Ethics Of The COVID-19 Vaccine Sample College Essay

Not only has the COVID-19 pandemic challenged science and healthcare systems in many countries, but it also has posed several ethical questions to the international community. One of them is whether it is ethical and moral to infect a healthy individual in case the Phase III research needs it. From the position of professional philosophy (Have, 2018), public health issues are the top priority for the state, the healthcare system, and any physician (CEJA report K – A-93, n.d.). While such a position may be far from appearing ethical for many, the conventional line of bioethics dictates the prioritization of public health in cases such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

From the utilitarian position, if a Phase III study of the coronavirus infection requires the infection of a healthy person with the virus, it must be done for the sake of public health. As existing data demonstrates, specific age groups, for instance, have bigger chances of survival and not suffering from the disease than others (Cohen & Bask, 2020). Additionally, a study group may create unique conditions for the patient to go through the coronavirus with minimum harm. Moreover, as Lo and Katz (2005) explain, in extraordinary times, the autonomy and liberty of a concrete individual “may be overridden for the good of the public” (493). The latter means the possibility of mandatory testing, isolation, and quarantine, all of which have been used during the current pandemic as well as past ones, as well as treatment and vaccination (Lo & Katz, 2005; Pandemic influenza plan, n.d.). Therefore, in circumstances like the COVID-19 pandemic, public health becomes the number one priority in comparison to all other scales.

However, there may be people who find this idea contradictory. They may be defenders of ideological and philosophical positions based on religious and political dogmas, who would disagree with the opinion. First, the representatives of liberal and explicitly libertarian paradigms consider such a step a violation of personal freedoms. In this context, infecting an individual against their will for the sake of the community is violence and abuse of power that a state holds over its population (O’Hara et al., 2016). Secondly, speaking of a more conservative view, radical Islamist movements see the COVID-19 pandemic as a punishment to the ones opposing their version of Islam (Basit, 2020). Hence, no jihadist must be intentionally infected, as it would be considered conflicting with the will of God. Ideologies from any pole of the political spectrum comprehend such actions as a violation of either individual freedoms or the will of numen.

Nevertheless, there are some thoughtful counterarguments to these positions. The libertarian view is based on the dogma that an individual’s health does not rely on the public health system. However, even one’s birth rarely occurs without any help from public healthcare services, not to mention overcoming most other diseases. Furthermore, an individual is a part of the community despite their possible denial of such, and the wellbeing of the public is partially their own. Finally, being infected under the control of specialists gives them more guarantees of a successful recovery in comparison to an accidental illness, which is highly possible in a society without a vaccine. As for the religious argument, science does not acknowledge supernatural phenomena. Therefore, while having its basis, the ideological poll of reasons does not appear to be more convincing than the one presented by the conventional bioethics.

To conclude, the coronavirus pandemic made the world face an ethical dilemma to which bioethics had already developed an answer long before COVID-19. Public health dominates the personal one. It may seem inhumane to representatives of specific ideologies. However, it contributes to the collective wellbeing and, hence, the state of health of any individual, which is more critical from the utilitarian perspective. Thus, the conventional ethical system allows physicians to infect healthy patients, especially in the case of consent.


Basit, A. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: An opportunity for terrorist groups? Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 12(3), 7 – 12.

CEJA report K – A-93: Ethical considerations in the allocation of organs and other scarce medical resources among patients. (n.d.). 2020, Web.

Cohen, R., & Bask, E. (2020). Vulnerable youth and the COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatrics Perspective, 146(1).

Have, H. (2018). Global education in bioethics. Springer.

Lo, B., & Katz, M. (2005). Clinical decision making during public health emergencies: ethical considerations. Ann Intern. Med, 143(7), 493 – 498.

O’Hara, L., Taylor, J., & Barnes, M. (2016). The extent to which the public health ‘war on obesity’ reflects the ethical values and principles of critical health promotion: a multimedia critical discourse analysis. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 26(3), 246-254.

Pandemic influenza plan. (n.d.). 2020, Web.

Job Opportunities For Women In The 1800s: Lowell Mill Girls

In the 1800s, many young girls had completed early schooling by ten years. Many would take up domestic duties for some families since they needed to work and help either with the financial situation at home or get the opportunity to earn their own money. Unlike typical young women of their era, mill girls were able to earn their own money, had better educational opportunities. Working in the textile industry was not an unusual occurrence for any girl of a youthful age. Lowell mill girls were the ladies who were working in a textile mill in Massachusetts.

Workers were majorly driven by motivations to beat the hard-economic conditions of the American people during the period. One had to struggle to remain competitive in any production sector, not only in the textile industry. Most of the ladies working in the mill were aged between 15 to 35 (Wudy 50). The young ladies would start working at the mills by changing bobbins on a spinning machine, a position referred to as a “doffer.” Life was enjoyable at the mill, the savings the girls got from their earnings were helping,

The doffers were paid slightly less than the mill girls running the looms. The young women were expected to be working fourteen-hour weekdays until the ten-hour law in 1842. The doffers enjoyed working with older girls in the mill (Gregory 144). The ladies could come to the mill for several reasons, some needed upkeep money, whereas some of the ladies in the textile mill went ahead to work to raise school fees for their siblings. Workers in Lowell mills comprised 75 percent of women, in the entire population (Gregory 143). It is imperative to note that there were strikes and picketing which were a result of poor working conditions, for example, the Lowell Female Reform labor association emerged (Wudy 41). This movement lobbied for women’s rights within their working environment at the textile mills. Low pay and long working hours were some of the reasons cited as poor working terms by the female employees at the mill textile. Nevertheless, the women were hardworking since the growing population left very few job opportunities. There was stiff competition from the males since the mill management preferred them to the ladies (Gregory 136). Male counterparts were seen as hardy and multipurpose.

Working in the mills seemed good for the ladies since the kindness and commonality of older girls in their lives kept the young women motivated in chasing better life opportunities. They could play the piano, read in the library, sew in circles, write letters, and others. Therefore, many early doffers ended up living at the mills, moving from ranks to becoming spinners, carders, and weavers. The young girls stayed at the mills until they returned home, got married, entered a business or trade, or went to college. From the above sentiments, it is evident that despite challenges that faced girls who worked at the mill, there were several opportunities that they valued.

I would have enjoyed life at the mill at that time since there were job opportunities for raising money. Another reason for enjoying life as a mill girl was early employment which brought a sense of personal freedom. Nevertheless, the life of the ladies at Lowell Textile was full of challenges ranging from poor work conditions to hard economic times. Despite the said challenges that encompassed the girls in both their workplaces and homes, they continued to deliver their services to the textile mill. The text herein illuminates the lifestyle that the girls underwent and links the past to modern society in terms of the struggle of women.

Works Cited

Gregory, James N. “A History of America in Ten Strikes by Erik Loomis.” Labor, vol. 17, no. 3, 2020, pp. 144-145.

Wudy, Marina. “Self-Made Women: How American Mill Girls Contributed to the Discourse of American Labor Exceptionalism.” ForAP-Forschungsergebnisse von Absolventen und Promovierenden der SLK, vol. 3, no. 3, 2020, pp. 45-57.

The Downstream Oil And Gas: Review

The oil industry has always played a significant role in the economics of any given country. The industry is complex and occupies a substantial portion of the global market. The complexity of the supply chain caused it to be divided into three separate segments: upstream, midstream, and downstream. It is necessary to analyze all segments of the supply chain to clarify the differences between them.

Due to the complexity of oil and gas products’ production, transportation, storage, and realization the supply chain is divided into three segments according to the stage the product is at currently. Some companies include all three stages in their operations, but due to their complexity, most companies opt to focus on one or two segments (Lima & Relvas, 2016). Management of only one segment of the supply chain has its benefits and drawbacks: it is less financially burdensome for the company but is more prone to the volatility of the market and global competition.

The upstream segment of the supply chain focuses on crude oil extraction and its transportation. The process begins with an exploration of new areas for potential crude oil fields. Once a well is found, new drilling constructions are built and the oil is extracted to be later transported to refining factories. The process of refining is also known as the midstream segment of the petroleum industry. Midstream companies purify crude oil and natural gas making them into a product for the market. The downstream segment includes storage, primary and secondary distributions, and marketing of refined products. Logistics is one of the key assets of such companies since they rely on optimized routes to deliver final products to customers that are divided into two groups: wholesale and retail (Lima & Relvas, 2016). The wholesale segment is represented by power plants and large fuel consumers, while retail consumers use fuel for domestic purposes and transportation.

Due to the complexity of the petroleum industry, it has to be divided into three separate segments. Upstream and midstream segments focus on extraction and refining of crude oil and natural gas, while the downstream segment’s main focus is marketing and transportation. Petrol and natural gas are realized on the market for two types of customers, according to the number of products they consume.


Lima, C., Relvas, S., (2016). Downstream oil supply chain management: A critical review and future directions. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 92, 78–92.

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