such as drunkenness and promiscuity.

Diana also had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. The patient’s fixation with calories and food placement on the plate was a strong indicator of impending or increasing OCD. Whenever Diana walked out of their compound, her panic episodes were also agoraphobic symptoms. Other symptoms such as Diana’s hostility, unwelcome thoughts, irregular heartbeat, and sweaty hands are typical in most diseases. Throughout her Disco Di studies, she was mainly focused on ensuring that various items were ordered and placed in a specific order, to the point that she would have tantrums to the point where dishes were shattered, and she had to be detained by her dad. A person with OCD experiences recurring unpleasant ideas and even desires and compulsions of repeating thinking and behaviour (Hirschtritt & Kroenke, 2017).

Similarly, Disco Di felt the want to eat a particular number of calories and have her meal satisfied in the manner described above. Along with all of this, she repeats terrible habits such as bingeing on food and then immediately collapsing to go on a diet. Post-Terrible Stress Condition (PTSD), which arises after a traumatic incident, seems to be another syndrome that the doctor failed to identify Disco Di. In Disco Di’s instance, her sister died when she was 11 years old. This is when her lack of interest, usage of hallucinogens, and alienation from others (Poudel & Gautam, 2017) began since she could not find friends and maintain a healthy connection with her dog.

Factors of Culture

The cause of psychological diseases are numerous and ambiguous. However, scientists have identified several risk factors that are likely to result in psychiatric problems. For example, culture has significantly impacted various illnesses’ formation, dissemination, and management. Cross-cultural research has aided in determining the degree to which participants’ cultures may influence the occurrence of a mental condition. According to Rekhi and Lee (2018), culture has a pathologic, polarization, encoded proteins, path-facilitative, and path-reactive impact on psychological diseases. Patho-elaborating effects, for example, tend to amplify behavioural responses by reinforcing cultural features. In their study, Ireland, for example, had a greater rate of people with schizophrenia than New Guinea. Rekhi and Lee argue that some psychological behaviours are unique to specific cultures while being entirely ignored in others.

Gender Variables

Gender is said to play a part in shaping or trying to form psychological disorders. Women and men have physiological differences. To be more specific, each produces distinct hormones that are claimed to influence cognitive and behavioural features. The regular fluctuations in hormones at various phases of life or cycles impact women’s behaviour, emotions, and even mental processing. According to Luyten and Fonagy (2016), these hormones are responsible for social stresses, stress response, reduced self-esteem, and other mood swings. If women do not appropriately manage these changes, a psychiatric condition may develop. This is also why women are significantly more likely than males to suffer stress.

Factors of Environment

Environmental and cultural variables can also play a role in developing psychiatric diseases. The incidence of these illnesses is also influenced by family genes and stressful life experiences (Yang et al., 2019). Diana, in our example, lost her sister while she was 11 years old. Diana was close to her sister, and the absence of her confidante made it difficult for her to build meaningful connections with other females. Diana engaged in unstable love relationships in an attempt to satisfy her loneliness.

Treatment Methodologies

The treatment of mental illnesses has developed over time. The therapy of MDD, formerly known as despondency in the twentieth century, has seen considerable advances in recent decades. For example, opiates and a litre of water were commonly used to cure depression. The opium was given to the patients on a daily basis for three weeks. Opium dosages were gradually raised and lowered until the medication was withdrawn (King & Johnson, 2018). However, advances in medicine and a better knowledge of human psychology have introduced various more effective therapy procedures that produce more positive effects. For example, therapists use re-uptake regulators and inhibitors in conjunction with psychotherapy to treat psychological issues. The emphasis is mainly on supportive treatment rather than medications, which are only provided in certain circumstances.

On the other hand, there seems to be no overarching therapy for the condition. Instead, clinicians address the situation with a blended schema of many therapeutic approaches. Such techniques entail developing reliable connections with patients and training in emotional management abilities. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) and pharmaceutical therapies are two more therapeutic options that can assist alleviate the symptoms of atypical behaviour.

MDD and BPD were identified in Disco Di. If she had just been diagnosed with MDD, the optimal treatment would be antidepressant therapy; however, psychotherapy may be helpful because she has been diagnosed with both. Psychotherapy can benefit people with BPD, and it can also help anyone with symptoms of depression who are suffering from MDD. It compels the sufferer to speak up and reflect on their feelings. Disco Di can benefit from psychotherapy, specifically behavioural cognitive therapy, which can help her manage her thoughts as they are reflected in her behaviour, manage anguish, learn skills to cope with powerful emotions, and open her mind to understand better her behaviours and why she thinks the way she does.


A definitive diagnosis of a psychiatric condition might be difficult. Many of these diseases, as mentioned above, have symptoms and behaviours that overlap. To prevent misdiagnosing a patient, practitioners should establish an accurate diagnosis. Once an appropriate diagnosis is obtained, therapists may begin developing appropriate treatment programs to ensure the patient progressively regains some feeling of normalcy in their life. Psychological disorders are diagnosed and treated by clinical psychologists. The history of psychological disorders helps clinicians settle for the best judgment with a patient. A diagnosis based on one incident might be wrong because all symptoms do not appear. Repeated psychological impairments are the key to determining the best diagnosis for a patient. Also, psychological disorders overlap whereby one patient might display several conditions; hence, clinicians should be keen to observe and follow patients’ history.


Chicchi Giglioli, I. A., Pallavicini, F., Pedroli, E., Serino, S., & Riva, G. (2015). Augmented reality: a brand new challenge for the assessment and treatment of psychological disorders. Computational and mathematical methods in medicine2015.

Hirschtritt, M. E., & Kroenke, K. (2017). Screening for depression. Jama318(8), 745-746

Kring, A. M., & Johnson, S. L. (2018). Abnormal psychology: The science and treatment of psychological disorders. John Wiley & Sons.

Luyten, P., & Fonagy, P. (2016). The selfin depression. The self in understanding and treating psychological disorders, 71.

Poudel, A., & Gautam, S. (2017). Age of onset of substance use and psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use disorders. BMC psychiatry17(1), 1-7.

Rekhi, G., Ng, W. Y., & Lee, J. (2018). Clinical utility of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research193, 423-427.

Yang, Y., Song, Y., Lu, Y., Xu, Y., Liu, L., & Liu, X. (2019). Associations between erectile dysfunction and psychological disorders (depression and anxiety): a cross‐sectional study in a Chinese population. Andrologia51(10), e13395.

Psychology Articles Summaries Free Sample

Akinnawo, E., Akpunne, B., Akpunne, S., Bello, I., Onisile, D., & Akpunne, E. (2022). Psychometric Properties of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) on Young Nigerian People. Psychology13(03), 361-374.


The article’s main topic of discussion is looking at the psychometric properties of difficulties in regulation of emotion on scale research carried out on young Nigerian people. The research is a peer-reviewed article published in 2022 and conducted by Akinnawo and the other research scientists. The experiment cross-section cross-sectional survey design was adopted during the experimental study and used to validate the emotional difficulties regulation scale (DERS) on university students of Nigeria in the undergraduate section. The following section discusses the article’s primary purpose, including the research question. This hypothesis was used understudy, a summary of the applied method, and the research findings and future implications were provided.

The Primary Purpose of The Article

The research’s main aim is to conduct a cross-sectional survey to validate DEES on the scholarly undergraduates of a Nigerian university. Accordingly, this research aimed to analyze the DEES employing Nigerian populations, specifically undergraduate university subjects, the possibility of determining the scale reliability parameters for the Nigerian populace. According to the researchers, validating the DEES on students was adequate to yield generalizable psychometric properties (Akinnawo et al., 2022).

The Hypothesis Used in The Experiment

The main hypothesis of the research was that young Nigerian experience emotional difficulties, and the psychometric properties could be measured on a scale. This self-report test, known as the DEES, examines a wider range of emotional dysregulation. T As a self-report assessment instrument, theatres are extensively used yet debatable. The study hypothesizes the DERS scale of measurement as a better scale compared to other standard procedures like SIDES (Akinnawo et al., 2022).

Summary Of The Method Used

The study setting was based in Osun state university, drawing 1338 university undergraduates hence eligibility criteria applied. The study employed two scales, the DEES, and the SIDES, structured interviews for disorders of extreme stress in measurements with usage followed according to eligible manuals. Statistical analysis was based on descriptive statistics using mean and standard deviation to define the subject’s characteristics (Akinnawo et al., 2022).

Research Findings

Sex demographic distribution of respondents indicated 38% to be male and 61.7% to be female. The reliability coefficient was determined based on the alpha and spearman brown or Guttman split-half coefficients. Based on the study results, the subjects’ responses to DEES and SIDES affected the dysregulation scale based on internal consistency. The DRS alpha coefficient obtained was 90 and 80 for the spiderman coefficient. A positive correlation was also obtained between DEES and SIDES, and DERS was recommendable (Akinnawo et al., 2022).

Future Implication

Emotional dysregulation syndromes like anxiety, depression, OCD, and PSTD may benefit from the DEES in therapeutic contexts. The DERS may also investigate the links underlying emotion control, impulsivity, and suicidal behaviour. The DEES might assist in determining the correct result and course of therapy. Furthermore, investigators’ DEES may be employed in study designs to share data on the determinants of Emotion Dysregulation among persons in public and healthcare settings. According to his investigation, TH’s findings show that DEES is accurate and dependable for the Nigerian populace. positive results in this area call for more research to determine weaknesses obtained like emotion correlation

Tarquinio, C., Machado, J., Longo, R., Siles, J., Bruno, J., Gendarme, S., … & Rotonda, C. (2022). The Treatment of Anxious-Depressive Disorders among Breast Cancer Patients Integrating the EMDR Psychotherapy. Psychology, (13), 313-327. (2022).


The article is on a pilot randomized clinical trial that looks at the treatment of anxious depressive disorders, a study conducted on individuals who are breast cancer patients and are under EMDR psychotherapy. Tarquino and his fellow researchers conducted the study; subsequently, the article is a peer-reviewed article published n the year 2022. Lately, there have been efficacy shown in the application of EMDR with cancer patients in disorders that involve reactions like PSTD depression and anxiety. The artcle discusses the experiment where the acceptability of EMDR is under test, an approach taken by female patients who are complicated with invasive breast cancer. The following section discusses the article’s primary purpose, including the research question. This hypothesis was used understudy, a summary of the applied method, and the research findings and future implications were provided.

Primary Article Purpose

Because breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy and ranked among the top mortality causes among women, clinical therapeutic movements that work best on the disease will be preferred. This makes the research trial most useful as its primary aim is testing or experimenting with the applicability, acceptance, and practical use of taking an EMDR approach in therapeutic intervention on female patients who are breast cancer illness that is an invasive complication. The study tries to adjust the intervention protocol on the target subjects to validate the standardized approach before clinical and randomized trials on a large scale (Tarquinio et al., 2022).

The Hypothesis of The Research Article

The research is based on an alternative hypothesis that integrating EMDR psychotherapy is efficient and applicable in treating anxious depressive mental disorders and breast cancer patients. The trial consisted of several hypotheses like a decrease in anxiety and depression score following EMDR compared to standard treatment(Tarquinio et al., 2022).

Summary Of the Method Used

For the pilot study, PSYCANCCER-EMDR agreed patients underwent EMDR treatment with the administration of questionnaires and qualitative interviews. In the study design, the recruitment o the required sample subjects took over six months, and patients passing inclusion criteria were recruited following a psychological inclusion. The intervention strategy was guided using an 8-phase EMDR protocol with provided guidelines. The sessions involving EMDR involved five trained literate EMDR psychotherapists Who practised based on the standard protocol. Six sessions were carried out for the patients, the first two for individual histories, and the last six were sessions involving EMDR. Data collected detailed medical data at the beginning and study end. Psychotherapy sessions collected data on pain, insomnia conditions or related sleep problems, lifestyle habits, and other data like physical activity(Tarquinio et al., 2022).

Findings Of the Research

Based on the research study, all patients who agreed to participate in the controlled randomized trial completed all the sessions; based on questionnaires analysis, approximately twenty per cent of the patients presented a low score of anxiety, and eighty-seven per cent presented a low risk of PSTD. For the study appropriateness, the feedback difficulties highlighted by the inclusion team included post and pre-surgery consultations I psychotherapy interview, airport gave out by the patients stated usefulness of psychotherapy in the cancer life experience. Based on the pilot study (Tarquinio et al., 2022).

Future implications

This paper provides room for other research to be carried out based on the pact that the pilot study provides positive results. EMDR treatment can create new possibilities for people with cancer’ psychological care, particularly in terms of PSTD effect, to more quickly address anxious-depressive illnesses, and assist patients in adjusting to chronic conditions.

Lan, M., & Isacoff, N. (2022). Parents’ Attitudes Predict Adolescent Gender Expression. Psychology13(02), 301-312.


The article’s main point of research is the prediction of parent attitudes on the gender expression of adolescents. The article is peer-reviewed carried out by researchers Michael Lan and Nora Isacoff in New York, USA, in Syosset High School. The expression of genes among teenagers, specifically adolescents, may be influenced by parental views and actions. Surveys of parents of on before the onset of adolescence show that parental views about gender fluidity in youngsters correspond with teenagers’ later alternative sexualities, but this link varied depending on the teenage adolescent sexuality. The following section discusses the article’s primary purpose, including the research question. This hypothesis was used understudy, a summary of the applied method, and the research findings and future implications were provided.

The Primary Purpose of The Article

Nowadays, many individuals recognize that sexuality is a socially created notion and respect various people’s sexual identities and expressions. We don’t know yet whether this culture change will change the way people express their gender. The study aims to add to the growing body of knowledge on the factors that influence how people display their gender, both in fundamental science and clinical psychology. Parents’ and teenagers’ current views and actions are examined in this research to overcome these constraints. Specifically, this research investigates if the association between teenage gender identification and parents’ present beliefs is variable based on if the teenager’s gender was designated at birth or not (Lan & Isacoff, 2022)

The Hypothesis

The main hypothesis is an alternative hypothesis; the Parents’ Attitudes are involved in predicting Adolescent Gender Expression (Lan & Isacoff, 2022).

Summary Of the Method Used.

Google Forms was used to conduct a survey, and Before beginning the survey, participants were asked to sign a permission form and were told to complete it in secret. Five sets of questionnaires were compiled from four different scales for the study survey. Survey participants are asked to rate their attitudes on gender roles on a three-point scale based on an eight-item, two-dimensional questionnaire. The Individual Characteristics Questionnaire was used to collect additional information from the parents who took part in the study. Children’s sexual identity behaviours, features, and preferences were initially the focus of the questionnaire’s creation. The third and fourth questionnaire items were also adjusted from the GIQ for parental study subjects. As part of the study, this researcher asked how often parents would indulge in inactivity in dissuading their kids from engaging in sexual identity behaviours, characteristics, or hobbies (Lan & Isacoff, 2022).

Summary Of Results

Gender nonconformity is common among teenagers, and female adolescents are more likely than male adolescents to engage in such conduct. Researchers suggest that caregivers, specifical parents, are more concerned about their male children engaging in gender-nonconforming actions than those concerned about their female children engaging in such activities based on positive study results (Lan & Isacoff, 2022).

Future Implications

In the present research, it was not taken into account that parental views and their children’s gender-nonconformity behaviours were linked to the composition of a household. Whether there are any variations in the sexual identity of teenagers in families where there is one kid, numerous children of the identical gender, or large families of different sex, along with families with two or one mother, future research should look into that possibility. Improvements to the present research would provide further information on the determinants of teenage gender identification that are passed down via families.

Cheng, P., Luik, A., Fellman-Couture, C., Peterson, E., Joseph, C., & Tallent, G. et al. (2018). Efficacy of digital CBT for insomnia to reduce depression across demographic groups: a randomized trial. Psychological Medicine49(3), 491-500.


Cognitive behaviour therapy has been identified as an effective psychotherapy method that enables better treatment of insomnia as a mental health disorder. This study has rated cognitive behaviour therapy as the first-line method for treating chronic insomnia. The study was carried out across different groups, ages, gender, and races who face insomnia and depression conditions. In addition to being beneficial for insomnia, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-I) has improved chronic depression without addressing non-sleep depressive symptoms. According to the research, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-I) only contributed to a 37 per cent reduction in depression intensity (Cheng et al., 2018). This is particularly significant in light of the correlation between sleeplessness with depression and the transceiver relationship involving the two. However, insomnia is a well-established risk factor for depression, increasing the likelihood of developing the condition by roughly twofold compared to those who get enough sleep.

The primary purpose of the article 

This research aimed to examine the effectiveness of dCBT-I in lowering depression and depression throughout broad population subgroups, such as age, race, socioeconomic and sex. Additional findings also investigated population characteristics in attrition.

The hypothesis 

The study hypothesis that the efficacy of dCBT-I across a broad spectrum of persons is critical to insomnia and depression treatment’s long-term success.

Summary of the method used.

Using the placebo-controlled design method, the researchers used two randomized groups classified into online sleep education and dCBT-I. The study used the internet method for participants who participated in the study wherein detailed screening surveys through online questionnaires’. Three hundred fifty-eight participants were kept in the dCBT-I treatment and 300 participants in the OSE (online sleep education) treatment, out of 1358 participants with insomnia who were randomized. According to the research, the intensity of depression and insomnia was investigated as a dependent variable. In this study, researchers looked at age, sex, race, gender, and socioeconomic position to see whether these were independent modifiers of therapeutic response (Cheng et al., 2018).

Findings or results of the research

The study found that dCBT-I is the best effective way to yield reduction in participants with depression and insomnia than the utilization of online sleep education. The number of participants with treatment under dCBT-I has high remission degree after treatment compared to sleep education. The results showed that demographic characteristics were not meaningful modifiers of therapeutic response, indicating that CBT-I is comparable in effectiveness across a wide range of demographic categories (Cheng et al., 2018). Moreover, although disparities in attrition were detected depending on socioeconomic status, there were no variations amongst black and white individuals in terms of attrition.

Future implications

The finding of this study indicates that dCBT-T is the best non-pharmacological treatment that should be applied in the future treatment of depression and insomnia disorders.

Nader-Grosbois, N., Jacobs, E., Mazzone, S., & Poirier, N. (2022). Mothers’ Socialization of Emotions and Theory of Mind and Emotion Regulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Psychology13(01), 177-219.


The research mother emotion specialization and mind theory or emotion regulation apply in autism spectrum disorders. The research was carried out by Grosbois and fellow researchers in January 2022. this research contrasted the psychological profiles about emotions of moms of Belgian and Quebec origin and the socialization of the feelings of their youngsters who have ASD. It investigated if emotional responses and dialogues differed based on things such as the child’s or parents’ characteristics, as well as the cultural environment. The following section discusses the article’s primary purpose, including the research question. This hypothesis was used understudy, a summary of the applied method, and the research findings and future implications were provided.

Primary Article Purpose

According to the researchers, this study was particularly interesting because Quebec and Belgium share a common culture in that they both speak French, focus on promoting high academic principles oriented toward individual freedom and social integration for children with ASD, and both nations are constantly working to enhance the backing provided to parents to sustain their child’s intellectual modification. This comparison research aimed to find commonalities and dissimilarities among Belgian and Quebec women regarding their psychological profiles and their responses to and dialogues regarding psychological emotions about their kids with ASD. Furthermore, it looked into the factors that influence these emotional responses and interactions, such as the variables that impact mothers (Nader-Grosbois et al., 2022).

The Hypothesis of The Research Article

The research hypothesis was broken down into different sections. First, the first hypothesis was that there are cross-cultural differences within mothers who have an emotional profile in their reactions that can be supportive or nonsupportive to emotions rated either negative or positive felt by ASD children. The second hypothesis states that supportive or unsupportive reactions by mothers reacted to ASD child emotions are linked dependent on the mother’s emotional openness, the level of education, and the culture. The last hypnosis states clear linkages will be established connecting mother-child dialogues about emotional connection and parental friendly responses to emotions (Nader-Grosbois et al., 2022).

The Method Applied

The study participants involved 100 children with ASD, with 90% boys recruiting of their mothers. Kids’ evaluation was based on exhibiting ASD by a psychologist at an autistic clinic specialized in DSM-5 as one of the study protocols. ASD severity may be estimated with the use of this questionnaire. Child behaviour is evaluated in 15 areas through this assessment tool. The Ethics Committee for Psychology Research gave its clearance to the study before it even began recruiting participants. The CARS-T was conducted by the children’s special education instructor or a psychiatrist with experience in the industry dealing with children. The moms completed questionnaires to describe their child’s interests, ToM skills, and emotional maturity (Nader-Grosbois et al., 2022).

Findings Of the Research

No substantial variations were seen between the CARS-T scores of c kids with mild to moderate CONDITION. As a result, the youngsters were well matched based on these two criteria. ASD kids from Belgium were taken less seriously intellectual, curious, and innovative than those from Canada, according to the EBMCF personality characteristics. ToM capabilities were almost identical across the two samples. The two groups of autistic youngsters did not vary in their ability to regulate their emotions. Still, they did: Compared to Quebec ASD children, Belgian ASD children had a worse time controlling their emotions (Nader-Grosbois et al., 2022).

Future Implications 

Several elements should be considered when a mother chooses to employ supportive responses and emotional dialogues with her child. The way we respond to negative or good emotions and the indices were taken into account during dialogues all influence these variables. Assistance and counselling for families with autistic children should consider the academic qualifications of family members and cultural variables impacting their sentimental open-mindedness identities to meet better the needs of both families and children with autism spectrum disorders in this area of primary socialization of emotions.


Akinnawo, E., Akpunne, B., Akpunne, S., Bello, I., Onisile, D., & Akpunne, E. (2022). Psychometric Properties of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) on Young Nigerian People. Psychology13(03), 361-374.

Cheng, P., Luik, A., Fellman-Couture, C., Peterson, E., Joseph, C., & Tallent, G. et al. (2018). Efficacy of digital CBT for insomnia to reduce depression across demographic groups: a randomized trial. Psychological Medicine49(3), 491-500.

Lan, M., & Isacoff, N. (2022). Parents’ Attitudes Predict Adolescent Gender Expression. Psychology13(02), 301-312.

Nader-Grosbois, N., Jacobs, E., Mazzone, S., & Poirier, N. (2022). Mothers’ Socialization of Emotions and Theory of Mind and Emotion Regulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Psychology13(01), 177-219.

Tarquinio, C., Machado, J., Longo, R., Siles, J., Bruno, J., Gendarme, S., … & Rotonda, C. (2022). The Treatment of Anxious-Depressive Disorders among Breast Cancer Patients Integrating the EMDR Psychotherapy. Psychology, (13), 313-327. (2022).

Discussion: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Essay Example

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that may occur in individuals who have experienced a traumatic event during their lifetime. The symptoms occur within a few weeks of the traumatic event, but it takes years to manifest in other cases. Patients with PTSD manifest a number of cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms, including; upsetting nightmares, memory problems, depression, anxiety, confusion, muscle tremors, nausea, feeling hopelessness, not remembering important aspects of their lives, having negative thoughts, and severe emotional distress (Alexander, 2012). If the events keep reoccurring, an individual need to seek medical help as there are off-label, FDA-approved drugs and non-pharmacological interventions for treating PSTD among children and adolescents. An example of FDA- approved drug for treating PSTD is Paroxetine HCI, while an off-label drug is a Benzodiazepines. On the other hand, prolonged exposure can be used as a non-pharmacological intervention for PTSD (Alexander, 2012).

FDA medications refer to drugs whose side effects have been reviewed by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and determined to provide benefits that outweigh the risks for the intended individuals (Alexander, 2012). These drugs have various benefits and risks. The benefits include; a sense of safety to the consumers. Considering the extensive review of the drugs, harmful medications are disposed off before getting to the consumer. Second, FDA drugs are meant for a specific illness. These drugs are manufactured to cure a wide variety of illnesses and are under high scrutiny. For example, there are drugs to treat different types of cancer or depression. On the other hand, the risks of FDA medication are overpriced medicine. Since the drugs are approved, most vendors tend to overprice them since they know most customers will choose them over other medications. Second, FDA medicines are not readily available. Off-label drugs refer to drugs given to a patient for another use rather than the prescribed medication. For example, the use of Benzodiazepines to treat PSTD (Akiki & Abdallah, 2019). The benefits of off-label drugs are they can be used to relieve pain. Second, they are cheap and readily available in medicine outlets. However, there is a risk of buying a harmful drug that will bring more pain rather than curing the intended illness. The risk assessment that I would used to make a treatment decision of PTSD is checking the patients symptoms and taking them through various texts before making a decision.

There exist clinical guidelines for the treatment of PSTD in adults. The current guidelines strongly recommend the use of prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive processing therapy (CPT), cognitive processing therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (Courtois et al., 2017). Prolonged exposure therapy is an intervention strategy that may take a period of three months or more. It may involve imaginal exposure or in vivo exposure. Imaginal exposure is where a patient describes to the therapist their past experiences and the symptoms they have been experiencing. With the therapist’s guidance, the patient can practice breathing techniques to overcome the traumatic events. On the other hand, in vivo exposure involves exposing the individual to the fears until they are able to confront them. Apart from the treatments, the clinical guidelines does not address yoga or acupuncture as a form of treatment for PTSD. Therefore, it is vital for medical professionals to familiarize themselves with the guidelines before treating a patient.

In conclusion, PTSD is a common disease around the globe. It affects not only children but also adults. Therefore, there is a need for different intervention strategies to help the patients dealing with PTSD. Moreover, the government should create programs that create awareness about the disease in society so that individuals can recognize symptoms at an early age and seek medication where necessary.


Akiki, T. J., & Abdallah, C. G. (2019). Are there effective psychopharmacologic treatments for PTSD?. The Journal of clinical psychiatry80(3), 1309.

Alexander, W. (2012). Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in combat veterans: focus on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic agents. Pharmacy and Therapeutics37(1), 32.

Courtois, C. A., Brown, L. S., Cook, J., Fairbank, J. A., Friedman, M., Gone, J. P., … & Kurtzman, H. (February 24, 2017.) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults American Psychological Association Guideline Development Panel for the Treatment of PTSD in Adults Adopted as APA Policy.