Evaluating The Effectiveness Of A Policy: Providing Free Meals During Breakfast And Lunch To Students Coming From Low Income Households Sample Paper


Good nutrition is necessary for good health, particularly during childhood, and is an essential component of a holistic approach to attaining health equity. The availability of school breakfast has been connected to both educational and nutritional advantages, according to a study by Altindag et al. (2020). Existing research demonstrates that a healthy breakfast can help children succeed in school and enhance their general body health. Youngsters who skipped breakfast exhibited lower nutritious intakes than children who take breakfast either at home or at school. Children’s misbehavior, particularly physical fighting, is reduced by 35%, according to a study on the Free School Meal Program (FSMP). Short-term hunger relief is the goal of school feeding programs to improve students’ nutritional well-being and academic performance while also redistributing funds to children’s families. These feeding initiatives have improved the health, school attendance and health of disadvantaged students in developing nations. This strategy is helpful in many ways, including increasing school productivity, success, and attendance while also reducing physical disputes among students. It’s a win-win for everyone (study Altindag et al., 2020). This research aims to examine the efficacy of offering free meals to students from low-income families at low-income institutions.


Schools all around the globe have food programs that provide students with hot and cold meals and snacks over the course of the school day. Students from low-income and food-insecure households would benefit most from these programs aimed at improving their nutritional intake. Reduced stigma might lead to increased school lunch attendance and fewer administrative costs, say proponents of universal school food programs.

Impact on School Attendance

This study’s most important finding was a 95% or higher turnout rate, indicating that students missed no more than two to three days of school every term. There was an increase in involvement in free school lunches for both non-poor and poor students alike, according to a survey conducted in 2017, which found that non-poor students took part in the program twice as often as poor students. The study ties the educational advantage to a higher willingness to attend classes due to the reduced-cost or no-price lunch, indicating that the meal supplied an even more significant attendance motivation than mandated attendance legislation (Gordon & Ruffini, 2018). Again, in places where school attendance is poor, providing at a minimum on nutritious lunch each day increases enrollment and stimulates regular attendance. A healthy meal like porridge is made from insta goods that employ fortified food to guarantee that students get the vitamins they need. Eating habits significantly impact a child’s physical and mental growth. Increasing school attendance among food-insecure students is the program’s primary goal (Bartfeld et al., 2020). Children are more likely to attend school if they have food to keep them energized and focused on their studies.

Educational Impact

Anemic and Stunted children and those who are malnourished have low school attendance, lousy conduct, poor cognition, and worse academic attainment, according to Gordanier et al. (2022). Thus, such students are more prone to leave school prematurely and repeat classes. Providing proper dietary and health treatments during school years will enhance the children’s achievement. Increasing enrollment, boosting school attendance, reducing dropout rates, absenteeism, and improving academic achievement are benefits of bettering children’s nutrition and health, as are increased social fairness and emotional and economic growth. Additionally, according to research by Gordanier et al. (2020), healthy nutrition correlates to greater school attentiveness, productivity, and higher educational achievement. Cognitive development and function may be influenced by food choices, which have been found to increase mental fitness like concentration and memory. According to research, school lunch programs consistently have a good impact on educational achievements. Breakfast inside the classroom improved student performance minimized disruptions and cut down on absences. According to studies, these programs are cost-effective strategies to enhance student education and test results than lower class sizes, which comes with more implementation expenses. As per a study that examined the impact school lunch food has on academic success by assessing end-of-year testing results, students who took healthier lunches. For instance, those with higher HEI grades had grades that were four percentile points higher on average. Schwartz & Rothbart (2020) posits that the test score gains were roughly 40 percent larger for those eligible for NSLP programs.

Effect on Behavior

A student’s perception of the school environment significantly impacts their emotional and social well-being and academic performance. The NSLP offers free meals to all students, potentially reducing external indications of socioeconomic class. The NSLP Students’ ability to get along in the playing field, cafeteria, and elsewhere might benefit from NSLP (Cuadros-Meñaca et al., 2021). Students’ attitudes and participation in the NSLP may differ significantly based on individual socioeconomic status and previous engagement behavior. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) reduces the visible signs of social and economic status connected with school lunches. Moreover, the NSLP’s reduction in price component can build a more communal and friendlier environment and better interactions among students. These findings suggest that NSLP has the same positive effects on students’ perceptions of the school setting and school uniform requirements. Additionally, in a study that attempted to test the efficiency of sufficiently nourished students to malnourished children with a further comparison of age-related disparity in cognitive performance, it was discovered that the malnutrition children differed to an extent from the adequately nourished students on tests of design fluency, phonemic fluency, selective attention, visual-spatial operations, visual-spatial working memory, verbal synthesis, and memory (Cuadros-Meñaca et al., 2021). Results from the oral fluency assessment demonstrate that adequately- fed youngsters earned higher mean grades in both age groups correspondingly compared to respective malnourished peers.


Providing free meals during breakfast and lunch for school students promotes school attendance and participation by 95 percent, increases test results by around 40 percent, and strengthens student interaction, thereby reducing lousy conduct and violence. The availability of complimentary breakfast in schools encourages all students to use the initiative regardless of their family’s financial situation. Encouraging more regular attendance at school is another benefit for low-income students. The previous study has indicated that NSLP promotes both participations. It also boosts test scores, lowers occurrences of poor behavior, and implies that students in participating institutions have proper weight outcomes. The meals program has considerably more favorable impacts on youngsters than negative consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to offer breakfast and lunch to children from low-income households in low-income institutions to promote learning and social scores.


Altindag, D. T., Baek, D., Lee, H., & Merkle, J. (2020). Free lunch for all? The impact of universal school lunch on student misbehavior. Economics of Education Review, 74, 101945, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/

Bartfeld, J. S., Berger, L., & Men, F. (2020). Universal access to free school meals through the Community Eligibility Provision is associated with better attendance for low-income elementary school students in Wisconsin. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics120(2), 210-218, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/

Cuadros-Meñaca, A., Thomsen, M. R., & Nayga Jr, R. M. (2021). The Effect of School Breakfast on Student Behavior: An Evaluation of Breakfast After the Bell. Available at SSRN 3806620, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3806620

Gordanier, J., Ozturk, O., Williams, B., & Zhan, C. (2020). Free lunch for all! the effect of the community eligibility provision on academic outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 77, 101999, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii

Gordon, N. E., & Ruffini, K. J. (2018). School nutrition and student discipline: Effects of schoolwide free meals (No. w24986). National Bureau of Economic Research, https://www.nber.org/papers/w24986

Schwartz, A. E., & Rothbart, M. W. (2020). Let them eat lunch: The impact of universal free meals on student performance. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 39(2), 376-410, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002

Everyday Resistance To Slavery Essay Sample For College

Slavery will for a long time be a blot on the history of the majority of cultures on Earth. It is erroneous to think that all enslaved people succumbed to their cruel owners throughout the period of slavery. Oftentimes, enslaved people demonstrated a level of resistance that caused whole societies to reconsider slavery. However, organizing and formulating a resistance took some time. At the period, enslaved people had to endure daily humiliation and dehumanization; they had to devise new methods of organization and resistance. While these approaches were often successful, they frequently led in more dehumanization or a bit of emancipation. The following essay will examine the positive and negative repercussions of nonviolent resistance.

In contrast to daily resistance, organized resistance was more difficult and time-consuming to arrange. Organized resistance would also result in more casualties, property damage, and death, which is why organized resistance by enslaved people was very rare in North America. On the other hand, everyday resistance was relatively simple to mount and was more prevalent among the enslaved people. To a certain degree, these modes of resistance enabled enslaved individuals to endure slavery’s harshness and daily life on slave estates. enslaved people used a range of resistance strategies. Much of their resistance was motivated by a desire to improve the everyday circumstances of their captivity. Individuals may have snatched food from the garden or the kitchen of their masters to augment their meager meals. They would also have feigned illness or worked at a slower pace than their master required to allow their bodies and souls to rest and recuperate from the grueling pace of labor on most plantations (Camp, 2009). Some considerate enslavers would increase food rations and allocate more rest time to enslaved people on their farms; this form of resistance benefited the enslaved people.

At night, enslaved people congregated as well; they met to worship or socialize to date, and to court one another. All of these activities may be called nonviolent forms of resistance since they directly confronted slaveholders’ expectations about work patterns and food allotment. Additionally, they violated slaveholders’ attempts to manage space utilization. Slaveholders in southern cities, counties, and states enacted laws limiting enslaved people’s gathering rights, declaring that they could not gather freely without the supervision of a free white person. Nonetheless, enslaved people congregated on their own at night in the forests or in hidden spots for religious or social activities. They joined to acknowledge their shared humanity and to cultivate and preserve emotional and social bonds. These gatherings reaffirmed the enslaved people’s sense of brotherhood and sisterhood.

When it came to running away, it was more normal for it to be transitory, such as seeing a spouse on another plantation for a few hours. Running away for a few days was a form of protest against working conditions or to express dissatisfaction with something. In general, the majority of Runaways eventually returned willingly. They often did so in order to bargain with their masters. Demonstrating that an enslaved individual might flee at any time. Masters used runaway slave advertisements to reclaim their enslaved people who had escaped the farms or abandoned their homes or services (Lewis, 2022). A master would describe the enslaved person’s appearance in the advertisements. They may have highlighted some physical characteristics; many people brought straight from Africa had country markings, which they recorded. Additionally, they would discuss if the individual understood English or not; they would indicate whether the individual knew a little bit of English, a lot of English, or no English at all. Additionally, these advertisements would indicate how the individual may have fled, where they fled, and with whom they fled. Frequently, groups of people would flee. Occasionally, white servants would flee with enslaved Africans. In certain circumstances, an enslaved person and a free person of color would flee together. To entice individuals to reclaim enslaved people, slavers offered monetary compensation. Running away was more expensive than the other tactics of nonviolent protest.

Due to the geopolitics that ruled North America, violent slave rebellions were very rare. For the most part, it seemed as if enslaved people recognized their lack of achievement. They recognized that the whites, even though they were fewer in certain areas of specific plantation territories, had firearms and the authority of the law to back them up. Oftentimes, resistance and violence were suicidal. Enslavers were well aware of the dangers of slavery; they recognized that enslaved people had the capacity to murder them and took safeguards against this possibility. slavers performed nighttime slave patrols; if they noticed any black person going down the road, they were authorized by law to stop them, interrogate them, and ensure they had a permission from their master allowing them to be out. There were a variety of heinous penalties. Whippings were used to intimidate other enslaved people into submission. It was not simply the slaveholders’ authority that was abused; the state and the law were also abused extensively. If enslaved people publicly resisted and fought back against whipping, it was not simply the enslaver who would cause them suffering. The slaver would have then surrender them to the state, which would almost certainly execute them for hitting a white person.

Organized forms of violent resistance would very definitely prove lethal for the enslaved people. It was determined that limited nonviolent measures of resistance would be more rational. Due to the nature of their socioeconomic and geopolitical circumstances, the enslaved people of Brazil, Jamaica, and the Caribbean states were more active and successful in organized resistance. People of color made up more than 90% of the population of Jamaica.


Camp, S. M. H. (2009). Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (16pt Large Print Edition). ReadHowYouWant.

Lewis, C. (2022). Resistance to Slavery: From Escape to Everyday Rebellion (American Slavery and the Fight for Freedom (Read Woke TM Books)). Lerner Publications TM.

Evolution Of Human Eye Free Sample

The human eye has simple anatomy, but it is a complicated structure whose evolution is also complicated. The complexity of the human eye is yet to be fully discovered. It is documented that Charles Darwin also wondered about the complexity of the human eye. Darwin believed that the small structure, the eye, with a high complexity developed through the naturalistic process of evolution. Darwin’s naturalistic theory of evolution suggests that the complex structures had gradual evolution, and since the eye is a complex structure, it is considered that it also had gradual evolution (Schwab, 2017). Modern scientists use Darwin’s concept of naturalistic evolution, gradual evolution, to study the evolution of the human eye. Darwin proposed a stepwise evolution of the human eye using simple eye structures from different organisms. He demonstrated the differences between eyes that were less complex, and the identified differences were arranged in a stepwise order from the minor complex to the most complex eye, the human eye.

The human eye evolved from a light-sensitive cell in a single-celled organism with a simple flat eyespot, for example, cnidaria. The eyespots could only tell whether it was dark or light and had no pigmented cells showing the directionality of light. The pigmented cell allows an organism to determine the direction of the light so that it can run away from or towards the light. The flat eyespot curved inwards, increasing visual acuity, and the eye could now sense the direction of the right. An organism with a curved eyespot is a flatworm (Schwab, 2017). Constriction of the curved rim forms an aperture. The curved pit stars fill with a clear jelly-like substance at this point of evolution. Mutation of the organism made it easy for the substance to be formed. The accumulated substance protects the light-sensitive cells from chemical damage and maintains the pit’s shape.

As the formed aperture continued to decrease in size, the visual acuity increased, and when aperture became small enough, it could shut out excess light into the eye. The shutting out of the light prevented the sensitive cells from being damaged (Schwab, 2017). As time went by, the aperture evolved to a perfect size. The big and the small aperture have poor eyesight. The perfect size aperture is the narrow-sided aperture, but the perfect size depends on the environment and the amount of lighting. A lens was formed after the aperture was developed to an ideal extent. The lens was created by an increased volume of a ball-shaped mass of cells formed on the eye’s refractive index. The refractive index position gave the eye an improved visual acuity.

After the lens was formed, the aperture had to be placed in another position allowing the lens to move more inward towards the center of the light-sensitive surface of the eye. With time, the lens moved and increased in refractive index (Kraan, 2017). The center of the lens had a greater index than the edges. Since the lens is formed with a mixture of proteins and the proteins are distributed unevenly, the lens can have a greater refractive index than other places. A biologically formed lens has a greater refractive index at the center than the edges. The refractive index improves the quality of the image formed. As the unicellular organisms continued to evolve, the eye also evolved.

The theory of evolution of the human eye has some issues. The morphological gaps are narrow that the process could be simple to move from one step to another, and there would be only one or two mutations involved. It is assumed that in a population with a flat eyespot, there are other organisms with curved eyespots while others have formed lenses (Kraan, 2017). In a group of similar organisms, the microorganisms could have eyespots with further developments. It is believed that the evolution process took place over several generations, and each generation had a selective condition for the evolution process. As the organisms evolve, their brains continue to develop and can interpret the information registered on the eye (Ågren, 2021). Scientists suggest that a flat eyespot can detect the direction of the light, and it only needs to locate the source of the light, and the brain should be able to interpret the intensity of the light. Another potential problem associated with the evolution of the human eye is that it would take a long time to get many light-sensitive cells that help form then curved eyespot.

In conclusion, the eye is a complex structure formed or evolved from simple structures or cells. And according to Charles Darwin, the naturalistic theory of evolution is associated with the evolution of complex structures from simple cells. Modern scientists use Darwin’s idea of eye evolution that the eye had several steps of evolution. The different parts of the human eye started as a simple flat eyespot, and as the organisms continued to evolve, more eye parts were formed, making the human eye a complex structure.


Ågren, J. A. (2021). The gene’s-eye view of evolution. Oxford University Press.

Kraan, A., P. (2017). How did eyes evolve? https://www.scienceworld.ca/stories/eyes-how/#:~:text=Thefirstorganismswitha,complexeyeswehavetoday.

Schwab, I., R. (2017). The evolution of eyes: major steps. The Keeler lecture 2017. https://www.nature.com/articles/eye2017226