Ethical Challenges In Counseling

Name three questions that surprised you regarding your answer. Why were you surprised?

One question that truly surprised me was about setting boundaries with friends and family seeking advice, especially in emergencies. Initially, I believed immediate support was ethical and natural. However, realizing the potential ethical conflicts in blurring personal and professional roles surprised me. I hadn’t fully considered the importance of maintaining objectivity and privacy, making me rethink my initial perspective.

Another question that caught me off guard was about accepting gifts from clients, even simple tokens. I hadn’t fully grasped the potential ethical implications initially. Recognizing that accepting gifts can create indebtedness and blur boundaries was surprising. It made me reevaluate my stance on this issue.

Additionally, the question regarding the practice of limiting therapy sessions under managed care plans surprised me. While I understood the challenges, I hadn’t fully explored the potential ethical conflicts this practice might entail. The realization that my commitment to prioritizing client well-being needed to extend beyond theoretical acknowledgment was a significant surprise.

In what ways did your answers change the second time? What made you change your thoughts? Be specific.

After reflecting, my answer about creating boundaries with friends and relatives seeking advice changed considerably. I initially thought immediate support was normal. My perspective changed as I considered ethical conflicts and professional boundaries.

I discovered that being the primary support for loved ones sometimes blends personal and professional duties, affecting objectivity and not always helping the person seeking aid. This made me reconsider urging loved ones to see professional therapists when appropriate to maintain the therapeutic relationship (Gunn III et al., 2021). As I considered the balance between client well-being and organizational constraints, my answer to managed care plan therapy session limits evolved. My initial statement acknowledged obstacles but didn’t consider ethical issues.

After more consideration, I recognized my dedication to client well-being needed to go beyond theory. It should involve advocating for proper care, even if that means challenging managers’ workloads or organizational policies (Bradley, 2023). A stronger appreciation of the ethical responsibility to protect clients’ interests and advocate for quality care in the organization drove this change.

What area of ethics do you struggle with? What is your plan to continue your growth in this area?

I struggle to balance personal and professional morals, especially while helping family members. I agree with helping friends and family, but maintaining critical barriers is hard. I want to progress in this area by seeking advice from mentors and coworkers who have had similar issues. Ethics workshops, peer debates, and self-mirrored images will be my activities. I attempt to set clear barriers, find respectful methods to deny counseling in informal settings and urge people seeking help to contact specialists.

Continuous self-attention, mastery, and prioritizing the person’s well-being while maintaining professional integrity are my goals.

What is one of the most valuable things you learned about yourself personally and professionally in this class?

One of the most valuable matters I learned in my opinion and professionally in this class is the significance of self-consciousness and ongoing reflection in ethical selection-making (Hopner & Liu, 2021). The elegance emphasized that ethical dilemmas are not meant to be tackled by myself; searching for help from peers, mentors, and expert businesses is important.


Bradley, L. J. (2023). Ethical Issues and Ethical Traps. The Family Journal31(2), 193-197.

Gunn III, J. F., Malo, P., & Soper, C. A. (2021). Evolutionary psychology and suicidology. The SAGE Handbook of evolutionary psychology: Applications of Evolutionary psychology, 51-93.

Hopner, V., & Liu, J. H. (2021). Relational ethics and epistemology: The case for complementary first principles in psychology. Theory & Psychology31(2), 179-198.

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Expanding Healthcare Facility In Light Of Community Growth

Expanding healthcare facilities is vital in enhancing medical access and improving patient outcomes. Hospital expansion provide a chance to meet community healthcare demands, provide more services, and boost hospital’s financial performance (Alamsyah et al., 2023). It addresses the rising demand for quality healthcare, ensuring better community health and well-being. As part of the administration team for a 253-bed healthcare facility, our response to the imminent arrival of a large corporation and its 7,500 job opportunities in our community entails strategic expansion. Recognizing the need to cater to the growing population, we have initiated the construction of an additional 150 beds. The expansion encompasses augmenting our emergency department and introducing two new intensive care units. Our proactive approach aims to ensure the healthcare needs of the expanding community are met effectively. Understanding the type of financing required, parties to be contacted for funding, primary purposes for investment management, necessary cash reserves, potential long-term debt sources, and staffing requirements for the expansion will aid in effective expansion.

Type of Financing

The healthcare facility’s expansion must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of both equity and debt financing options. Equity financing is a method of raising capital for a company by selling a portion of its ownership. The key advantage of equity financing is not having an obligation to repay the acquired funds. Equity financing doesn’t impose immediate financial strain on the company, as there are no required monthly payments. The financing enables business to allocate more resources towards its growth. However, in exchange for funding, the organization offer a portion of ownership resulting to shared profits and collaborative decision-making with the investors. Removing investors later can be costlier than their initial investment.

Conversely, debt financing entails borrowing funds and repaying them with interest. Benefits of dept financing is lenders lack control post-repayment, and interest is tax-deductible. The organization can also easily predict and forecast expenses (Sharma et al., 2021). However, it can impose restrictions on a company’s activities, limiting opportunities beyond its core business. Economic downturns or slower growth and regular expenses can also challenge repayment and hinder growth. For our healthcare facility’s expansion, the more prudent choice would be debt financing. Debt financing will allow the facility leveraging external funds while preserving the existing cash reserves which ensures operational integrity remains intact.

Parties to Contact for Funding

The parties to contact for funding are banks and financial institutions, investors, government and philanthropic organizations Banks and financial institutions can provide loans or lines of credit to finance the expansion and will assess the creditworthiness of the healthcare facility before providing funds. Investors are individual investors, venture capitalists, or private equity firms who may be interested in providing loans and benefit from its future growth potential. Government can offer grants and programs that support healthcare facility expansions. Hospitals and healthcare facilities often receive donations and grants from philanthropic organizations that support healthcare initiatives (Yaşar, 2021). These organizations can provide funding for specific projects or programs within the expanded facility.

Four Primary Purposes for Investment Management

Investment management is pivotal in ensuring the prudent allocation of funds and achieving our expansion goals. The first primary purposes for investment management is capitalizing on future growth opportunities. Funds obtained for the expansion can be invested strategically to generate additional revenue streams to promote long-term growth and sustainability of the facility (Shi, 2021). Secondly, proper investment management diversify revenue sources and minimize financial risks. Diversification entails investing in different assets or activities that have varied levels of risk and return. Thirdly, it maximizes returns on investments. Establish proper investment strategy can maximize the returns on the funds obtained for the expansion. Fourthly, investment management help ensure the healthcare facility has sufficient cash flow to meet its operational and capital expenditure needs. It helps in managing investments timing and liquidity and ensure cash reserves are maintained and available when needed (Hofmann et al., 2021).

Cash Reserves Determination

Determining the necessary cash reserves is crucial for the successful execution of our expansion plan. A comprehensive financial analysis must be conducted, considering factors such as operational costs, maintenance expenses, and potential fluctuations in revenue (Lagrange et al., 2020) e. These reserves act as a safety net to address any unexpected challenges that might arise during the expansion process, ensuring a smooth transition.

Long-Term Debt Sources

Bonds and bank Loans can be viable option for long-term financing. Bonds will allow us borrow funds from investors in exchange for periodic interest payments and eventual repayment of the principal amount. The interest payments associated with bonds are often lower than conventional loans, making them an attractive choice for healthcare facility expansions. Additionally, commercial banks can provide long-term loans with fixed interest rates for a specified period of time. The healthcare facility can use these loans to finance the construction and equipment costs associated with the expansion (Tian et al., 2020).

Staffing Strategy for Expansion

Staffing is a critical component of successfully managing an expanded healthcare facility. To ensure seamless operations and high-quality care delivery, a comprehensive staffing strategy must be implemented. The staffing strategy will involve onboarding new staff, training and development, utilizing existing staff and collaboration with educational institutions (Fronczek et al., 2023). The expansion may require hiring additional physicians, nurses, technicians, and other healthcare professionals. Staffing needs will be carefully evaluated and recruitment and onboarding process managed efficiently to ensure a smooth transition and minimize disruption to operation. The new staff members will be trained be implemented to ensure they are adequately prepared to provide high-quality care and meet the needs of the expanded facility. They will undergo orientation programs, ongoing education, and professional development opportunities.

The administration team will assess the current staff’s skills and capabilities to determine if they can be allocated to the new departments or roles within the expanded facility. The administration team can also collaborate with local educational institutions to establish partnerships for training and education programs. The can be adopted for internships, clinical rotations, and other opportunities to gain practical experience within the healthcare facility.


Expanding the healthcare facility to accommodate the increase in population is a complex undertaking that requires careful financial planning and strategic investment management. Debt financing is a prudent choice, ensuring financial stability while external funding supports growth. Parties such as banks, investors, government, and philanthropic organizations can contribute to funding. Investment management serves to capitalize on growth, diversify revenue, maximize returns, and ensure operational sustainability. Adequate cash reserves, achieved through comprehensive analysis, and strategic staffing strategies are pivotal for a successful expansion, ensuring seamless operations and high-quality care.


Alamsyah, M. I., Dirgantari, P. D., Rahayu, A., Wibowo, L. A., & Disman. (2023). Strategic Mapping of Corporate and Business Strategies in the Healthcare Sector: A Case Study of ABC Hospital in Indonesia. East Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research2(6), 2427–2444.

Fronczek, A., Doggett, S., & Barco, G. (2023). Strategies to Ensure Adequate Staffing and Self-Reliance in Times of Uncertainty. Nurse Leader.

Hofmann, E., Templar, S., Rogers, D., Choi, T. Y., Leuschner, R., & Korde, R. Y. (2021, April 1). Supply Chain Financing and Pandemic: Managing Cash Flows to Keep Firms and Their Value Networks Healthy. Social Science Research Network.

Lagrange, A., de Simón-Martín, M., González-Martínez, A., Bracco, S., & Rosales-Asensio, E. (2020). Sustainable microgrids with energy storage as a means to increase power resilience in critical facilities: An application to a hospital. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems119, 105865.

Sharma, E., Tully, S., & Cryder, C. (2021). EXPRESS: Psychological Ownership of (Borrowed) Money. Journal of Marketing Research, 002224372199381.

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Tian, Y., Adriaens, P., Minchin, R. E., Chang, C., Lu, Z., & Qi, C. (2020, July 1). Asset Tokenization: A blockchain Solution to Financing Infrastructure in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies.

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Has The “War On Drugs” In The United States Been Successful?


The US launched the “War on Drugs” in the 1980s to curb drug production, distribution, and consumption via strict law enforcement. If we presume that the war on drugs has failed, the technique has had many unforeseen and negative repercussions on many social groups. These organizations include law enforcement, drug traffickers, and legal and illicit drug users. The strategy has also hurt society (Cohen et al., 2022). The plan has also investigated legalization, medical and public health strategies, and drug policy metrics reevaluation.

Impact on Different Groups:

  • Society as a Whole:

The war on drugs has unknowingly exacerbated social inequality, especially among disadvantaged groups. This is particularly true in poor neighborhoods. Drug-related arrests and convictions have disproportionately affected racial minorities, perpetuating poverty and incarceration (Eremin & Petrovich-Belkin, 2019). This has caused a significant racial gap in incarceration rates, eroding community faith in law enforcement. Trust loss reduces social cohesion, crime prevention cooperation, and disenfranchisement in these people. All of these issues stem from trust failure.

  • Law enforcement:

The war on drugs was meant to weaken drug trafficking groups and reduce drug-related crime, but it has had unintended repercussions for law enforcement. The overemphasis on drug arrests has diverted resources from more serious and violent crimes. Because of this, communities have accused law enforcement of disregarding their safety concerns to concentrate on drug enforcement (Hapsari et al., 2021). This strained relationship has grown the gap between law enforcement and the communities they serve. The lucrative drug trade has also led to law enforcement corruption. This is because drug demand allows unethical behavior.

  • Drug Dealers:

Contrary to common assumption, the drug war has not failed drug traffickers. The perils of drug trafficking and government enforcement have raised the price of illegal substances. People willing to take risks now have access to a more profitable market (Cohen et al., 2022). The increased prices increase drug traffickers’ earnings and create a vicious cycle in which financial gain outweighs legal risk. This means that significant financial gains exceed enormous economic benefits.

  • Legal and Illegal Drug Users:

The war on drugs has been harsh on drug users, whether legal or illicit. The underlying issues contributing to drug dependency are not addressed when drug use is criminalized and managed only by law enforcement. Instead of treating addicts, this method has imprisoned them. This criminalization makes it harder for ex-offenders to reintegrate into society and perpetuates addiction and legal issues (Eremin & Petrovich-Belkin, 2019). Drug stigma discourages people from seeking help, which leads to relapse and recidivism.

  • Legalization of Drugs:

As an alternative to the “War on Drugs,” legalizing narcotics has recently gained popularity. Various feel that legalizing and regulating narcotics will reduce criminal organizations, increase government revenue, and simplify treating addiction holistically. Portugal’s pioneering work in this area has proven that damage reduction and therapy may be better than criminalization (Cohen et al., 2022). Portugal’s pioneering efforts have emphasized this approach. The impact of drug legalization on criminal organizations is a crucial consideration. According to Eremin and Petrovich-Belkin (2019), the “war on drugs” approach often targets criminal networks, yet its effectiveness has been questioned due to unintended consequences. Legalization could undermine the power of these organizations by diverting demand toward legal channels, effectively dismantling their revenue streams. As Cohen et al. (2022) elaborate, legalizing drugs could “diminish the influence of criminal actors” and alleviate the violence associated with the illicit drug trade.

Moreover, the prospect of generating tax revenue from legalized drugs is appealing. As Eremin and Petrovich-Belkin (2019) point out, legalizing drugs could create a new revenue source to reinvest in public health initiatives, education, and addiction treatment programs. Such an approach would allow governments to address the root causes of drug addiction and minimize the negative societal impact of drug use. This aligns with Muggah and Aguirre’s (2021) call for rethinking drug policy metrics to encompass broader social outcomes beyond traditional enforcement metrics. Portugal’s approach is a real-world example of drug decriminalization and harm reduction benefits. As highlighted in Hapsari et al. (2021), Portugal’s decision to decriminalize the possession of small quantities of drugs reduced drug-related deaths, HIV infections, and problematic drug use. By focusing on a medical and public health framework, Portugal redirected resources from criminal prosecution to treatment and prevention efforts, illustrating the effectiveness of this approach in reducing drug-related harm.

Medical/Public Health vs. Public Safety/Criminalization Approach:

The medical and public health approaches and the public safety and criminalization approach to drug policy are fundamentally different. The medical and public health approach emphasizes treatment, counseling, and support for drug addiction as a health issue. However, the public safety and criminalization approach considers drug use as a crime and believes punishment deters. Pedersen et al. (2021) state that the medical and public health approach recognizes drug addiction’s complexity and treats its causes—the method’s objective. By viewing addiction as a health issue, this approach prioritizes early intervention, prevention, and treatment. This resonates with the argument made by Cohen et al. (2022) that the war on drugs often exacerbates social determinants of health, particularly within marginalized communities, where addiction is intertwined with broader systemic issues.

Research consistently underscores the efficacy of the medical approach in reducing drug-related harm and supporting long-term recovery. As Pedersen et al. (2021) highlight, countries that adopt harm-reduction strategies and prioritize treatment over punishment tend to experience lower rates of drug-related deaths and diseases. The criminalization approach, on the other hand, perpetuates a cycle of incarceration, stigma, and relapse, as noted by Muggah and Aguirre (2021). The case of Portugal provides a tangible illustration of the medical/public health approach’s success. Hapsari et al. (2021) detail how Portugal’s shift from criminalization to harm reduction significantly reduced drug-related deaths and HIV infections. By treating addiction as a health issue, Portugal effectively tackled the root causes of drug-related problems and provided individuals with the necessary support to overcome their dependency.

Rethinking Drug Policy Metrics:

Conventional measurements like arrest rates and drug seizures only provide a restricted view of drug usage and its effects. Therefore, they cannot be used to evaluate drug policy. This requires a departure from traditional measures (Cohen et al., 2022). These measurements cannot capture the more enormous socioeconomic and public health ramifications. Hence a reevaluation with other indicators is needed. Drug seizures and arrests are used to evaluate the “War on Drugs”‘ efficacy. Despite providing some insight into law enforcement, they do not offer a complete picture of drug regulatory effectiveness (Eremin & Petrovich-Belkin, 2019). The ramifications of drug usage extend beyond arrests and seizures to public health, community well-being, and society. A more credible drug policy evaluation requires indicators that provide a more complete picture. The number of fatal overdoses directly relates to drug riskiness and harm reduction initiatives. The prevalence of drug-related illnesses like HIV and hepatitis also highlights the health risks of drug use and the efficacy of prevention strategies.

Regional health and happiness are also important, although typical assessments occasionally overlook them. Drug laws affect people, families, neighborhoods, and communities. Drug policy’ broader impacts on society may be gathered through community well-being indices, including crime, economic stability, and social cohesion. A more comprehensive metrics framework would allow politicians to make educated decisions prioritizing public health and well-being above punishment. Customizing drug policy to account for overdose mortality, sickness prevalence, and community health may treat addiction, reduce harm, and build healthier communities. This approach supports Muggah and Aguirre’s (2021) call to redefine drug policy indicators to reflect the complexity of drug issues.

Recommendations for a Comprehensive Drug Policy Overhaul

The inadequacies of the “War on Drugs” necessitate a profound shift in approach, acknowledging the complexity of drug-related challenges and prioritizing holistic solutions over punitive measures. To address these shortcomings, several crucial recommendations emerge, each focusing on different aspects of drug policy reform (Hapsari et al., 2021). These recommendations aim to promote compassion, public health, and community well-being while rectifying the current system’s failures.

  1. Focus on Decriminalization and Rehabilitation: Drug addiction is a health issue, not a crime. Hence it should be decriminalized. This technique, advocated by Pedersen et al. (2021), replaces incarceration with comprehensive rehabilitation programs. Mental health treatments, addiction treatment clinics, and counseling facilities will help individuals overcome drug addiction by addressing its root causes. Society can break the cycle of crime and enhance reintegration by addressing drug misuse as a medical problem.
  2. Embrace Harm Reduction Strategies: Harm reduction strategies are vital to a reformed drug policy. Implementing safe injection sites and needle exchange programs, as endorsed by Eremin and Petrovich-Belkin (2019), reduces the spread of diseases like HIV and hepatitis among drug users. These initiatives also offer a bridge to addiction treatment and support services, acknowledging that recovery is a multifaceted journey. By prioritizing harm reduction, society can prevent further health crises and provide individuals with pathways to healthier lives.
  3. Legalize and Regulate: Exploring the legalization and regulation of certain drugs, as advocated by Hapsari et al. (2021), presents an opportunity to undermine the black market, reduce violence associated with drug trafficking, and generate revenue for public health and education. This approach aligns with Muggah and Aguirre’s (2021) call for redefining drug policy metrics to encompass broader social outcomes. By legalizing and regulating drugs, society can channel resources away from criminal organizations and redirect them toward fostering safer communities and supporting individuals struggling with addiction.
  4. Community Policing and Trust Building: To rebuild confidence in communities, law enforcement must adopt community policing practices. According to Pedersen et al. (2021), mental health professionals, social workers, and addiction counselors must work together to address drug problems. Law enforcement can better connect individuals with access, assistance, and treatment by hiring addiction experts. This will reduce recidivism and increase communal well-being.
  5. Education and Prevention: Prioritizing education and prevention programs is essential to addressing the root causes of drug addiction. By providing information and resources to at-risk individuals, society can reduce the demand for drugs in the first place (Hapsari et al., 2021). This approach aligns with the medical/public health model, focusing on early intervention and harm prevention. Education campaigns emphasizing the risks of drug use and providing alternatives can empower individuals to make informed decisions, thereby mitigating the allure of drugs and curbing their consumption.


Cohen, A., Vakharia, S. P., Netherland, J., & Frederique, K. (2022). How the war on drugs impacts social determinants of health beyond the criminal legal system. Annals of Medicine54(1), 2024–2038.

Eremin, A. A., & Petrovich-Belkin, O. K. (2019). The ‘war on drugs’ concept is the basis for combating drugs in the Western hemisphere. Central European Journal of International and Security Studies13(2), 31–47.

Hapsari, R. D., Ramadhanti, H. N. A., & Putri, K. M. (2021). Comparative analysis of the united states war on drugs policy in Mexico and Colombia: Failure and success factors. WIMAYA2(01), 39–50.

Muggah, R., & Aguirre, K. (2021). Rethinking drug policy metrics to move beyond the war on drugs. In Transforming the War on Drugs (pp. 377–402). Oxford University Press.

Pedersen, W., Holst, C., & Fjell, L. K. (2021). Warriors against the ‘War on Drugs’: Lay experts in Norwegian drug policy. Current Sociology70(7), 1013–1030.