Evaluating Happiness According To A Utilitarian Essay Example For College

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory focused on the principles of promoting happiness. This theory advocates for actions that are right when they enhance the happiness of individuals but wrong when they subvert an individual’s action. John Stuart Mill explains happiness as a pleasure in the absence of pain, which is varying in quantity and quality (MacKinnon and Fiala, 98). Moreover, an individual’s attainment of ends and objectives, including the virtuous quality of life, can be defined as part of one’s happiness. Additionally, he argues that these pleasures are based on an individual’s higher levels of internal consciousness and senses and would therefore be considered under baser amusements (MacKinnon and Fiala, 103).

In Mill’s arguments, an individual’s social nature creates natural sentiments that are equal to utilitarianism (MacKinnon and Fiala, 110). In this regard, he suggests that to accept this utilitarianism as an ethic would mean society adopts the standards of utilitarianism appropriately. Community desires happiness, happiness for family and one another; hence, this desire for happiness is the fundamental of morality. Mill defines the other human desires as an inclusion to the meaning of happiness or the means to attaining their objectives which is to be happy (MacKinnon and Fiala, 102). Human nature is purposefully constructed so that a person’s only desire is to achieve happiness. This desire concludes that since happiness is the only desirable end to humans’ nature, the sole of human actions is happiness. People tolerate rights since they advocate for their greatest happiness, which shows how utility helps explain justice. When barriers are established in society, it does not matter if these barriers are the creators’ intentions; however, when an obstacle is used to avoid suicides and a life is saved, this is the greatest happiness that matters to a utilitarian.

Similarly, the practical standard accepts happiness that is for the most considerable amount. The idea in this moral standard is that nobleness is an essential aspect of an individual. When an action makes more people happier by an individual being noble in character, it defines the utilitarian standard of happiness. Similarly, the utilitarian theory ignores the extent of one’s pain for the greatest pleasure of others in quality and quantity. The individuals’ levels of senses and consciousness play a vital role in the realization of this aspect of happiness. This rule looks at an individual’s conduct and the nature of their actions end which provides the greatest feeling of pleasures that other people other than oneself experience and the spirit in which they conduct themselves to satisfy the desire for happiness in others (MacKinnon and Fiala, 110). The aspect of an individual’s moral standard raises concerns over an individual’s emotions for their nobleness. However, this ethical standard is achieved by inspiring and motivating an individual’s noble character to achieve this desired state that delivers absolute happiness to others even by preceding one’s wishes. In the end, the greatest pleasure is realized for one’s actions and, therefore, a realization of the desired end.

Furthermore, some pleasures feel better than others, raising the issue of enjoyment superiority. Individuals are expected to use higher faculties to determine the type of happiness they require. A creature of higher faculty involves a sense of dignity that each one possesses that is vital in making decisions based on the satisfaction that leaves one satisfied. This dignity allows every individual to recognize that their choices are to achieve a state of happiness that no other option would fulfill this desire. This aspect allows an individual of higher faculty to realize that they are best satisfied in their states, although they would have desired to contend with the world’s imperfections. On the other hand, an individual whose low happiness level remains fully satisfied after choosing between two preferred enjoyments. Mill illustrates that sensual pleasures are preferable to intellectual pleasure in varying individuals (MacKinnon and Fiala,100). Therefore, individuals would opt for such outcomes when there is increased assurance of happiness, higher senses, and consciousness.

In conclusion, there are various ways through which a utilitarian can assess the level of happiness in individuals. Firstly, as ends and means, Mills uses utilitarianism as a moral theory consequentialist that the results of an action are justified if they result in good for a more significant number or happiness (MacKinnon and Fiala, 101). Similarly, the utilitarian aspect of action demands that the most important number of people are happier. Each action undertaken to fulfill a desire has to be satisfying to an individual to realize the most significant amount of happiness. The action is taken to realize joy for the greatest pleasure is dependent on the utilitarian moral standard of greatest satisfaction. Lastly, an individual level of faculty is essential in basing pleasures. The consciousness and senses play a vital role in asserting the quality and quantity of two pleasures. In this regard, the creatures with higher faculties choose happiness, but they are not contending with their choices, while animals with lower faculties are more satisfied with their choices.

Works Cited

MacKinnon, Barbara, and Andrew Fiala. Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues. Cengage Learning, 2014.

Children’s Behavioral Problems University Essay Example

When it comes to children, naughtiness, stubbornness, and recklessness are perfectly acceptable. It’s possible that some children’s conduct is out of the usual for their age and may be tough to handle. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiance disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common disruptive behavioral disorders in the United States today. Because of their similar signs and symptoms, these three mental illnesses may be difficult to diagnose and take a long time to treat. A child or adolescent may be dealing with two distinct issues at the same time. Emotional problems, mental diseases, familial challenges, and substance addiction are all sources of frustration. My perspective on children with difficult behavior problem has shifted after reading Beyond Behavior and Polyvagal Theory. I’ve learned a lot about these kids that I previously thought they were wicked or simply a phase. My understanding of the severity and features of this condition will be discussed in depth.

There are five characteristics of children with emotional and behavioral issues outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Learning difficulties cannot be explained by logical, sensory, or medical causes. It is difficult to form and maintain good connections with classmates and instructors. Under regular conditions, inappropriate forms of conduct or emotions. Depression or sadness permeates the atmosphere. Physical symptoms or anxieties that are linked to personal or academic issues. As a result, individuals with emotional disorders (ED) are often placed in regular education classes (Palek, 2020). A severe instance may need kids to be taught in a special education cluster unit, an independent program, or possibly a different school altogether. Psychiatric Disorders and Behavioral Disabilities fall under the umbrella category of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

Psychiatric illnesses are described as behavioral, mental, or perceptual irregularities that harm everyday life and are distressing. Diagnoses including OCD, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, psychotic disorder, and bipolar disorder are the most prevalent types. Psychiatric problems pose a significant difficulty from my point of view for various reasons. The first reason is that schools are not hospitals, and instructors cannot address these mental health issues. Students who face these kinds of difficulties are often being treated, and they may be taking medication as a result. Teachers may not know why their kids behave the way they are because medical information is secret. Certain behaviors become more difficult to deal with as a result. Pupils with these problems may not satisfy the school’s academic and behavioral standards. As a result, kids may need to be placed in a special education classroom or receive other special education services.

Disruptive or destructive behavior in the classroom and/or to the well-being of students and others are symptoms of behavioral impairments. The above-mentioned mental illnesses cannot explain the behaviors that lead to a behavioral impairment diagnosis. Conduct disorder and Oppositional defiant disorder are two types of behavioral disability. One of the oppositional defiant disorder hallmarks is an excessive lack of cooperation and a refusal to follow instructions. Those who suffer from this disorder are neither violent nor hostile; rather, they refuse to collaborate with adults or peers. Conduct disorder is a considerably more serious form of the condition mentioned above. Anger, violence, and self-inflicted damage are all hallmarks of this illness. Discipline-challenged students frequently require special education instruction until they can function in the mainstream population.

Students with behavioral and emotional issues, like all others, need a supportive, controlled setting that encourages development, builds self-esteem, and rewards good conduct. School year rules must be developed at the beginning of the school year and written clearly and concisely. The regulations should be stated positively. A clear set of consequences for breaching rules should be laid out before classes begin. These consequences should be administered consistently and sternly to anybody who breaks the rules. Consistent and predictable outcomes are required. When enforcing penalties, be sure to provide the kid with clear and calm criticism. In that manner, the pupil knows why the punishment is required. When rules are broken, it’s important not to get too worked up about it. Reacting emotionally provides negative learner attention, which many youngsters perceive as a reward. Maintain your composure, but be tough and kind at the same time. It’s challenging to strike the right balance, but doing so is critical if you want to see progress.

Classroom management relies heavily on routines. Change and changes may be difficult for students with emotional and behavioral issues. An efficient technique to begin the day is by going through a visual schedule of the day’s events. Students with behavioral and emotional issues typically need special education instruction because their conduct is too unruly to be taught in a regular classroom environment (Wahman, 2022). The following are some suggestions for encouraging and facilitating the development of more pleasant and adaptable behavior: In a token economy, students are rewarded for good conduct with tokens. Positive manner must be rewarded often, and the tokens in the token store must motivate students for a token economy to work. Despite the time and effort required, this has shown to be a very successful method.

A graphic illustration of each student’s degree of conduct in the classroom. According to the chart, students who exhibit good behavior advance higher; the opposite occurs for those who exhibit poor behavior. As a result, students are held responsible, and you can track and reward their advancement. This will not work if the most challenging kids continue to be at the bottom of the class rankings. To the best extent feasible, focus on the good and keep them motivated. Students who exhibit good behavior are awarded a lottery ticket with their name, similar to the token economy. Each week, one or two tickets are drawn from a jar containing the tickets. A prize is awarded to the lottery winner.

Teaching youngsters with emotional and behavioral issues (Mitchell, 2019). Students who exhibit good behavior and those who notice negative behavior are recognized and rewarded. Teachers should encourage students to work together in the classroom rather than gossiping about one another. Remember that encouraging and rewarding good conduct is much more successful than eradicating unpleasant behavior. Conflicts over authority often erupt due to punishment and negative repercussions, which simply serve to exacerbate the original issue behavior. Don’t give up, even though it’s difficult to stay cheerful in the face of these emotionally draining habits. These youngsters, who are coping with a life-altering illness, might benefit from your guidance and support.

It’s normal for youngsters to misbehave from time to time. However, they are also constantly improving and learning new things, which is a remarkable accomplishment in and of itself. Make it known when a youngster behaves well or does a good job. Tell them you’re proud of them, and the rest of the class will feel the same way. Children are more inclined to follow suit if they know they will get the same favorable response. Students who engage in disruptive behavior should have a designated space in the classroom where they may go for time out or quiet time. Make it a place of contemplation and relaxation rather than a place of punishment. To help children who have difficulty controlling their behavior, ask them to bring a stuffed animal or a photo of their pet to the classroom.


Mitchell, B. S., Kern, L., & Conroy, M. A. (2019). Supporting students with emotional or behavioral disorders: State of the field. Behavioral Disorders44(2), 70-84.

Palek, L. (2020). Book Review of Beyond Behaviors: Using Brain Science and Compassion to Understand and Solve Children’s Behavioral Challenges. School Community Journal30(1), 299-302.

Wahman, C. L., Pustejovsky, J. E., Ostrosky, M. M., & Santos, R. M. (2022). Examining the effects of Social Stories™ on challenging behavior and prosocial skills in young children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education41(4), 267-279.

Evaluation Of How Various Market Research Methods Affect The Results Of Product Team Cialis: Getting Ready To Market Case Study University Essay Example


The world is constantly changing. One of the industries affected significantly is that of business and marketing. Even though there are numerous changes, the need for marketing research remains constant. Marketing research remains an essential tool for effective identification of marketing strategies and evaluation of decisions that involve the use of information. As one could go for a vacation even without making any plans, it is essential to develop marketing strategies without backing this information with data and research. In a nutshell, the process of marketing research is the backbone of any informed decisions of marketing. The paper examines how the different marketing methods impact the outcomes of the study.

The process of marketing research?

The first step of the Viagra marketing research process involves defining the opportunity and the problem. The collection of research information and the entire study requires that one understand whatever they are learning from the research process (Sovacool et al., 2018). This stage helps in defining the challenge which needs to be solved. The information assists organizations in clarifying all the overarching challenges and opportunities.

The second stage of this research involves the development of the plan of marketing research. This comes after examining the vital causes of the challenges and problems that need a solution. The goal of research assists to develop the best approaches to respond to the problem that is studied. Some techniques are interviewing the customers and prospects, conducting the survey, and running the user tests (Chowdhury & Paul, 2020). Afterward, there is a collection of relevant information. Marketing research information collected will be either qualitative or quantitative. Collecting information. The question is designed to impact how an individual responds to different queries.

After collection of information about viagra, there is an analysis of the findings of the study. Since all the information has been obtained, the data can be manipulated to determine the trends and patterns depending on the study’s assumptions (Sovacool et al., 2018). The final research involves actualizing the whole research process. All these processes seek to address the objectives of the process of research, which are economical to determine the economic degree of company failure or success, social which aims to satisfy the specific needs via a required service or product, and those of administration which assist the company via proper development of plans within the company.

Impact of different methods of marketing research

One of the methods of research that can be applied in this case is the focus group because Viagra is consumed by numerous . Even though the concept is simple, it is pretty challenging to practice. It involves assembling a team of individuals in a room and recording them while they respond to questions about the topic of study. For some individuals, it could be the new ideas of the project, while for others, it involves the views that they have towards a specific candidate in politics. The discussions require organizers to pull together good insights or use them for judging the broad view of the society (Molina-Azorin & Fetters, 2019). The participants are selected depending on specific criteria like their occupation, interests, and demographics. Focus groups are powerful because they rely on natural discussions and conversations between the researcher and the participant. It allows for recognizing the nature of the discussion, which is a potential factor skewing the outcomes of the information. The focus groups always encourage those who talk about significant issues that affect others or those that may have affected them in the long run.

The other method is the use of surveys to determine the use of viagra. The approach involves using survey questions that are given to respondents individually. The responses could be provided on the phone, and they could be emailed or sent online (Sovacool et al., 2018). Questions vary. They could be closed or open-ended. For closed-ended questions, there are various groups like the two choice group, which is referred to as a dichotomous, multiple-choice, and the checkbox, among others (Åkerblad et al., 2021). Surveys are highly versatile due to a range of question formats. Understanding how mixed and matching ensures that the research responds to the questions adequately. When the questions are good, they generate better analysis. When the writings are clear, they are free from vague expressions that do not lead respondents to a specific path. They help in ensuring the results are a reflection of the respondent’s true colors.

Another effective approach is social media listening to determine the use of viagra. Since individuals share a lot of content through social media platforms, it is considered a vital treasure that troves market studies. A lot of information can be tapped into the media and dissected. Using tools such as consumer studies, the researchers justify and identify various topics of their interest (Åkerblad et al., 2021). After identification, they get to analyze various posts on social media platforms, such as the brand mentions and the opinions of multiple consumers regarding the brand. Listening through social media platforms ensures the democratization of insights that are useful for a research process. There is a lot of unfiltered information (Sovacool et al., 2018). Since the information is not prompted, one could consider whatever is shared as accurate accounts of what the person cares about and their thoughts instead of the fact that they are subjects of their ideas. The approach goes hand in hand with examining data available on various public domains. Since more information is generated annually, the issue of access is vital. That is why librarians and researchers always maintain a greater keenness on all the available information. Various forms of open data are beneficial for market studies. The information could be obtained from government databases, polling information, and other fact tanks such as the Pew Research Center.

Also, the researchers could use interviews as their primary research method, and interviews involve direct communications between the respondents. The interview can involve individuals who use Viagra and how it affects them. Such an approach is highly personal and clarifies any unclear communication. Interviews also allow interviewers to go beyond the responses at the surface levels and carry out some deep investigations (Winne, 2019). One major drawback of interviewing could be that the process is expensive and requires lots of time. Researchers who prefer to use the approach have to find methods to allocate their resources effectively. They also need to be very careful with the questions they prepare because poor question structure generates useless outcomes.

The other approach is field trials and experiments. The experiments for field studies are always carried out within the participants’ environment. All the experiments depend on independent variables to test the impacts on the dependent variables. The main issue is to attempt to establish whether there are casualties. Some of the strengths are that field experiments are likely to reflect real-life experiences due to their natural setups (Åkerblad et al., 2021). They also have a reduced probability of demanding character traits that affect the outcomes since many participants are often unaware of whatever is studied. The only limitation of the approach is that there is minimal control over the extraneous variables, which may cause biases in the outcomes.

Additionally, the study of Viagra markets may use observation market approaches in the cases where the research process is qualitative. The researcher will observe their subjects in a controlled or natural environment. The issues of this study always behave naturally, and observation allows them to reveal their fundamental characteristics. The approach is highly effective when the subjects are not pressured to behave differently. The cases may also require competitive analysis as a research method (Sovacool et al., 2018). Competitive analysis is very strategic and highly specific from the other forms of market research. The researcher gets to analyze the organization’s competitors to determine how the brand stacks up against its rivals. This approach starts with the definition of the products, the services offered, the brand, and the segments of the market. Some aspects used to compare one company from another are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats also referred to as the SWOT analysis (Åkerblad et al., 2021). The other technique is the Pestel approach which identifies all the external forces that affect an organization. The letters represent the political, technological, economic, legal, and social factors.


In conclusion, the market research process is very complex, just like the needs of all businesses of the world. That is why it is always important to select an approach that works best for a given type of business. Not every strategy will be appropriate for a specific case. A researcher needs to carefully study the available lists to identify the ideal approach for their company. The whole marketing research process offers companies information that allows them to make vital decisions. Managers and their teams have to provide researchers with the necessary guidelines because the guidelines form the brief of the marketing process of research. After identifying the best method, the research process will take the course following steps such as identifying the problem, developing a practical approach to the challenge, and designing the appropriate formulation of the problem. Afterward, there will be a collection of data, preparation of all the information obtained, and analysis. The process ends by reporting and presenting the findings to the relevant persons.


Åkerblad, L., Seppänen-Järvelä, R., & Haapakoski, K. (2021). Integrative strategies in mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research15(2), 152-170.

Chowdhury, P., & Paul, S. K. (2020). Applications of MCDM methods in research on corporate sustainability: A systematic literature review. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal.

Molina-Azorin, J. F., & Fetters, M. D. (2019). Building a better world through mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research13(3), 275-281.

Sovacool, B. K., Axsen, J., & Sorrell, S. (2018). Promoting novelty, rigor, and style in energy social science: Towards codes of practice for appropriate methods and research design. Energy Research & Social Science45, 12-42.

Winne, P. H. (2019). Paradigmatic dimensions of instrumentation and analytic methods in research on self-regulated learning. Computers in Human Behavior96, 285-289.