Ethics In The Workplace Essay Example

Ericsson Bribe Scandal

The shares of Ericsson dropped by nearly 15% as their investors reacted to reports that the organization had engaged in payments to the ISIS terror organization to be able to achieve access to specific transport routes within Iraq. This scandal has had a significant negative impact on the organization as it has been the largest share drop in a single day since 2017. The organization conducted an investigation comprised of Ericsson’s employees, suppliers and vendors conduct within Iraq between 2011 and 2019 (Fletcher, 2022). The investigation identified that there were serious breaches of compliance rules as well as it also pointed out significant evidence linked to corruption such as making financial donations without a clear beneficiary, paying suppliers for work without defined scope as well a and documentation, utilization of suppliers to make cash payments, financing inappropriate travel and expenses as well as inappropriate utilization of sales agents and consultants. In relation to the results of the investigation, Ericsson asserted that several employees were terminated from the organization as well as numerous disciplinary actions were taken.

Moreover, reports following the extensive years of investigations on the Swedish company identified that the organization was breaching its corruption settlement as it failed to offer specific documents as well as information as per the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). However, in the year 2019, Ericsson paid more than a billion dollars in penalties to resolve bribery and corruption investigations by the DOJ as well as the Securities Exchange Commission for violating the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Fundamentally, authorities have identified that Ericsson had established and falsely recorded millions of dollars in bribes as part of the long-running scheme (Fletcher, 2022).

Disciplining those involved

The organization’s anti-corruption system tends to basically comprise of a written commitment to business ethics in alignment with the organization’s mission, vision, and value statement. In most cases, the organization’s code of conduct tends to offer elaboration statements of policy. Additionally, the issuance of the codes or the public statement allows the organization to be able to honor its ethical commitment in its daily operations. As a manager at Ericsson, I would discipline the various employees involved in the bribery by terminating them from the organization as well as allowing them to be arrested for engaging in corruption activities as well as utilizing the organizational resources to conduct these unethical activities (Pope, 2017).

I suspect that terminating the employment contract f the involved employees and also going the extra mile to ensure that they have been arrested tends to be the most appropriate approach as it will develop an image to the public that the organization was not part of the unethical conduct (Pope, 2017). Also, it will ensure that the entire workforce understands that unethical behavior in the workplace has negative consequences, and it is important to focus on engaging in positive conduct to be able to develop personally and professionally. Fundamentally, it also tends to be crucial for the organization to frequently educate the workforce on the need to engage in ethical conduct to be able to enjoy the various benefits linked to it.

Plan to Limit Future Ethical Issues

Often ethical issues tend to taint the image as well as the reputation of the organization, and it is quite to the organizational administration to address the various emerging issues linked to ethical conduct. The first approach to limiting future ethical issues from occurring is educating the workforce on what really matters to the organization. This approach tends to be quite crucial as it allows the employees to be able to achieve a detailed understanding of what the organization expects from them. On the other hand, this approach also allows the organizational administration to understand the character and conduct of their workforce (De Cremer & Vandekerckhove, 2016). Moreover, this approach also allows the administration to understand whether its compensation strategy rewards the employees appropriately. Furthermore, this approach also allows the administration on how the workforce feels about the company. For instance, if the workforce is ashamed of the organization, the organization may experience numerous issues linked to ethical conduct.

Another step that will follow would be creating an organizational culture that promotes and rewards ethical behavior. This approach tends to be quite effective as it allows the employees to understand the goals and objectives of the organization and the role they need to play to ensure these goals are successfully achieved. Additionally, developing an organizational culture tends to encourage the workforce to speak up if they believe that something is wrong (De Cremer & Vandekerckhove, 2016). It has been identified that encouraging the workforce to speak up allows them to feel as if they are part of the organization, and as a result, it tends to enhance confidence and self-respect, which as a result, promotes a more ethical workplace climate.

In conclusion, ethical scandals tend to have a negative impact on the organization’s reputation as well as they may have more major negative consequences. For instance, Ericsson has suffered from a significant drop in its shares due to providing bribery payments to the ISIS terror organization in Iraq.


De Cremer, D., & Vandekerckhove, W. (2016). Managing unethical behavior in organizations: The need for a behavioral business ethics approach. Journal of Management & Organization23(3), 437-455.

Fletcher, B. (2022, March 30). Ericsson shareholders hold board accountable in face of uncertainty. Fierce Wireless.

Pope, K. S. (2017). Understanding the challenges and seizing the opportunities to strengthen ethics in organizations and individuals. Five Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations and Individuals, 1-10.

Ethiopia Healthcare System Sample Paper

The healthcare system of a country indicates the developmental stage of its population. Ethiopia, a third-world country, reflects its healthcare systems. Despite the country’s challenges, from poverty to high population and malnutrition, the country is determined to make changes and achieve universal health coverage (UHC) before 2030 (Debie et al., 2022). A deep dive into the country’s healthcare demographics, structure, and systems reveals their process towards a better future and the challenges the healthcare department struggles with to make changes. However, compared to the healthcare systems in the U.S, Ethiopia shows some differences and similarities but still has a long way to go before reaching a better healthcare operation.

Comparison between Ethiopian and American Healthcare Systems

Through the efforts of charity organizations and the government, Ethiopia has improved its healthcare system. However, it still has areas that require improvement. As a country, Ethiopia has primary health centers, hospitals, and clinics, whereby major cities have better healthcare than rural areas (Debie et al., 2022). Moreover, there is a limited number of physicians in Ethiopia due to the migration of well-trained doctors to other countries and poor training in the remaining ones. As a third-world country, Ethiopia has a high infant mortality rate and instances of communicable diseases.

Nonetheless, the government is putting more effort into improving healthcare for mothers, children, and vulnerable groups. Despite impediments from cultural practices, economic reasons, politics, and environmental factors, Ethiopia has improved its record. It has better healthcare than it did a decade ago as it works towards achieving universal health coverage (Assefa et al., 2020). Therefore, the country is offering more health education to the masses and working on educating doctors to handle better all healthcare situations in both rural and urban areas.

On the other hand, Ethiopia’s improvement does not surpass the development of the American healthcare system. The system is complicated and capitalistic, with private and public sectors as part of the mix. Healthcare facilities in America are owned and managed by the private sector. Healthcare services are possible due to the contributions of organizations, healthcare facilities systems, providers, and independent operators (Zieff et al., 2020). Despite the good record of having quality healthcare, American healthcare is expensive. Therefore, many people only afford it through insurance which can be private or public. Through the Affordable Care Act, the American government is insistent on Americans getting insurance to improve their access to quality services in public healthcare facilities. Therefore, around 300 million people have insurance, with 39% being in public insurance plans (Zieff et al., 2020). The number makes up 91% of the population, leaving around 31 million uninsured and likely to pay out of pocket for medical services (Zieff et al., 2020). Nonetheless, the American healthcare system is great compared to Ethiopia’s, but it still has to go.

Financing of Healthcare System in Ethiopia and America

The healthcare system of Ethiopia is highly different from that of America. Although they have made significant strides from the system in 2000, Ethiopia is still far from achieving the healthcare level of America (Butkus et al., 2020). One of the major issues limiting Ethiopia is poverty and the lack of sufficient funds to support a better and sustainable healthcare system. Three sources finance the Ethiopian healthcare system; off-budget donor assistance, on-budget donor support, and private out-of-pocket outlays. Over 40% of the total money used in healthcare is from donations and grants from different parts of the world, while 16% comes from the government and over 35% from out-of-pocket (Debie et al., 2022). The increase in out-of-pocket finance costs the population their health since those who cannot afford not to get quality healthcare and treatment. The Ethiopian government is aware of the problem and is working on ensuring that by 2030, Ethiopia will have universal health coverage (Debie et al., 2022). However, the current situation is different from that of America, which has better ratings when it comes to healthcare.

In America, the government is more involved in the healthcare system. Therefore, they grant public insurance plans that are funded by federal taxes. These programs are Medicare, CHIP, Medicaid, and military health insurance (Butkus et al., 2020). Furthermore, the introduction of the Affordable Care Act elevated the access to healthcare and the number of insured people. On the other hand, private insurance companies have a great American population since 67% of Americans use private programs (Butkus et al., 2020). Therefore, American healthcare is financed by the government, which helps many poor and underprivileged people, private insurers, and individuals who can afford healthcare services without nationwide insurance.

Differences between American and Ethiopian Systems

Ethiopia, though it has a struggling healthcare system, it has a less complicated organization compared to America. Furthermore, it has plans to reach universal health coverage by 2030, which America does not have in place. On the other hand, the American population has more people insured and access to healthcare services. In contrast, Ethiopia has no national insurance policy, which limits the number of people accessing healthcare services.

Elements Influencing the Development and Distribution of Healthcare Services


In Ethiopia, certain aspects influence healthcare, its cost, and access by vulnerable groups. These elements include politics, culture, economic background, history, and environmental factors. Politics controls legislation; therefore, they dictate healthcare systems, payment plans, and the spread of healthcare (Shiferaw et al., 2018). Hence, many people access healthcare and pay using out-of-pocket means because of the limited insurance programs. The situation is limiting to older people without employment or retirement benefits.

Furthermore, the donations and grants are more focused on maternal health, and children forget the mentally ill, which makes them neglected and likely to suffer (Argaw et al., 2019). On the other hand, politics influence access to healthcare since the leadership in Ethiopia has yet to establish better infrastructure and education systems to help people living in rural areas. Hence, quality healthcare is limited to people in the urban center, which comprises young people, while the elderly live in rural areas (Shiferaw et al., 2018). The limited access applies to expectant mothers and children, increasing mortality rates. With limited education, the country has a shortage of qualified healthcare providers underequipped to handle psychological issues.


Cultural issues affect people’s perception of healthcare. In Ethiopia, many people from different places practice different cultures. It is a country with both Christians and Muslims. People in Ethiopia believe in polygamy and early marriage. Therefore, many cases of HIV/AIDS affected families because of multiple partners within the polygamy string (Argaw et al., 2019). According to statics, 61% of people with HIV in Ethiopia are women, and the rest are men and children, indicating that the virus spread is high among women (Argaw et al., 2019). More so, only 3.3% of the population has had a test for the virus since the rest has reservations about healthcare, and there is still a stigma associated with the virus (Argaw et al., 2019). On the other hand, early marriages lead to a high population, making it impossible for the government and families to support the healthcare cost of the country’s population.

Economic Background

Another issue affecting access to quality and affordable healthcare is economic background. Many people in Ethiopia live below the poverty line, making it hard for them to cope with basic needs, let alone afford healthcare. Moreover, due to a lack of stable insurance and the government struggling with donations and grants, it is hard to ensure that every person can afford healthcare when needed (Argaw et al., 2019). Therefore, many families prioritize the health of their children and young people over that of the old and mentally ill people. Furthermore, the government can only afford to focus on mothers, children, and people with chronic illnesses, not the older population.


Ethiopia did not have a good start in matters dealing with healthcare. The country’s educated healthcare providers opted to work abroad because of the lack of opportunities in their home countries. In addition, the country continued to suffer from bad leadership, and it was in the late 1980s, they decided to work on improving their healthcare system (Kiross et al., 2021). Its history concerns poverty, religious dogmas, a toxic culture, and poor leadership, which all hindered development and influenced the country’s healthcare system.

Environmental Factors

Ethiopia’s environmental health is below the standard, limiting the community’s well-being. The country’s population of about 120 million people continues to grow (Woldemichael et al., 2019). Therefore, they are using more land for farming to sustain the population and water. As a result, they have occupied most of the land and are limiting the environment from rejuvenating and developing (Argaw et al., 2019). These issues affect their healthcare since the water in urban areas is not enough to support the population. Many people in towns live squeezed and share resources like latrines which are room for spreading diseases and developing digestive issues. On the other hand, the food from farming is insufficient to support the population, which means older people and young children rely on fast food or food without a balanced diet to survive (Argaw et al., 2019). Living in poor conditions affects their health and exposes them to diseases that require healthcare they cannot afford.

Women and Maternal Child’s Health

The Ethiopian government and the ministry of health understand the importance of protecting the health of mothers and their children. Therefore, the government is working towards improving their health through working with different organizations. Through the efforts of the government and private organizations, Ethiopia has managed to reduce its mortality rates and only records 44- 67 deaths per 100,000 births which is a good score (Kiross et al., 2021). In addition, community health centers cater to mothers and their children and educate women about better healthcare. The government is working towards eradicating the practice of early marriages to avoid complications during birth and the deaths of the baby or/and mother, which would improve women’s and children’s well-being.

Additionally, USAID has made important strides towards better healthcare in Ethiopia. The organization offers education about better healthcare practices and living and encourages more people to care about their health and those around them (Woldemichael et al., 2019). Therefore, their collaboration with the Ethiopian Ministry of Health has led to more immunization of children at birth and during developmental stages, improved testing for HIV, counseling, and education on nutrition, and encouraged prenatal care (Woldemichael et al., 2019). Therefore, the overall health of women, mothers, and children in Ethiopia has improved in the last decade.

However, poverty and malnutrition are issues that impede better health for mothers, women, and children. High poverty levels limit access to healthcare by pregnant mothers and ill children. Furthermore, due to poverty, many children lack a proper meal to sustain their development (WHO, n.d). It exposes them to illnesses due to a weakened immune system and leads to poor health or under-development. A report by USAID states that 44% of children in Ethiopia have chronic malnourishment and 28% of children’s deaths yearly are because of the same (Kiross et al., 2021). Therefore, the government, to salvage the situation, has a National Nutrition Plan to help improve nutrition for children and the population of Ethiopians (Kiross et al., 2021). Once in motion and proven successful, the plan can save the country millions per year.

Management of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases

There are several communicable diseases in Ethiopia. These include HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, measles, pneumonia, and parasitic infections (WHO, n.d). The best way the government manages them is by encouraging the national immunization program to eradicate issues like measles and polio (Shiferaw et al., 2018). Furthermore, the Ethiopia Public Health Institute works closely with CDC to identify and contain communicable diseases, the recent being Covid-19. The CDC has helped Ethiopia be more sensitized and active in testing surveillance, and preventing these infections.

On the other hand, the management process of non-communicable diseases is different from that of communicable ones. Non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia are cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory issues, digestive diseases, and neoplasms (Jung et al., 2021). Hence, the best management strategy for these issues is education about better living and lifestyle changes. The non-communicable diseases are brought about by excessive consumption of alcohol, poor diet, minimal physical activity, and substance abuse. Therefore, the government is working on providing healthier foods to its population and creating better legislation against tobacco and alcohol consumption to protect its people from further healthcare issues (WHO, n.d). However, the bigger decision lies with the people and their willingness to change.

Theory and Practice of Health Promotion

Ethiopia hopes to achieve Universal Health Coverage. Therefore, their way of promoting healthcare ensures they reach a point where all healthcare services are accessible. They promote health by educating the masses about better healthcare practices (WHO, n.d). The key to promoting health in Ethiopia lies in eradicating ignorance and encouraging people to seek medical attention. Furthermore, people need to understand their role in ensuring their well-being and work on improving themselves for the better of the community (WHO, n.d). Hence, the practice is constructing more healthcare facilities to access and train more healthcare providers to ensure quality healthcare services. The education is done through community outreach programs that target people in rural areas and vulnerable groups (Jung et al., 2021). These measures can promote and change the healthcare operations of Ethiopia.

Lifestyle and Behavioral Factors that Affect Health

The behavior and conduct of people affect their health and capacity to get illnesses. In Ethiopia, these factors include alcoholism, substance abuse, and poor diet. Alcohol affects vital organs and damages them, which lowers the life expectancy of the alcohol consumer (Jalu et al., 2019). They work like drugs that damage the body and compromise a person’s psychological health. Therefore, substance abuser is at risk of developing mental health issues and deteriorating their physical health through exposing them to toxic materials.

On the other hand, using drugs makes a person has impaired judgment, which means they are less likely to protect themselves or others if they have a communicable disease (Jalu et al., 2019). Poor dieting affects the development of the body and its strength to fight diseases. Instances of substance abuse and poverty lead to poor dieting, which contributes to poor health. On another spectrum living a life of inactivity and in an unclean environment can lead to contracting diseases like respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure, cholera, malaria, and diarrheal illnesses (Kiross et al., 2021). Therefore, a person’s behavior and lifestyle can change their health or lead to more serious conditions.

Comparison with America

Healthcare in America is lacking in the same way Ethiopia needs improvement. However, America has made more accomplishments by making healthcare accessible in the rural area. The Obamacare strategy has led to more people getting insurance which has improved healthcare in America (Butkus et al., 2020). Furthermore, America is keen on the health of vulnerable people like the mentally ill, disabled, children, and the old. Therefore, they have more facilities for the mentally unstable and ensure older people.

More so, nursing homes are common in America because they ensure the well-being of the old. These are things that are limited or unheard of in Ethiopia. For instance, there are no insurance systems specifically targeting the old in Ethiopia, and the country is still struggling to establish healthcare in rural areas (Assefa et al., 2020). Nonetheless, the two countries populations struggle with poor lifestyle choices that lead to non-communicable diseases, and they are working on eradicating them.


The government, health facilities, healthcare providers, and the community have roles to play in ensuring healthcare improvement in their country. America’s system is more improved but different from the approach of Ethiopia, but one could learn something from the other and improve its strategies. As such, America can put more effort into ensuring universal health coverage for its population, which means finding a means to make healthcare less expensive. On the other hand, Ethiopia needs the means to prioritize insurance to improve access to healthcare services and seek more funding in preparation for UHC.


Argaw, Z., Tamiru, S., Ayalew, Y., & Habte, T. (2019). Knowledge and attitude towards care of elder patients and associated factors among nurses working in government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Int J Sci Eng Res, 9(12), 1-14.

Assefa, Y., Hill, P. S., Gilks, C. F., Admassu, M., Tesfaye, D., & Van Damme, W. (2020). Primary health care contributions to universal health coverage, Ethiopia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 98(12), 894. 10.2471/BLT.19.248328

Butkus, R., Rapp, K., Cooney, T. G., Engel, L. S., & Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians*. (2020). Envisioning a better U.S. health care system for all: reducing barriers to care and addressing social determinants of health. Annals of Internal Medicine, 172(2_Supplement), S50-S59.

Debie, A., Khatri, R. B., & Assefa, Y. (2022). Contributions and challenges of healthcare financing towards universal health coverage in Ethiopia: a narrative evidence synthesis. BMC health services research, 22(1), 1-16.

Jalu, M. T., Ahmed, A., Hashi, A., & Tekilu, A. (2019). Exploring barriers to reproductive, maternal, child, and neonatal (RMNCH) health-seeking behaviors in the Somali region, Ethiopia. PLoS one, 14(3), e0212227.

Jung, M., Jembere, G. B., Park, Y. S., Muhwava, W., Choi, Y., Cho, Y., & Ko, W. (2021). The triple burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases and injuries on sex differences in life expectancy in Ethiopia. International journal for equity in health, 20(1), 1-13.

Kinross, G. T., Chojenta, C., Barker, D., & Loxton, D. (2021). Optimum maternal healthcare service utilization and infant mortality in Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1), 1–12.

Shiferaw, F., Letebo, M., Misganaw, A., Feleke, Y., Gelibo, T., Getachew, T., … & Tadesse, Y. (2018). Non-communicable Diseases in Ethiopia: Disease burden, gaps in health care delivery and strategic directions. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 32(3).

WHO, U. Task Force on NCDs: The government of Ethiopia is working jointly with the UN system to strengthen the national NCD response. 2017.

Woldemichael, A., Takian, A., Akbari Sari, A., & Olyaeemanesh, A. (2019). Availability and inequality in the accessibility of health center-based primary healthcare in Ethiopia. PloS one, 14(3), e0213896.

Zieff, G., Kerr, Z. Y., Moore, J. B., & Stoner, L. (2020). Universal healthcare in the United States of America: a healthy debate. Medicina, 56(11), 580.

Ethnicity And Cultural Diversity In The United Arab Emirates Sample Assignment


The United Arab Emirates is home to more than 200 ethnicities, and the country’s cultural landscape has long embraced the convergence of international communities (Hopkyns et al., 2020). The UAE views the diverse culture and beliefs present in its society as a symbol of motivation and growth for the country. As a result, the UAE has made more concerted initiatives to ensure that cultural diversity norms are recognized and promoted (UNESCO, 2021). It has passed regulations to emphasize the right to be educated, respect diverse religions and ethnic origins, and provide options to help workers preserve and commemorate their cultural heritages.

Ethnic Diversity in the UAE

The United Arab Emirates is home to a society that is culturally varied. According to the World Population Review (2022), as of March 2022, the population of the United Arab Emirates is already at 10.08 million (see Appendix II). There are several variables that contribute to the increase in the country’s population, one of which is the entry of new immigrants. Currently, Dubai is the most populated city in the UAE (see Appendix I). The number of immigrants settling in the United Arab Emirates has increased due to the numerous work opportunities available in the country (Malit & Tsourapas, 2021).

The UAE is under more significant pressure to suitably recruit and work with people from various diverse and cultural origins. The effective handling of ethnic diversity in the workplace using a variety of methods has thus given rise to a new national priority in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). As a result, managers in UAE firms are increasingly required to know and apply the best collaboration and ethnic diversity techniques while engaging with a very varied workforce. However, as could be anticipated, corporations in the United Arab Emirates have policies and approaches for diversity and intercultural communication, much like many other organizations (Warner & Moonesar, 2019). For a variety of reasons, organizations place a high value on diversity. Several studies have found that diversity is a critical factor in ensuring that all employees have fair and equal opportunities in the workplace. Offering aid for equal opportunity enables institutions to reap the most significant possible advantage from a highly diversified work population. Thus, attempts to promote diversity ensures that a specific firm does not lose its potential employees.

Theories of Diversity in the UAE Workforce

It is possible to forecast the repercussions of ethnic diversity in the workforce using two different theoretical techniques. A first point to note is that the socio-psychological approach is concerned with theories linked to ethnic diversity as a subset of social category diversity (Sullivan, 2019). The second method, known as the cultural approach, is concerned with ethnic variety as represented by cultural differences among members and, more specifically, how differences in culture can affect the relationship between individuals of diverse ethnic communities (Civitillo et al., 2017).

The Social-psychological Theory

As stated earlier, social identity theory holds that people acquire identity and feeling of belonging by associating themselves with social classes and participating with other communities (Calvard & Sang, 2017). People are more than happy to detect ethnic diversity in the workforce when they are part of a social group (known as an ingroup). Ethnicity is a surface-level trait, so it may be used to swiftly separate a group of individuals into ethnic divisions by dividing them into cultural subgroups. Aside from that, people may commonly bond with their cultural origin because it gives them a sense of togetherness; it ties them to a community of strongly linked people who all share an identical culture whenever someone identifies with a specific ethnic ingroup. According to social identity theory, people are more likely to favor and be more partial to their cultural ingroup above other ethnic outgroups.

The Cultural Theory

A second method of explaining the relation between ethnic diversity and job outcomes concentrates on the disparities in cultural values and beliefs (Smith & Bond, 2019). The concept of “culture” has already been defined in various ways throughout history. Cultural groupings are similar in that they adhere to specific norms, beliefs, objectives, and priorities and share a common socio-cultural heritage. It is not contentious to assume that persons of the exact ethnic origin possess the same culture, even if they do not share a common language.

First and foremost, ethnic diverse groups may experience communication difficulties (Cletus et al., 2018). There are variances in language usage, intonation, and phrasing. Second, the cultural values adhered to by ethnically different groups differ from one another (Loue, 2013). In this dimension, one’s identity is determined by their own decisions and successes, or by the nature of the group to which one belongs. Finally, cultural gaps seen between corporate culture and the ethnic backgrounds of employees may make it more difficult for them to adjust to the organizational culture in which they work (Joseph & Kibera, 2019). So foreign employees born in a society that is significantly different from the organization’s behavior may have more difficulty adjusting to the corporate culture than native staff who come from a culture that is more comparable to the workplace culture.

Finally, while comparing acculturation attitudes among immigrant employees, it is possible to find differences between them (Thirlwall et al., 2021). Acculturation refers to the occurrences when clusters of people of diverse cultures come into constant first-hand interaction, resulting in modifications in the initial cultural traits of either or both of the groups.

Concepts of Ethnic Diversity in the Workplace

Cultural groups can have a wide range of qualities in common (Hamer et al., 2018). It can be based on various factors such as culture, ethnicity, language, nationality, etc. The emphasis on ethnic diversity guarantees that all may join on their terms. As a relational construct, diversity management is frequently adopted only loosely at the local and global scales in many organizations around the world, including the United Arab Emirates. While this may be understandable when the population is mainly homogeneous and many other important issues to address, it is not always the case. The professional, cultural, social, and historical variability among the workers in the United Arab Emirates, on the other hand, necessitates a multidimensional institutional and structural strategy for addressing diversity management (Chaudhry et al., 2021). At the micro-level, diversity management must be counted as part of leaders and managers whose personality, authority, and abilities have the potential to influence the performance of any company at any level (Mannix & Neale, 2005).

Best Practices of Ethnic Diversity in the Workplace

Equality and diversity are necessary to guarantee that firm management possesses the essential qualities and expertise to lead the organization (Sharma, 2016). Here are some current best practices to ensure an ethnically diverse workforce in UAE.

Proper Communication

To correctly manage a diversified workforce, firms must ensure that they appropriately interact with their employees (Goby et al., 2015). Regulations, methods, safety laws, and other valuable facts should be intended to solve problems and obstacles by interpreting material, employing symbols and pictures whenever possible, translating materials, and using photographs and logos whenever possible.

Treat everyone as a person

Make no claims about workers who come from a variety of various backgrounds (Yaghi & Yaghi, 2013). Look at every staff as an individual and judge successes and failures based on the person’s merits instead of relating behavior to a person’s history, culture, or previous experiences.

Encourage Diverse Groups

Individualized work teams allow employees to recognize and appreciate each other on a more personal level (al Oraimi, 2020). The groups can also aid in the dismantling of conventional beliefs and ethnic misunderstandings.


This report demonstrates that the United Arab Emirates is a culturally and linguistically diverse country, as shown by the vast number of expatriates who reside in the country. The population is on a steady rise and is projected to move from 10.08 million to about 10.6 million in 2030 (see Appendix III) However, there are still parts of UAE society that are intolerant of differences. To solve this issue, the authorities and social organizations have demonstrated a reinvigorated commitment to promoting multiculturalism as among the country’s significant pillars for economic development. These measures are likely to help the government raise its reputation as one of the most culturally diverse countries in the Middle East.


al Oraimi, S. Z. (2020). Diversity and social cohesion in the United Arab Emirates. RUDN Journal of Sociology20(4), 837–846.

Calvard, T. S., & Sang, K. J. C. (2017). Complementing psychological approaches to employee well-being with a socio-structural perspective on violence in the workplace: an alternative research agenda. The International Journal of Human Resource Management28(16), 2256–2274.

Chaudhry, I. S., Paquibut, R. Y., & Tunio, M. N. (2021). Do workforce diversity, inclusion practices, & organizational characteristics contribute to organizational innovation? Evidence from the U.A.E. Cogent Business & Management8(1).

Civitillo, S., Schachner, M., Juang, L., van de Vijver, F. J., Handrick, A., & Noack, P. (2017). Towards a better understanding of cultural diversity approaches at school: A multi-informant and mixed-methods study. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction12, 1–14.

Cletus, H. E., Mahmood, N. A., Umar, A., & Ibrahim, A. D. (2018). Prospects and Challenges of Workplace Diversity in Modern Day Organizations: A Critical Review. HOLISTICA – Journal of Business and Public Administration9(2), 35–52.

Goby, V. P., Nickerson, C., & David, E. (2015). Interpersonal communication and diversity climate: promoting workforce localization in the UAE. International Journal of Organizational Analysis23(3), 364–377.

Hamer, K., McFarland, S., Czarnecka, B., Golińska, A., Cadena, L. M., Łużniak-Piecha, M., & Jułkowski, T. (2018). What Is an “Ethnic Group” in Ordinary People’s Eyes? Different Ways of Understanding It Among American, British, Mexican, and Polish Respondents. Cross-Cultural Research54(1), 28–72.

Hopkyns, S., Zoghbor, W., & Hassall, P. J. (2020). The use of English and linguistic hybridity among Emirati millennials. World Englishes40(2), 176–190.

Joseph, O. O., & Kibera, F. (2019). Organizational Culture and Performance: Evidence From Microfinance Institutions in Kenya. SAGE Open9(1), 215824401983593.

Loue, S. (2013). Cultural and Ethnic Differences. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine, 522–527.

Malit, F. T., & Tsourapas, G. (2021). Migration diplomacy in the Gulf – non-state actors, cross-border mobility, and the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies47(11), 2556–2577.

Mannix, E., & Neale, M. A. (2005). What Differences Make a Difference? Psychological Science in the Public Interest6(2), 31–55.

Sharma, A. (2016). Managing diversity and equality in the workplace. Cogent Business & Management3(1), 1212682.

Smith, P. B., & Bond, M. H. (2019). Cultures and Persons: Characterizing National and Other Types of Cultural Difference Can Also Aid Our Understanding and Prediction of Individual Variability. Frontiers in Psychology10.

Sullivan, D. (2019). Social Psychological Theory as History: Outlining the Critical-Historical Approach to Theory. Personality and Social Psychology Review24(1), 78–99.

Thirlwall, A., Kuzemski, D., Baghestani, M., Brunton, M., & Brownie, S. (2021). ‘Every day is a challenge’: Expatriate acculturation in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management21(3), 430–451.

UNESCO. (2021, May 31). Awareness and Promotion of Cultural Diversity Values. Diversidad de las expresiones culturales.

Warner, R., & Moonesar, I. A. (2019). Diversity Management: The Case of the United Arab Emirates. Advanced Series in Management, 41–63.

World Population Review. (2022). United Arab Emirates Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs).

Yaghi, A., & Yaghi, I. (2013). Human resource diversity in the United Arab Emirates: empirical study. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues6(1), 15–30.


Appendix I: UAE Population Density

Name Population
Dubai 1,137,347
Abu Dhabi 603,492
Sharjah 543,733
Al Ain 408,733
Ajman 226,172
Ras al-Khaimah 115,949
Al Fujayrah 62,415
Umm al Qaywayn 44,411
Khawr Fakkan 33,575
Dibba Al-Fujairah 30,000

Culled from World Population Review

Appendix II: United Arab Emirates Population by Year

Year Population Growth Rate Density (km²) Population Rank Density Rank
2022 10,081,785 1.22% 120.60 93 97
2021 9,991,089 1.31% 119.51 93 96
2020 9,890,402 1.23% 118.31 93 97
2019 9,770,529 1.45% 116.87 92 97
2018 9,630,959 1.52% 115.20 93 97
2017 9,487,203 1.35% 113.48 93 97
2015 9,262,900 1.62% 110.80 94 99
2010 8,549,988 13.26% 102.27 94 104
2005 4,588,225 7.92% 54.88 117 145
2000 3,134,062 5.35% 37.49 130 160
1995 2,415,090 5.72% 28.89 136 167
1990 1,828,432 6.00% 21.87 143 175
1985 1,366,164 6.03% 16.34 146 182
1980 1,019,509 13.21% 12.20 148 188
1975 548,301 18.51% 6.56 157 203
1970 234,514 9.37% 2.81 170 216
1965 149,857 10.15% 1.79 173 222
1960 92,418 3.04% 1.11 178 223
1955 79,578 2.72% 0.95 182 223

Culled from World Population Review

Appendix III: United Arab Emirates Population by Year (Projections)

Year Population Growth Rate Density (km²) Population Rank Density Rank
2023 10,165,148 1.08% 121.59 92 97
2024 10,245,011 0.95% 122.55 92 96
2025 10,323,859 0.86% 123.49 92 96
2030 10,661,076 0.65% 127.52 91 98

Culled from World Population Review