Essay – The Tempest And Equality Sample Essay

The Tempest: Comparing The Cultures in The Tempest and Ours”All men are created equal” is one of the declarations that Americanculture is built on. This declaration means that all men no matter of race,religion, or creed are equals in the eyes of society, as well as the law. Thiswas not always true in history, especially not in Shakespeare’s day and age.

During this time, society had levels of classification where men were considered”superior” to other men. Shakespeare gives us a taste of this hierarchicalculture through his play The Tempest. He shows us how “superior” men perceivedthemselves in contrast to lesser beings due to their race, financial status, andgender.We also are shown those who had reason to feel superior yet treatedothers equally and with the respect due to them.

The Tempest reflects Shakespeare’s society through the relationshipbetween characters, especially between Prospero and Caliban. Caliban, who wasthe previous king of the island, is taught how to be “civilized” by Prospero andhis daughter Miranda. Then he is forced to be their servant. Caliban explains”Thou strok’st me and make much of me; wouldst give me Water with berries in ‘t;and teach me how to name the bigger light, how the less, That burn by day andnight; and then I lov’d thee, And show’d thee all the qualities o’ th’ isle,…

For I am all the subjects you have, which first was mine own king.”(I,ii,334-354). We see he is treated as a lesser being because he is not of the same raceas Prospero and Miranda. Prospero describes him as “A freckled whelp hag-born -not honour’d with a human shape.”(I,ii,282-283) Clearly, the people of differentraces were treated as inferior human beings in Shakespeare’s time. In thisculture, because someone is different, they are less of a human than you.

Financial status also plays a major role in social classifications.

During the time of The Tempest, Dukes and Earls, who were among the nobles, wereconsidered to be superior even to other members of their own race. The nobleshad servants and commoners who worked for them. Shakespeare shows us an exampleof this with the relationship between his characters of Sebastian and Antonioand of the Boatswain and the sailors. Sebastian yells at the sailors “A pox o’your throat, you bawling, blasphemous, incharitable dog!”(I,i,40-41), implyingthat they are inferior and are there to serve him. Antonio also shows hebelieves himself superior by stating to the Boatswain “Hang, cur! Hang, youwhoresom, insolent, noise-maker. We are less afraid to be drowned than thouart.”(I,i,43-45) These men were of the same skin color, hair texture, and eyecolor, but were treated inferior due to their financial status and “inferior”Women had also fallen victim to this hierarchial society. During thisera women were considered to be objects and were treated as property.

Shakespeare presents this in the treatment of Claribel, daughter of Alonso, andMiranda by their fathers. Claribel was married of to the King of Tunis, anAfrican nation, merely for the gain of Alonso, the Duke of Milan, and his Lords.

Their feelings are clear in Sebastian’s words “Twas a sweet marriage, and weprosper well in our return.” (II,i,69). And for Miranda, Prospero show how heconsiders his only daughter as he states “Then, as my gift, and thine ownacquisition Worthily purcas’d, take my daughter…”(IV,i,13-14) She is obviouslyconsidered his property. Women did not have rights at this time and were merelyused as pawns in trade with other men of stature to gain whatever it was theyNot all men in the position to consider themselves superior thoughtthemselves to be. Even though some men had the financial status or noble blood,they treated others equally and genuinely thought them equal. Ferdinand,although being the Prince of Naples, treats Miranda, who he thinks a mere maid,as an equal human being deserving nothing less than his affection and kindness.

This is proven true in his conversation with Miranda where he tells her “O, if avirgin, And your affection not gone forth, I’ll make you the Queen ofNaples.”(I,ii,450-452). He loves her and would have her as his wife and Queeneven though he thinks her a mere maid. Gonzalo also shows us his heart when hesees Ariel enter with the Boatswain and sailors. He refers to them as “here ismore of us” (V,i,15) showing he considers the Boatswain and sailors his equal.

In these two characters, Shakespeare is saying that not all men are egotisticaland perceive themselves above others.

From being treated inferior, people start to believe themselves inferior.

From being unjustly treated, Caliban thinks himself inferior to Prospero’s race.

When Stepheno and Triniculo arrived on the island, Caliban considered themsuperior beings even though they were mere servants themselves. They alsothought themselves superior to Caliban because he was of a different race eventhough Caliban does prove to have a greater intellect than both Stepheno andTriniculo. We see their sense of superiority by how they refer to Caliban”Servant-Monster, drink to me”(III,ii,3). Caliban also shows us his acceptanceof this treatment in his response “How do thy honour? Let me lick thyshoe…”(III,ii,22-23) and “Thou shalt be lord of it, and I’ll servethee”(III,ii,56). We see by this that Caliban truly believes himself inferioreven though his own intellect surpasses that of Stepheno and Triniculo. Intoday’s society, treatment of inferiority is against the law and supposedly non-existent openly in society. We all know, however, that this hierarchial mindset still lurks around every corner in today’s culture. It may not go as far asforcing someone to be your servant, but it lives in the form of discriminationand segregation. Because of many years of inferior treatment, many people feelthey either can not succeed or that it will be more difficult for them thanthose of the “right” race or financial bracket. It is not that the people todayfeel inferior, its that they feel they will not get a fair chance. It’scommonly believed that the people of “inferior” races or monetary status willget picked over for jobs or other discriminatory acts will be performed againstThe two cultures are quite different, but they also have some slightsimilarities. Our culture is over three-hundred years older than that ofShakespeare, which should make our society more mature in its actions andattitude. We should have learned that all men truly are equal and should betreated accordingly. But all three-hundred years has taught us was how to bemore discreet in our actions and feelings by giving them pretty names or keepingthem out of the public eye. These two cultures may appear very different butactually are a lot closer than most of society would have us believe.

Bibliography:

Federallism – Examples Of Countries

Federalism is a widely accepted form of government in North American cultures, although not preferred by all world governments. Out of approximately 200 nations worldwide, only about 20 are federal nations, while the remaining 180 practice unitary forms of government. Unitary forms consist of only one level of government and are popular due to their cost-effectiveness and ability to meet most countries’ needs. Countries like France, the United Kingdom, and Italy use unitary governments when the country is small and homogeneous. On the other hand, federalism tends to be favored by states with large land masses, diverse populations, and regional governments that were hesitant to join a confederation.

Federalism can be defined as a political organization where the government’s activities are divided between regional governments and a federal government. This division of activities is also known as a division of powers specified in a written constitution that determines which level of government holds which power. In Canada, for example, powers are separated into provincial and federal powers. According to the constitution, provinces have sole responsibility for provincial powers such as health care, welfare, and education.However,federal powers are under Ottawa’s jurisdiction encompassing areas such as foreign affairs,currency,military control,and others.

Federalism has a significant history in North America and other parts of the world. The concept can be traced back to the early 1600s, when the Jewish covenant developed a doctrine of federal theology based on mutual obligation between ruler and ruled. This marked the first division of powers and shared control over an area by two levels of government, though it was crude.

A more widely accepted view is that federalism originated with the Declaration of Independence and the gradual confederation of American states in the late 1700s and early 1800s. The United States, as a Federal state, exemplifies this concept. It was implemented due to its vast and diverse population as it was believed to be the best way to unite such a heterogeneous population while protecting regional interests.

Over time, federalism evolved as an ideology and political practice through constant amendments to the constitution resulting in an ever-evolving division of power. As it gained acceptance, federalism underwent reform in various stages relevant to different time periods. The initial stage known as confederalism occurred during the time of the Declaration of Independence where states maintained sovereign power while national government remained weak subject to states’ authority.

The evolution of the power dynamics between states and national government can be observed through different stages.From 1789 to 1861, there was a gradual shift towards dual federalism, where both levels of government had equal authority in their designated areas. From 1861 to 1960, cooperative federalism emerged with an emphasis on shared functions and providing services for taxpayers. Moving into the period from 1960 to 1980, creative federalism highlighted intergovernmental fiscal transfers like transfer payments for healthcare programs. Presently, cooperative federalism is dominant and marked by devolution and deregulation of government operations. This stage has seen various spending cuts influenced by the deficit.

Federal governments have traditionally been successful and offer numerous advantages. Centralized federal government systems allow for the imposition of common values on diverse populations, while still allowing for regional expression. Economic benefits come with larger states, as they have more power in the global market, leading to increased prosperity. Unification also allows for the creation of a strong armed forces for defense purposes, while preventing the rise of an all-powerful central government like Nazi Germany. Federalism also offers flexibility through asymmetrical federalism, where certain regions can take on more responsibility if desired. This uneven distribution of powers allows for accommodating regions with different needs. There are also symmetrical federal governments, which believe in an equal division of powers, further divided into two categories.There are interstate and intrastate governments. In interstate governments, regional matters are delegated to regional governments, while in the intrastate system, regional concerns are represented by regional representatives at the federal level.

Although federalism is generally beneficial, centralizing the government presents a number of challenges. The allocation of powers between the federal and provincial governments emerges as a significant concern. Given the existence of overlapping jurisdictions, conflicts are bound to occur. This overlap results in concurrent powers that are shared by both levels of government. For instance, taxation and transportation are considered concurrent powers in Canada. To resolve these disputes, a constitutional interpretation forum becomes essential. In Canada, this responsibility is fulfilled by the Supreme Court of Canada which serves as the platform for amending the constitution.

The emergence of two types of federal systems, centralized federalism and decentralized federalism, has raised concerns about the power imbalance between state and federal governments. Centralized federalism, as seen in Canada’s government, involves the supremacy of the federal government over regional governments. In contrast, decentralized federalism, exemplified by the United States’ government, is characterized by the dominance of regional governments over the federal government. Striking a balance of power is crucial for a successful federal system to avoid an inflexible and unresponsive administration that disregards regional interests or risks dividing the nation into numerous independent states. Tailoring a power equilibrium that considers each state’s origins and specific ideologies is essential.

Another issue pertains to residual powers – those powers not explicitly assigned in the constitution. In Canada’s system, all residual powers belong to the federal government while America grants these powers to individual states. This distinction further emphasizes Canada’s adoption of centralized federalism compared to decentralized federalism in America’s approach.

Despite not being the preferred choice for many countries, federalism is widely embraced by industrialized and developed nations. It is surprising to note that half of the world’s population resides in federal states, which encompass 51% of Earth’s landmass (Forbes 227).The statistics demonstrate the notable impact that a few federal states have on a worldwide level. In essence, federalism operates with a two-fold representation system at regional and national levels. This setup enables nations to maintain their national identity by keeping specific powers at the national level, while also assuring representation at regional levels through local governments that tackle regional issues.

Forbes, H.D. Canadian Political Thought, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Jackson, Robert J., Doreen Jackson, Political Science: Comparative and World Politics, third ed., Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice Hall, 1997.

In 1975, Patricia M. Marchak wrote a book titled “Ideological Perspectives on Canada” and it was published in Toronto by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited.

Wijemanne, Adrian, Nationalism, Federalism, and Realism, 1997. http://www.eng.carleton.ca/-/sutha/analysis/fed_nat.html

Winchester, David, Constitutionalism Lecture, November 21, 1999

Diamon and Wright, History of US federalism1996 http://w3.satelin.net/-kala/fed/history/html

Bibliography:federallism

The Life And Times Of Coco Chanel

Coco Chanel was a highly influential figure in the fashion world. Despite facing both success and failure throughout her career, she believed that one’s appearance is shaped by nature in their twenties and by life in their thirties, but by the age of fifty, a person’s face reflects the life they have led. Starting from humble beginnings, Gabrielle Coco Chanel became the most influential designer of her time, creating stylish and comfortable clothing for women in the 1920s. Her legacy continued to generate significant financial benefits even after her passing.

Born on August 19, 1883, Gabrielle Chanel came from a destitute Auvergnate family. She would eventually become a prominent figure in the fashion industry, both in France and globally. When she was born, a nun at the convent hospital gave her the middle name Bonheur, meaning happiness. Despite her humble beginnings, Gabrielle had a natural talent for storytelling and enjoyed the company of friends. She often spun tales, although they were not always true (Current Biography 1). However, there was one particular story that hinted at her future career in fashion: she would frequently cut up curtains in the living room to create dresses for her dolls (1). It was an impressive way for her to prepare for a life surrounded by style and elegance.

In February, 1895, Gabrielle Chanel’s mother, Jeanne, died due to her frequent pregnancies. Her father, Albert, abandoned Gabrielle and her four siblings, leaving them in an orphanage at Aubazine. While the three Chanel girls, Julie, Antoinette, and Gabrielle, remained at the orphanage for six years, their two brothers, Alphonse and Lucien, became child laborers at the age of eight.

Gabrielle left the orphanage at eighteen with her sister, Julie, and they were placed in an institution in Moulins by their grandmother the following year. Antoinette joined them there the year after. In Moulins, Gabrielle began her journey into designing by working in a tailoring shop on Sundays along with her sisters.

The Chanel girls, also known as the Three Graces, caught the attention of army lieutenants who frequented the tailor shop. It was there that Gabrielle met her first love and had her first taste of fame.

The man’s name was Etienne Balsan. He not only was her first romantic interlude but also introduced her to a new world of riches and soon-to-be fame. Despite having a less than perfect voice, Gabrielle Chanel had always aspired to be a singer, although she seemed destined to be a fashion designer. She performed in bars around Moulins called caf-concerts (29). Her rendition of a popular song about a young Parisian lady who lost her dog at the Trocadro amusement park, with the dog’s name being Coco, earned her the nickname “Coco”. It was at one of these caf-concerts that Etienne and Gabrielle met, instantly attracted to each other and bonded over their love for the equestrian sport (29). He would soon become the catalyst for her ascent to the pinnacle of success.

Chanel found the hustle and bustle of social life in Moulins too overwhelming. Monsieur Balsan offered her his ground floor flat to escape, which she transformed into a studio (Chanel 6). Her friends were wearing her first pieces, but she was laughed at for using many pearls or dressing in stylish schoolgirl outfits. Nevertheless, the world was evolving, and Coco was on the right path.

When she moved to 21 rue Cambon in Paris in 1910, Chanel’s self-titled boutique became an instant success. Crowds flocked to her boutique, allowing her to expand her business and acquire numbers 27, 29, and 31 on the rue Cambon. This newfound success allowed Chanel to live a life of luxury, something she never believed was possible due to her difficult childhood. The years of 1911 and 1912 were the happiest times in her life, and her hats gained public attention when they were worn by Gabrielle Dorziat, a rising French actress, in the play Bel-Ami. Despite Dorziat initially wearing clothing from renowned couturier Jacques Doucet, Chanel convinced her to wear her hats in the production.

Gabrielle was still in the process of expanding her future global empire. It was no coincidence that the place where she grew and developed her own identity was Deauville in the North of France. Deauville was a cosmopolitan resort located near the English Channel, known for its combination of sea, horses, and wealthy individuals. It was a luxurious destination favored by the rich and famous, set within a rustic environment. (Chanel 7)

Chanel’s preference was to get a tan, exercise outdoors, and swim in the sea, and her style of clothing reflected this. Her designs were loose-fitting and flowing, suitable for both exercise and sports (7). These designs were intended for a type of woman who only existed in the imagination of the creator. This woman was an influential figure among men, interacting with them on an equal level. She would soon demonstrate that she could surpass their abilities. In an interview with the New York Journal-American (May 2, 1954), Chanel stated, “There are too many men in this industry who don’t know how to design clothes for women. They create clothes that are uncomfortable and restrict a woman’s movement.”(Current Biography 3). Gabrielle had a deep understanding of what would bring happiness to the women of her era, as she was one of them herself.

Chanel reached the milestone of turning forty in 1923 and commemorated this event by introducing her iconic perfume known as Chanel No. 5, as the number five held great significance for her. Additionally, she secured a long-term lease on the main-floor residence of the Count Pillet-Wills townhouse located on the rue Fauborg St. Honor. It was on this very street where Chanel had encountered her soulmate, Arthur Boy Capel, who tragically lost his life in a car accident while driving from Paris to Monte Carlo. Despite this heart-wrenching loss, Coco emerged even more resilient, shedding her protective exterior to confront her feelings of loneliness once again.

Coco Chanel adapted to the decline of Biarritz as a popular resort town by acquiring buildings on rue Cambon to make up for the lack of business. Additionally, she expanded her reach by opening a new branch in Cannes. Coco’s signature outfit consisted of a loose jersey cardigan jacket layered over a white shirt and a pleated skirt. She adorned her neck with fake pearls and other large jewels. However, during the early 1930s, she briefly worked with real stones, introducing semi-precious stones in elaborate settings. In 1929, Coco established her official accessories boutique within her couture house.

In 1935, Chanel was at the pinnacle of her career, with a workforce of about 4,000 employees and annual sales of around 28,000 designs worldwide. However, on June 6, 1936, her dressmakers initiated a strike (2). Chanel, displaying her no-nonsense demeanor, informed them that they would have to assume management of the business due to insufficient funds to pay for their services. She declared that she would continue to work as an unpaid stylist. The striking workers concluded that she needed additional funds and attempted to acquire some from the Socialist treasury. Unfortunately, this endeavor failed, and they subsequently declined to take over the shop, prompting Mlle Chanel to decide against maintaining its operations (2). After three weeks, the strike was canceled, and Chanel reopened the establishment.

Despite a significant reduction in output, Coco continued her successful work for another two years. However, in 1938, she made the decision to stop designing, potentially due to the emerging competition from Italian fashion designers Schiaparelli and Balenciaga. Nevertheless, Chanel continued to run her perfume business at 31 rue Cambon even after closing her couture houses. Although she stepped back temporarily, Chanel’s story was far from over as she would eventually make a comeback.

Chanel oversaw the renovation of her New York perfume showrooms in 1953. On February 5, 1954, at over seventy years old, Chanel returned officially, though the audience was not receptive (Chanel 14). A failure would not only disappoint her greatly, but also jeopardize the wealth of her empire: her perfumes.

One year later, Coco had regained her former reputation and successfully reclaimed her empire. The public embraced her original ideas, such as soft jackets without interlining, beautifully designed sleeves, silk blouses, gold chains, wrap-over skirts, quilted shoulder bags, and flat shoes (15). Known as the Chanel Look in the English-speaking press, this style conquered the world and marked a landslide victory. The new Chanel was portrayed as an older woman wearing a hat with dark pencilled eyebrows and dark hair, with a stern mouth and an upright figure (15). This was the image of the dressmaking goddess who resided at the Ritz opposite the rue Cambon since her comeback. On January 10, 1971, a Sunday, Coco Chanel passed away (15). However, her life and legacy would endure as the story of a woman who rejected her past to achieve the life she deserved and desired.

Following the passing of Gabrielle Chanel, her fashion house, salons, and studio remained unused for ten years. In 1983, Karl Lagerfeld became the design consultant for the House of Chanel (75) and revitalized it by opening a second boutique in Paris at 42 avenue Montaigne, marking the beginning of a new chapter in Chanels legacy.

According to Vogue, simplicity will be the ultimate luxury in the twentieth century’s history. Chanel, a tradition so powerful that it can barely rival its own aura, is recognized by the fashionable people of today as a testament to everlasting elegance. Gabrielle Chanel was an extraordinary individual who easily asserted that everyone was akin to her.

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