Ethics Of Rejecting Healthcare Due To Statistical Profile Essay Example

The achievement of the most important tasks, such as improving the quality and relevance of health care for the population of the country, causes various ethical dilemmas. The development of specialized types of services and the implementation of broad preventive measures are largely determined by the observance of the principles of ethics and deontology.

In the given case, a physician working for a managed care organization, faces that a patient was rejected care due to his statistical profile. Dr. Berkeley understands that the organization can exclude him from the list of physicians, which would reduce his income. It is a conflict of interests, a situation in which an employee has a personal interest in obtaining material benefits or other advantages that affect or may affect the proper performance of their professional duties.

On the one hand, Dr. Berkeley understands that as a physician, his duty is to help patients in improving their health outcomes. On the other hand, he needs appropriate remuneration to provide for himself and probably his family. According to Tong (2007), every healthcare professional must proceed from personal and community responsibility to patients and, ultimately, to society. Personal responsibility is to be based on his or her experience, human qualities, deep knowledge of the patient and his or her disease, and an individual approach to everyone.

Community responsibility can be interpreted as putting into practice the ideas, concepts, and traditions of a hospital. In addition, experience accumulated and generalized by supervisors and colleagues should be taken into account in the light of the basic principles of health care. Personal responsibility should proceed from a constant striving to deepen theoretical knowledge and improve practical skills, which can be accompanied by the improvement of professional view and a critical analysis of one’s observations, mistakes, and fostering ethical and deontological norms.

In the given case, the concept of patient-centeredness, which becomes common in hospitals and managed care organizations, can be applied to make a decision. Today, medical organizations work to ensure that patients are satisfied with all the aspects of medical care, from the professionalism of doctors to creating a comfortable environment in a hospital.

Tong (2007) emphasizes that the best patient care can be ensured if it is assumed to be a team effort, which a new perspective n healthcare ethics. In this case, it may be recommended for Dr. Berkeley to consult with his colleagues, who are also involved in caring for the identified patient. If the organization refuses to cooperate on this matter, the physician would not be able to fulfill his foremost responsibility in terms of patient care.

The advantages of applying non-normative standards to this case include potential treatment to the patient, which would allow for improving his health. At the same time, its disadvantage would lead to breaking with the organization and decreased remuneration of the doctor. The use of the normative standards that are designed by the mentioned managed care organization would potentially lead to comorbidity and chronic diseases due to a lack of timely treatment (Tong, 2007). However, the benefit of such a decision is the continued contract of Dr. Berkeley with this care facility. Even though his income would not reduce, the professional ethics of this care provider would be compromised, which means that his authority would also be affected.

It is unethical for this doctor to stay enrolled in this organization by compromising patient care. Beneficence and non-maleficence are two ethical principles that are violated in this case. Namely, they imply that a physician is to find a balance between the intended treatment and preventing harm (Persson, 2017).

It is evident that if the given patient is not provided with the necessary care, his state will deteriorate. The prevention of the development of further complications is to be prioritized by Dr. Berkeley. Despite his personal needs, the doctor needs to act in the interest of the patient to make sure that his actions are ethical. The respect for non-maleficence and beneficence protects patient rights and contributes to balancing harms and benefits.

In the view of the above discussion, one can suggest that such cases should be endowed with the status of a legislative definition in the future as a means of expressing doctors’ interests and patient management in the healthcare sector. Due to this, patient-centeredness, in addition to the deontological ethics, will acquire legal significance, will enter the legal norms governing healthcare, for non-observance of which the corresponding legal responsibility will naturally follow (Persson, 2017). Thus, patient-centeredness will no longer be a recommendation, but a mandatory category of medical and legal relationships. This is likely to significantly increase its role in health care management, rationalizing some pertinent measures to enhance it.

To conclude, this paper discusses the ethical dilemma that is faced by the primary care physician, Dr. Berkeley, who has to reject a patient’s request for care because of his statistical profile. It was discovered that the decision to follow the normative standards violates the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, even though it would preserve the physician’s level of income. It is recommended to communicate with the managed care organization to resolve the issue and act following non-normative standards, if they refuse to cooperate.

References

Persson, I. (2017). Inclusive ethics: Extending beneficence and egalitarian justice. Oxford University Press.

Tong, R. (2007). New perspectives in healthcare ethics: An interdisciplinary and crosscultural approach. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Kay Jewelers Credit Card Application Terms And Conditions

For Kay cardholders, the company charges an Annual Percentage Rate (APR) of 5%-24.99% on purchases not paid within 25 days after the closure of each billing cycle. Billing cycles occur after every month. The charges vary remarkably from one state to the next with Arkansas charged the least (at 5%) while New York, Ohio, Florida, and other states charged the maximum rate (24.99%). Precisely, APR refers to charges bestowed on purchases not paid within the scheduled timeframe. This means payments are preferred within 25 days after the closure of each billing cycle mentioned earlier (Kay Jewelers Inc. 1). The company also imposes a minimum interest rate charge of 0-1% depending on the concerned state.

Kay Jewelers charges no annual fee on a card regardless of the use; however, there are stringent penalties set to discourage late payments and return payments. These penalties occur besides the APRs charged on unpaid purchases. Late payments incur charges ranging from 0-35% depending on the state of residence. In ability to pay the amount due in time contributes to these charges. Additionally, returned payments attract charges of up to 30% depending on the state of the account holder. In this context, the returned payment refers to a situation where the payment method used by the cardholder (be it checks, electronic authorizations, or other instruments) is not honored on its presentation for cashing. In such cases, Kay Jewelers will impose a fine of up to 30% on the concerned amount. Hence, it is advisable to use reliable payment methods. These constitute the dishonored payments witnessed in some circumstances. The company calculates the balance of the cardholder including purchases using a method named “average daily balance”. This applies to all states except Minnesota and New Mexico. In these states, the company uses an average daily balance, which does not consider new purchases. The cardholder has the right to dispute all the charges bestowed on the card as stipulated in the terms of use.

Retail repayment Credit Agreement

The company assumes that the cardholder promises to pay all the costs incurred on the card as agreed on the application. This includes the cost of purchases, penalties, and other relevant charges that the card might attract. Additionally, the cardholder is responsible for the entire transactions made using the card regardless of who did it. The cardholder can also apply for more than one card under the same account name; nonetheless, he or she will be responsible for all the transactions and charges incurred on the supplied cards (Kay Jewelers Inc. 1). Upon signing the application form, the applicant is agreeing with the written stipulations guiding the use of the card. Purchases executed by the account holder or other card users in the same account name (plus other charges) will constitute the exact balance to be paid by the cardholder. The card company imposes charges in a manner that is beneficial to it.

As indicated before, APR is the charges incurred on failure to pay for purchases 25 days after the closure of the billing cycle. This occurs on a monthly basis. The cardholder is expected to pay in time to avoid such charges. It is important to do it promptly in order to avoid probable inconveniences and unnecessary charges (Leonard 39). These charges can also be calculated on a monthly basis; however, this depends on the state of residence and the limit of the purchases. Annual charges do not change; however, they are fixed depending on the state of residence.

The calculation of interest charges occurs uniformly in all states with the exemption of MN and NM as indicated before. The formula used is the average daily balance minus the current transactions. The interest charges are imposed separately for every balance on the account. The average daily balance is calculated by summing up the entire charges on the account within a billing period and dividing the total sum by the number of days in the concerned billing cycle. This gives the average daily charges mentioned in this context. If the average charge is negative, the minimum average daily charge will be $1 named as the finance charge. Other states have no minimum interest charge. So, it is advisable for the applicant to consider the terms that apply in his or her state with respect to Kay card utilization.

Cardholders are expected to pay a minimum balance shown on their billing statements. This should occur in time to avoid cumulative charges. The minimum payments are based on the regular balance of an account holder. A regular balance of $0-265.00 attracts a minimum payment of 25%. Higher values of regular balances have their minimum balances based on percentages. This percentage reduces as the regular balance increases. US$2500 and above attracts a minimum payment of 5% of the concerned amount. Additionally, the company offers promotional terms on fresh purchases or existing balances. This is meant to increase the utilization of the card. However, promotional offers are subjected to the aspects of promotional terms. Such promotions are offered at the discretion of the card company and are occasionally applicable. The promotions incorporate “no interest plans, reduced rates, and eighteen-month plan “(no interest is charged for the first 12 months).

On payments, the company requires all the payments to be made in time and the payment slip mailed to the address provided on the billing statement. Payments are done in US$ through honorable checks, electronic devices, and other forms that will not incur return payment fees. Legal notices should also be mailed to the company for proper action. This incorporates the aspects of bankruptcy declaration and other considerable legal provisions (Kay Jewelers Inc. 1). Additionally, the company recognizes that all disputes related to card use will be resolved amicably (arbitrations) as stipulated in the contract (Leonard 39). As indicated before, the company charges a considerable fee on the aspects of late payments as stipulated in the previous rates. This is to make cardholders responsible and pay their dues in time. Late payment charges vary from one state to the next as indicated earlier. However, the maximum figure is $35. Other considerable charges include return payment fees, security interests, and default/collection costs.

Both the company and the cardholder have the right to terminate or limit the use of the card. The company can do this even without prior notice to the user-provided it deems it fit to do so. Kay Jewelers is authorized to investigate the credit history of the applicant, monitor and record calls as well as not waiver any balance to the cardholder. The federal law equally governs such agreements. Additionally, the cardholder should inform the company appropriately of the change of address. There are stipulations governing the disputation of purchases, which allow the user to deny payments. Conclusively, Kay Jewelers can use the applicant’s personal information when required to do so.

Works Cited

Kay Jewelers Inc. Summary of Kay Jewelers Charge Account Terms. Ohio, OH: Sterling Jewelers Inc., 2010. Print.

Leonard, Barry. Use of Credit Cards by Small Businesses and the Credit Card Market for Small Businesses: Congressional Report. California, CA: DIANE Publishing, 2011. Print.

Essay Voice-over

Automation In School In The 21st Century

The advancement of technology is gradually changing and reshaping the face of the 21st century. All industries, including the world of academia, are susceptible to this “bugbear”. According to Market and Research (2018), automation in the education segment is expected to grow by 47.5% through 2021. The conventional framework of the education sector comprises of the school administrators, teachers, students, and parents among other school staff. Each of these stakeholders has a role to play in both the academic and non-academic administrative activities of an institution. Automation technologies can be integrated into the functions of the before-mentioned stakeholders to improve efficiency.

For instance, academic administrators are usually responsible for back-office roles such as the shortlisting of candidates, registration of students, creation of class schedules, generation of certificates, and so on. Most of these tasks are paper-based; hence, they are considered as labor-intensive and time-consuming. Automation can promote the delivery of efficient results by quickening the pace of those roles. Moreover, for teachers, the use of technology is a bit controversial as it is has been suggested to be accompanied by job loss (Market and Research, 2018). However, teachers can employ automation in the scheduling of classes, management of attendance, and even grading of assignments.

Therefore, this will enable them to spend more time with students. Third, students are regarded as the primary beneficiaries of automated learning. Through e-learning, students can learn regardless of their geographic distances. Additionally, since automation facilitates increased time liberation for administrators and teachers, students can have more meaningful interactions and deeper experiential learning.

Apart from the processes mentioned above, there are numerous ways that automation can benefit schools. Technology is efficiently streamlining processes and managing operations in the education sector in which traditional education failed to achieve. Therefore, schools should consider embracing it to make the best out of the educational system.

Reference

Research and Markets. (2018). Artificial intelligence market in the US education sector 2018-2022. Web.

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