Essay – Young Models In USA Homework Essay Sample

The legal age to walk the runway in the United States of America is 16. Girls as young as 16, and even younger, are working twelve hours a day, traveling internationally, and are less educated. Work hours are long and tiresome and the models do not get enough meal breaks or sleep. The Council of Fashion Designers of America, in the past, has made weak efforts to enforce the regulations for models that are underage. Young models are developing eating disorders and unhealthy body image due to the pressure to be the size that the fashion industry requires.

The Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) should make the rules stricter about the work environments for underage models because they are malnourished, uneducated, and have an unhealthy body image. Models that are underage are legally required to have work permits. These work permits are to be signed by their employers stating that they will abide by the laws and follow the strict limitations for underage workers. Limitations such as the amount of hours they work and meal breaks.

In New York, child models under the age of 18 they must carry their permit with them to work and must have an At-12 green booklet that they must carry to each job. In the booklet they must record the hours they worked each day including when they get breaks and the job-site manager must sign on each page for the day. Regulations for underage models also include not working while the school the model attends is in session for more than four hours that day. They may not work more than eight hours in one day at all.

No more than 48 hours in a week can be exceeded for underage models ages 16 to 17. The stress of working in an industry that focuses solely on appearance takes a toll on young models. The self-esteem of teenage girls is already unbalanced due to the glamorous image of being thin. Most people don’t realize that most modeling agencies have a regulation size that you must be in order to model for their agency. The sample size for most agencies is a size 0. The council of fashion designers of America recently discussed raising the sample size to a size 4 but they have not made any motion to do so.

Reading an article about models and eating disorders I found one that a model claimed that the person to blame is the model herself. “No one chained me to a treadmill; no one forced me to starve…I made those decisions to reach for the standards that were set for me” claims model Chrystal Renn. However when it comes to underage models that are as young as 16 the modeling agencies should take blame, because the models are underage they are not legally equipped to make the decisions for themselves. Although the standards are a size 0 for models in the U. S. he CFDA could look at raising the sample size for underage models. This could be a solution to the rising number of unhealthy models. This can also improve the unhealthy body image that the fashion industry gives to young girls in the United States. However, the pressure to be a size zero is not the sole reason that models are unhealthy. Many young girls are a size 0 and are in good health they are just naturally petite. Girls that are naturally a size 0 do not comply with the theory that the sample size is the only reason that models develop unhealthy body image.

Many young girls idealize about being thin. The images of ideal bodies in magazines and on TV really affect the self-esteem of many teenage girls. The reality of the girls in the magazines that are perfectly dressed and have perfect hair and make up is that it is all computerized and styling tricks. Stylists for photo-shoots have clothing tricks for how to make the model look thinner. Photographers have special lighting tricks to cast shadow that make models thinner and contour their face. The models in the magazines are not always perfect.

The thin body image that the fashion industry portrays is unhealthy for teenagers in the U. S. today and it is resulting in low self-esteem and eating disorders. This especially affects models ages 16-21 because they are under the direct pressure from the fashion business. Many young models are malnourished and have unhealthy sleep and eating habits. A new study by the Model Health Inquiry was put to action in 2007. The study found that “as many as 40% of models may currently suffering from some kind of eating disorder”. Anorexia and bulimia are the most common eating disorders among models.

However another eating disorder is Binge Eating Disorder. A new research in 2012 has found that many women have been disguising vegetarianism for their eating disorder. An article by The Huffington Post stated “researchers found that 52 percent of women with a history of eating disorders had been vegetarians at some point in their lives. In contrast, only 12 percent of women without eating disorders had experimented with a vegetarian diet. ” Vegetarian eating practices are not unhealthy if you treat them right. However some people are abusing the practice.

Models who do not want to draw attention by having a eating disorder will most likely cover it up by saying they are vegetarians. Many people also swear by different eating practices like gluten free diets, vegan, and juicing diets. All these diets can be healthy but unfortunately most people do not treat them right. Many young models especially treat diets poorly because they are not educated about the consequences and risks of these eating habits. The CFDA needs to take action about giving proper education to models regarding diets and eating healthy.

The CFDA is taking small steps towards improving the regulations about the healthcare of models. However these steps need to go from small steps to big steps. Vogue has recently banned models that are too thin and too young. This is one step toward a solution to unhealthy models and young models. Vogue is a leader in the fashion industry and they lead by example. To be in vogue is a goal for most models that want to be successful. If more leading fashion business can encourage young models to be healthier it will be very good step in the right direction for the fashion industry.

This will address the problem of eating disorders and unhealthy habits among models. Although banning models that are too thin could have a slim chance of backfiring on Vogue. Other well-known fashion businesses could use strategies that take business away from Vogue by paying their models more. If they do not have size limitations this could bring more clients to their companies and make Vogue not as popular. If Vogue does not continue to be a leader they will not have a strong enough influence in the fashion industry. Vogue could possibly not make enough so that they have to resort back to hiring any models regardless of size or health.

Although they are taking the right steps toward promoting healthier models it could have drastic results as well. The CFDA is the leader in the fashion business. They need to take responsibly for the health and education of young models. Although each agency has different rules they must all comply with the CFDA standards. Although the CFDA made new regulations about the New York fashion week they need to apply those regulations to the fashion industry as a whole. What good is it going to make rules for one week and then go back to the old standards post fashion week? This is a weak effort and should be enforced better.

If the CFDA wants to make improvements to their standards and promote healthy lifestyles for young models they need to embrace a stronger tactic to addressing this issue. They need to enforce the new regulations by having strict rules at photo shoots and runway shows and having someone there to enforce the rules. Any rule breaking could also have worse consequences and therefore prevent agencies from bending the rules. New improvements will understandably take time but the CFDA need to take a stronger approach in order to help young models stay healthy and have a good education.

Lee Kuan Yew – Former Prime Minister Of Singapore


Lee Kuan Yew has been a good leader, he ruled with supreme authority and his fervour for law and order was very prominent. Lee deliberately attempts to do all things to prolong his life. He believes that when you retire from your job, you’ll soon die after. He is clearly afraid of death and loosing his power to his homeland. He thinks that he created a situation in Singapore where the country couldn’t stand and be able to continue upon his death. Was is fair for Singapore to keep Lee Kuan Yew or was it fair for Lee Kuan Yew to keep Singapore under his nose?

Lee Kuan Yew made such a big leap for Singapore when he served as its prime minister from 1959 until he stepped down in 1990. He led Singapore to become independent in terms of financial and industrial status despite the lack of abundant natural resources. Singapore nurtured from becoming a developing nation to one of the major industrial countries in Asia. Lee has frequently declared that Singapore’s environmental assets are its individuals as well as their tough working ethics.

Lee stressed out that Asian nations needed unchangeable leadership to construct indispensable political and societal solidity. He discarded the concept that humans wanted free freedoms, rewarding free speech as well as votes over needs, for instance, economic improvement. He contended that the Asian societies were dissimilar, having developed independently from the Western above centuries.  Lee disputed that Asians wish for higher principles of living in a systematic civilization; Asians want to contain individual preference in way of life, liberty and freedom as is companionable with the security of society (Mauzy and Milne 2002, p24).

Lee disputed that perspectives of rights to freedom for people would now and then have to be negotiated to help preserve order as well as security. Lee was consequently enthusiastic to defer habeas corpus or a fair trial, for documented criminals or agitators on the basis that a witness was cowed to volunteer to bear witness against them (Blue, Bunton, and Croizier 2002, p88). Lee’s leadership style as well as unrestricted personality is like the republic’s designated head of management, he was unquestionably responsible.


Lee was a 4th generation Chinese Singaporean – eldest son of Chua Jim Neo and Lee Chin Koon. Lee was born in a huge Singaporean lodge in Kampong Java Road. He went to a primary institute in Telok Kurau, Raffles Institute and College. His college education was postponed by the Second World War as well as the 1940s Japanese colonialism in Singapore. Lee worked in a joint venture of Allied reports for Japanese as transliterate, over and above the an English-language editor of a Japanese from 1943-1944 (Khan and Riskin 2001, pp11-15).

Lee went back to Singapore to work as legal representative in Ong and Laycock, the lawful practice of a pioneer of multiracialism – John Laycock, who had founded Singapore’s primary multi-racial inn open for all Asians (Lee 2000, p73). Lee’s primary knowledge with political affairs was his function as election mediator in Singapore under the sign of pro-British Party during the 1951 parliamentary assembly elections.

Nevertheless, Lee ultimately comprehended the party’s upcoming desolation as it was improbable to encompass support, particularly from Chinese-speaking blue-collar masses. Lee’s break arrived when he was appointed as official advisor to Students’ unions that gave Lee the connection to blue-collar Chinese-speaking world.

On November 1954, Lee among a group of English-educated men structured the collective People’s Action Party during a convenient coalition with pro-communist business unions. This coalition was characterized by Lee as union of expediency, in view of the fact that English-educated men required pro-communists support while communists required non-communist management as concealment for the reason that Malayan Communists were against the law. Their objectives were to disconcert for independence and stop the British colonial regime. Lee turned out to be the secretary-general – a position he had until 1992, other than a concise interlude in 1957.

Lee challenged and painstakingly won Tanjong Pagar position during 1955 voting. He turned out to be the opponent-leader, pitting against David Marshall’s struggle Front-led alliance administration. Lee was one of PAP’s legislative bodies to the legitimate conference in London above the future position of Singapore and it was during this episode when Lee contended with rivals from in and out of PAP (Blue and Brook 1999, p67).


Every leader of each nation adapted systems and methods from different past leaders. They believe that these approaches can be an effective component in building their own state. Below are some of the theories pertaining to different types of power and these were among theories Lee has believed and live upon ruling out Singapore.

Expert power – based on knowledge and expertise (Dansereau, Graen, and Haga 2000, pp68).  Lee Kuan Yew has recognize the perception of leadership, thus he entailed that there is a powerful prospective for self-actualization, creativity, and craving for mastery, as well as from our need for being conscientious, having an affirmative self-image, and enjoying solidarity.

Reward power – the ability of a leader to reward subordinates with social or tangible rewards (Dansereau, Graen, and Haga 2000, pp70). Lee introduced incentive, like schooling, tax rebates, and housing precedence for graduate female parents who had more than two kids, in a turnaround of the triumphant family planning in `60s and `70s. During the late `90s, birth rates turned out to be so low that Lee’s descendant Goh Chok Tong lengthened these plans to all wedded women, and provided supplementary incentives (Hirst and Thompson 1999, p88).

Referent power – the extent that the subordinate likes and identifies with the leader or supervisor (Dansereau, Graen, and Haga 2000, pp71).  Lee deemed that ministers have to be rewarding so as to uphold an unsoiled and straightforward regime. In 1994, he projected to connect the salaries of judges, ministers, and top public workers to the earnings of professionals in private sectors, disputing that this might help employ and keep hold of talents to hand round in public sectors.

Legitimate power – the power inherent in the leader’s job title and is derived by the subordinate’s contention that the superior has legitimate authority to be in charge (Dansereau, Graen, and Haga 2000, pp66).  Lee highlighted the must to encompass an incessant rebirth of ability in the nation’s leadership, uttering that in a diverse humanity people must find a position, small corners where despite small size Singaporeans can carry out a responsibility constructive to the globe (Vasil 2000, p15). To accomplish that, Singaporeans need decision-makers who have got prudence, excellent minds, open to information, can grab opportunities.

Coercive power – the ability of leader to punish the subordinate for non-compliance through disciplinary actions, fines, salary reductions, demotions, or even dismissal (Dansereau, Graen, and Haga 2000, pp64). Lee inaugurated a regulation presenting CPIB (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau) better ability to arrests, execute search, have witnesses, and scrutinize revenue returns as well as bank accounts of held people as well as their families.


Lee Kuan Yew demonstrates among his colleagues, his people and even his opponents that being old is not a hindrance to pursue a country’s dream of success. Imagine a bamboo tree, it bends when the strong wind blows, just like Lee, he bends but never breaks. What makes Lee Kuan Yew a good leader? Perhaps his idealism and his expertise in running a nation is the key. Lee practices and exercises the following theories in building Singapore, making it as powerful and prevailing, though it’s diminutive in dimension.

Trait Model – a good leader is born as the traits are innate.  The relationships between the personal characteristics and job performance are interpreted as the effects of traits on leadership performance (Leavy 2003, p57). As a kid, he was profoundly influenced by the British mores, partly owing to his grandfather who gave his sons English teaching. He continuously denied accuses of nepotism, disputing that the Lee family honoured positions are derived from personal value.

These accuses alternatively have sustained and international newspapers such as The Economist, International Herald Tribune as well as Far Eastern Economic Review were endangered, debarred or litigated within Singapore for entailing the nepotism’s survival (Ban, Pakir, & Tong 2004, p27). Lee believed that for Singapore, freedom is the capability to act with no restraint and it is also identified as self-determination, individual autonomy, or sovereignty.  For the radical conservatives, these are not movements further than liberty but toward their description of freedom.

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory – leadership is a function of both the person and the situation; the theory focuses upon the characteristic and aspects of leader control (Spector 2000, p59). Singapore’s susceptibility on Nationwide Defence was profoundly felt with intimidation from numerous sources counting communists, UMNO and Indonesian extremists who required obliging Singapore’s return to Malaysia.

Lee speedily required intercontinental acknowledgment of Singapore’s self-government and acknowledged a plan of impartiality and objectivity.  Afterwards, Singapore established powerful military associations with other countries of the ASEAN, FPDA (Five Power Defence Arrangements) and further non-communist countries. This moderately re-established the security of Singapore following the removal of British in 1971 (Wong 2008, p19).

Lee, on Malaysian Relations, looked ahead to recuperating associations with Mahathir bin Mohamad on the endorsement to Deputy Prime Minister. Lee went to Mahathir proposing to renovate the railways from Tanjong Pagar surrounded by South Singaporean regions to the Woodlands at the preceding areas of Causeway, moderately owing to a growing drug smuggling situations to Singapore.

Leader Behaviour Model – focused upon what leaders may do instead of what their personal characteristics may be (Leavy 2003, p58). In this perspective, leadership is central to performance and other outcomes. Lee was attentive how fraud led to the collapse of Nationalist Chinese administration in China. With regards to Government policies, He knew he needed to clean the house thus fighting in opposition to the communists himself is needed.

The ‘Stop-at-Two’ campaign by in the 60’s was a powerful promotion of family planning. Worried that overpopulation might burden the Singapore’s economy, Lee initiated the campaign and couples were advocated to go through sterilization following their second child; succeeding brood were given subordinate precedence in education and families acquire less financial rebates.  Concerning gambling laws, Lee uttered that he was expressively and academically in opposition to gambling. Though, he had no resistance to his son’s application to permit casinos in Singapore, stating that having a social establishment is something new leaders must come to a decision (Cheah 2003, p97).

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory – leaders are apt to treat individual subordinates differently, and overtime the relationships between leaders and their subordinates will evolve (Leavy 2003, p59).  Lee remained within the cabinet as non-executive arrangement of Senior Minister and portrayed a position he characterized as not compulsory. His views carry weight with the people and within the cabinet. He sustains to wield massive power in the nation and is prepared to utilize it when needed.

Path-Goal Theory – the theory proposes that a leader’s primary function is to adjust his/her behaviour to adapt to and complement the given situation contingency (Dalgleish 2003, p18).  In balancing Monetary Issues, particularly the employment unions as well as Singaporean employers, a structure of tripartite construction was commenced to present steadiness and dependable economic augmentation that possibly simultaneously ended strike activity and exploitation. Up to date infrastructure like roads, port, and airport as well as communication systems improved with state contributions.

Vroom-Yetton Model – this model focuses on the leader use strategies in a given situation (Leavy 2003, p60). Singapore achieved independence with self-rule in state matters apart from resistance as well as foreign affairs; Lee turned out to be the initial prime minister of Singapore on June 1959 (previous was Minister Lim Yew Hock).

Lee Kuan Yew faced numerous problems after having autonomy for Singapore, counting housing, education, as well as unemployment. In reaction to the housing predicament, Lee instituted the HDB (Housing and Development Board), a bureau which started an enormous public housing structure curriculum to alleviate the lodging deficiency (Bose 2005, p23). In recent times, Lee expressed his distress regarding the deteriorating ability of Mandarin amid young Singaporeans. Consequently there should be this unremitting regeneration of brilliant, enthusiastic, truthful, and intelligent individuals who will complete things for their citizens as well as for the country.

Transactional Leadership – theory pertains to the decision-making control on a performance-reward transaction by elevating their subordinates’ self-image and self-confidence and emotional attachment to the leader’s espoused values and to the collective (Schermerhorn, Hunt, J& Osborn 2000, p101).

Lee preserved his antagonism to the dominant alliance throughout his early reign, frequently attacking the rival as unskilled and fraudulent. Lee’s situation in PAP was really in danger when pro-communists in 1957 conquest the leadership positions, pursuing a party discussion which the left wing heaped with counterfeit members. Subsequent to the communalist fright, Lee consequently required and acquired an unmarked and stronger authorization from his constituents in 1957.

Transformational Leadership – deals with leaders who have considerable and unusual influence over their followers; it also focuses upon leaders who are unusual in how their followers become loyal to them.  In 1961, Lee started to disseminate an amalgamation with Malaysia to finish British regulation. He made use of results of referenda, wherein 70% of votes were transmitted in provisions of his application, to express that the individuals supported his arrangement.

Throughout the Operation Coldstore, Lee compressed pro-communist factions who were powerfully contrasting the amalgamation and who purportedly concerned in revolutionary deeds. Singapore was then a component of Malaysian Federation on 1963; on the other hand, the amalgamation was ephemeral.

Riots came over near the Kallang Gasworks enforcing Lee Kuan Yew and Tunku Abdul Rahman to construct public appearances with the purpose of alleviating the circumstances. The food price rose spectacularly throughout this period, because of the disruption in transportation that caused supplementary adversity. Lee was obdurate and attempted to make compromise, but devoid of accomplishment.

Lee agreed to a division agreement on 1965 that considered Singapore’s post-division associations with Malaysia so as to maintain collaboration in components such as mutual and trade protection; the Republic of Singapore was created. Singapore’s inadequate natural sources, water supplies that were indebted principally to Malaysia as well as an extremely restricted self-protective competence were the foremost challenges Lee faced.

On 1994, Lee ceased bureaucrat connections with ASEAN regimes, as well as Malaysia, so as not to go out of sorts with his descendant, Tong. He portrayed a foremost role, nevertheless, pertaining to the international relations, such as the conformity of transfer of public-supervision software for management and development of China’s Suzhou Park with Vice-president Lanqing (Pillai 2005, pp119).


Lee never stops from modifying policies and regulation for his country. If a course of action worked, he would prolong with it; if it did not work he would reject it and attempt something else (Lam and Tan 1999, p37).  His alternative and realistic approach stood brusquely.  Lee made intermittent and all-encompassing transformations. Throughout his occupancy, Singapore consecutively pushed throughout radical directional changes – export-oriented manufacturing, labour substitution, moving the economy awake of value chain, and focusing to human capital, high technology and infrastructure. Lee’s leadership can be understood in terms of the perspective for leadership, his conviction as the leader, and the flow of trustworthiness over time and tenure (Lee 1998, p64).

Lee must therefore structure a contemporary vision that projects a set of modern beliefs and values beliefs that resonate with followers.  To be more efficient, Lee must be more sensitive to the capabilities and concerns of Singaporeans, as well as having a modern knowledge of the opportunities as well as threats in their environment.  Lee must assess the current needs of his people, as well as the presently available resources, and expand a visualization with which he can challenge others to broaden their restrictions to accomplish what they formerly may have considered to be unattainable.

Furthermore, Lee must acquire the opportunity to construct his mark through developing as well as communicating a visualization which affirms Singapore’s past history of achievement sand proceeds to characterize the contemporary strategic direction which will guide Singapore in a quest to not barely discern itself from other countries, but also accomplish triumphs which will eventually distinguish itself as a country from even its own precedent history of achievement (Barr 2000, p12).

Every beginning has an end. Lee’s tenure of being a leader of Singapore had faced its closing stages. Singapore’s calling for a new leader who would guide the nation to another chapter of success story. Lee can not keep Singapore forever as much as he wanted to but nevertheless, Singapore can keep Lee for he has been a part of it. Lee will always watch his country and he would not allow anyone to wound his dear Singaporean people.Without an old man who’s afraid to die because he thinks that he can do more for his country, there’ll be no Singapore.


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How Did The Romans Maintain Control Of Roman Britain?

There were many ways in which the Romans used to maintain control over Britain. This included using fortifications, British towns, the army and dealing with the resistance from the British. One of the ways that the Romans used to maintain control over the British was through the use of Roman forts. Once the Romans conquered Britain they did not leave they stayed to defend Roman Britain from attacks by fierce tribes who lived in Scotland and Wales. The Romans built stone forts which were place in most British towns such as Pevency, Rochester, Smith Shields, Binchester and Many others.

The purpose of these constructions was as fortified bases. In these forts there were barracks, stables and large granaries. In the middle of each there was a headquarters building and close by was a house in which the general in charge of the fort lived with his family. One particular fort was the Chesters Roman fort on Hadrian’s Wall in Northumberland. The Romans used this fort to protect a bridge across the River Tyne. The River Tyne was important because it was formed by two rivers the north Tyne and south Tyne, the north Tyne rises on the Scottish border.

The Romans decided to build Hadrian’s Wall which was named after the emperor and the purpose of this wall was to stop raids from tribes who lived in Scotland. These tribes were raiding Roman Britain because when the Romans took over they encouraged trade so there was more wealth, the country became rich. Hadrian’s Wall was 73 miles long because they needed to build it as a border which would help them protect Roman Britain. Since it was so long they needed to build mile castles on the wall. The soldiers who patrolled on the wall lived in barracks which were in the mile castles.

The responsibilities of the soldiers that patrolled on Hadrian’s Wall were that they had to guard turrets which were small watch towers along the wall every 500 metres. Furthermore the Romans used towns such as Colchester to protect the land, building and civilians from invasions. The streets were laid out in a chessboard pattern. The towns were surrounded by walls with four main gates. Inside the walls there were public building, baths, shops and streets of single-storey houses. The largest and most important building in the towns was the basilica or town hall. It had a long hall and other small rooms.

The hall was used as a court and public meeting place. To protect the towns and civilians from invasion the Romans built internal turrets at each corner of the rounded walls. They also dug ditches outside around the wall which were 10 feet deep, this was put in place to slow down the enemy and also so that the Romans had an advanced warning to be ready for battle. Moreover the Romans had to deal with the revolt from Queen Boudicca between 61AD and 63AD. It had started while the Roman Governor was away in North Wales. It first started in East Anglia which is where the Iceni tribe lived.

The queen’s husband Prastagus was friends with the Roman Emperor so one he died he left half his kingdom to his wife and the other half to the Roman Emperor, although the Romans wanted it all to themselves. Queen Boudicca decided to fight back because the Romans treated her and her daughters badly. The Romans ran away because they were outnumbered and the queen’s army was growing. The Iceni army attacked and burned down the capital of Roman Britain and the New Roman Temple. Boudicca and her army then travelled to Londinium (London). Once they were there, the Roman Governor came back from Wales because news had spread about Boudicca’s revolt.

He decided to leave Londinium because he was outnumbered and not prepared. The Iceni burned down Londinium and killed hundreds of Romans and Britons. Boudicca headed north to attack another Roman town but the Roman Governor was waiting with his men in the midlands. According to Tacitus there were about 10,000 Romans and Boudicca may have had up to seven times more soldiers, but the Romans were equipped with far better armour and weapons and were also highly skilled and trained. Boudicca drank poison after the Great War because she had nothing to live for and did not want to live under the Roman rule.

After Boudicca’s revolt many Britons settled down to live under Roman rule. Scotland was not a part of the Roman Empire but in AD 84, the Romans had a big battle against the picts who lived in Scotland and they won. In AD 122 the emperor Hadrian order his soldiers to build wall between Roman Britain and Scotland. The wall ran from Wallsend in the east to Bowness on the Solway Firth. Therefore through the use of fortifications such as Hadrian’s Wall, British towns such as Colchester, the army and dealing with resistance from the British and others, the Romans maintained control over Britain successfully.

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